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Global Map of Irrigation Areas

India

The irrigation statistics in India refer to different terms and it is very important to be aware of the exact meaning in order to avoid a misinterpretation of the information. In the following section different terms and definitions are explained and statistics collected from different sources are presented. It distinguishes between gross and net irrigated area, as described below, which are related by the following equation:

NIA = GIA / CIirr.

where NIA is Net Irrigated Area (ha), GIA is Gross Irrigated Area (ha), and CIirr. is the cropping intensity on irrigated land (no unit).

The agricultural statistics mentioned below refer to agricultural years lasting from July to June, e. g. statistics collected for the agricultural year 1999/2000 refer to the period 1st of July 1999 to 30th of June 2000.


Definitions

Gross Irrigated Area (GIA): This term refers to the area irrigated under various crops during a year, counting the area irrigated under more than one crop during the same year as many times as the number of crops grown and irrigated [IN40]. The Gross Irrigated Area is similar to the FAO-AQUASTAT definition of "irrigated harvested area", where the same land is counted as many times as irrigated crops are being harvested during the agricultural year. The GIA for India was 75.87 Mha 2000/2001 [IN41]. Statistics on GIA are collected by the village patwaris and are published annually by the Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture.

Net irrigated area (NIA): This term refer to the total area that is irrigated at least once per agricultural year, and is similar to the FAO-AQUASTAT definition of "area actually irrigated". It does not include areas that were left fallow or that were entirely rainfed during the year of statistics. According to the Ministry of Agriculture the NIA was 57.11 Mha in the agricultural year of 1999/2000 and 54.84 Mha in 2000/2001 [IN41]. The 3rd minor irrigation census undertaken by the Ministry of Water Resources for the agricultural year 2000/2001 reported a NIA of only 46.45 Mha, of which 10.24 Mha were in major and medium size schemes ( > 2000 ha), 30.51 Mha in minor irrigation schemes (< 2000 ha) fed by ground water and 5.71 Mha in minor irrigation schemes (< 2000 ha) fed by surface water [IN42]. The difference in the statistics is probably caused by an underestimate of the NIA for major and medium schemes in the minor irrigation census (a NIA of 10.24 would indicate an average cropping intensity of about 3.0 for major and medium schemes which is not very likely).

Ultimate Irrigation Potential (UIP): This term refers to the gross irrigated area that theoretically could be irrigated if all available land and water resources would be used for irrigation. The UIP was estimated by the Ministry of Water Resources at 139.89 Mha [IN43].

Irrigation Potential Created (IPC): This term refers to the total gross area proposed to be irrigated under different crops during a year by a scheme. The area proposed to be irrigated under more than one crop during the same year is counted as many times as the number of crops grown and irrigated [IN41]. The IPC related to the period of the 9th plan (1997-2002) was estimated at 93.95 Mha [IN43].

Irrigation Potential Utilised (IPU): This term is defined as the gross area actually irrigated during the reference year out of the gross proposed area to be irrigated by the scheme [IN41]. The IPU at the end of the 9th plan (1997-2002) in 2002 was 80.06 Mha [IN43]. The main reason for the gap between IPC and IPU is the non-construction of on-farm development works like field channels below the outlet [IN44]. The meaning of IPU is similar to the meaning of the GIA, but the statistics are collected and published by the Ministry of Water Resources instead of the Ministry of Agriculture. The differences between the most recent reported IPU (80.06 Mha) and GIA (75.87 Mha for 2000/2001) can be explained by different data collection and sampling strategies and by considering minor irrigation schemes inside the command area of major or medium irrigation schemes.


Mapped irrigation areas

To develop the FAO/UF Global Map of Irrigation Areas, statistics on the Net Irrigated Area (NIA) were collected from various sources. The "area equipped for irrigation" itself was not available. The NIA is the only term that refers to the physical command area of the irrigation schemes. All the other terms present in the statistics refer to gross (harvested) areas. The difference with the FAO-AQUASTAT definition of "areas equipped for irrigation" is that the NIA does not account for areas equipped for irrigation that were left fallow or were completely rainfed in the year of the statistics. NIA is therefore likely to be lower than the area equipped for irrigation.

Because the data originate from different sources, also the base year for the statistics differ. Where data for more than one year were available, the data closest to 2000 were used. The irrigated area of all the subnational units as presented here totals 57 286 407 ha.

The irrigated areas were digitized from an irrigation atlas published in 1987 [IN35] and from an irrigation map published in 1994 [IN36]. Both maps show the outlines of the large-scale irrigation schemes of the country and distinguish between existing schemes, schemes under construction and proposed schemes. In addition, the location of minor irrigation schemes is shown in the irrigation atlas in dot-map form, whereby each dot represents 4 000 ha of irrigated area outside the major irrigation schemes. These areas were digitized by enclosing areas closed by dots on the map. The outlines of some irrigation schemes located in the state of Arunachal Pradesh were derived from a Chinese land-use atlas [IN37].

Irrigated areas classified as "existing" and areas classified as "minor irrigation schemes" received the highest priority in the distribution process. Where the irrigated area per district was larger than the digitized existing irrigation schemes, then the irrigated area was also distributed to schemes classified as "under construction". Where the irrigated area on the map was still not sufficient, then the schemes classified as "proposed" were also incorporated. However, in several districts (mainly located in the centre and south of the country), the irrigated area per district as taken from the statistics was still larger than the digitized areas. In these cases, the irrigated area was also distributed to areas classified as "irrigated intensive agriculture" or "irrigated agriculture" in a recent remote-sensing-based land-cover inventory [IN38]. The outlines of the digitized irrigation schemes in the northeast (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura) and northwest of India (Jammu and Kashmir, and Himachal Pradesh) were adjusted using satellite imagery [IN39].

The distribution of irrigated area per Federal State is listed in the table below.

The following sections present subnational irrigation statistics for each of the federal states or union territories of India.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands
The area equipped for irrigation in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the agricultural year of 1993-94 was 1 093 ha, which was about 8 percent of the cultivable area and 12 percent of the net sown area [IN01]. Most of the cultivated area is located in valleys on the larger islands of the Andaman district.

Andhra Pradesh
The net irrigated area in Andhra Pradesh was 4 384 124 ha in the agricultural year of 1999-2000. Of this total, 1 361 759 ha were cropped more than once. The main irrigation sources are wells (1.9 million ha) and canals (1.63 million ha). The highest irrigation density is to be found on the coast in the districts of West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Srikakulam and East Godavari [IN02]. Distribution of irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Arunachal Pradesh
About 2.4 percent of the total geographical area of the state is cultivable. The area equipped for irrigation is 39 043 ha, which is about 20 percent of the net area sown. The figures refer to 2000. The highest irrigation density is to be found in the district of East Siang. Irrigated area per district [IN03] is shown in this table.

Assam
The latest official irrigation statistics at state level (e.g. [IN04]) estimate irrigated area in Assam at 572 000 ha. These statistics refer to the agricultural year of 1953-54. According to a more recent inventory, irrigated areas at district level total 458 071 ha. However, in the agricultural year of 1991-92, 221 412 ha were utilized for irrigation, which was about 8 percent of the net area sown [IN05]. About one-third of the total irrigated area is located in the districts of Nagaon and Barpeta. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Bihar
The irrigated area in Bihar and Jharkhand combined was 3 625 000 ha in 2000 [IN06]. The latest available statistics on net irrigated area per district are for the agricultural year of 1993-94 and, therefore, refer to the former Bihar state territory [IN07]. The irrigated area of all districts in this inventory totalled 3 453 000 ha and was scaled to fit the figures for 2000. In order to compute the irrigated area for the districts created post-1994, an inventory on gross irrigated area per district in the agricultural year of 1997-98 [IN08] was used. Net irrigated area was assigned to the newly created districts proportional to their gross irrigated area. The total irrigated area for the state of Bihar was calculated as 3 439 545 ha. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Chandigarh
The irrigated area was about 2 000 ha in the agricultural year of 1999-2000 [IN06].

Chhatisgarh
The irrigated area in the agricultural year of 1999-2000 was 1 078 400 ha, which was about 22 percent of the net area sown. More than 70 percent of the total irrigated area was located in the four central districts of Raipur, Durg, Bilaspur and Janjgeer-Champa [IN09]. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli
The irrigated area in this state between Maharashtra and Gujarat is about 6 000 ha, which is about 38 percent of the net area sown [IN06; IN01]. The figure relates to the agricultural year of 1999-2000.

Daman and Diu
The irrigated area is about 1 000 ha [IN06], which is about 21 percent of the net area sown [IN05].

Delhi
The irrigated area was 39 070 ha in the agricultural year of 1998-99 [IN10].

Goa
The irrigated area was 22 372 ha in the agricultural year of 1999-2000. There were two mediumsized irrigation projects: Salaulim (2 700 ha) and Anjuna (1 415 ha). The remaining area was irrigated by minor irrigation projects [IN11]. The irrigated area in South Goa was reported to be 8 992 ha in 1994 [IN05]; the difference from the total irrigated area of the state (13 380 ha) was assigned to North Goa.

Gujarat
The irrigated area was 3 092 400 ha in the agricultural year of 1998-99, which was about 32 percent of the net area sown. The cropping intensity on irrigated fields was 125 percent [IN12]. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Haryana
The irrigated area is 2 888 000 ha. This is 82 percent of the net area sown, and in some districts (Kurukshetra, Panipat, Kaithal and Karnal) almost all the cultivated area is irrigated. The cropping intensity in the irrigated areas is reported to be about 177 percent. The figures refer to the agricultural year of 1999-2000 [IN13]. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Himachal Pradesh
The irrigated area was 101 897 ha in the agricultural year of 1999-2000, which was about 18 percent of the net area sown. More than 32 000 ha of the irrigated area were located in the district of Kangra. The highest irrigation density is to be found in districts along the boundary with the state of Punjab. The cropping intensity on irrigated fields was about 175 percent [IN14]. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Jammu and Kashmir
A total of 315 870 ha were irrigated in the agricultural year of 2000-01. This was 42 percent of the net area sown. The cropping intensity on irrigated fields was about 144 percent. Most of the irrigated areas were located in the more humid parts of the state (Anantnang, Jammu and Baramulla) while the irrigated fraction of the net sown area was highest in the arid districts (Leh and Kargil) [IN15]. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Jharkhand
The irrigated area in Bihar and Jharkhand combined was 3 625 000 ha in 2000 [IN06]. The latest available statistics on net irrigated area per district are for the agricultural year of 1993-94 and, therefore, refer to the former Bihar state territory [IN07]. The irrigated area of all districts in this inventory totalled 3 453 000 ha and was scaled to fit the figures for 2000. In order to compute the irrigated area for the districts created post-1994, an inventory on gross irrigated area per district in the agricultural year of 1997-98 [IN16] was used. Net irrigated area was assigned to the newly created districts proportional to their gross irrigated areas. The total irrigated area for the state of Jharkhand was computed to be 185 455 ha. About 61 000 ha of irrigated area were located in the districts of Palamu and Garhwa. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Karnataka
The irrigated area was 2 491 871 ha in the agricultural year of 1998-99, which was about 24 percent of the net area sown. The cropping intensity on irrigated fields was about 125 percent. In the districts of Bagalkot, Bellary, Mandya, Davangere and Belgaum, the irrigation density was relatively high, while the irrigation density in the districts of Uttara Kannada and Chikmagalur was very low [IN17]. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Kerala
The irrigated area was 380 043 ha in the agricultural year of 1999-2000, which was about 17 percent of the net area sown. The cropping intensity on irrigated fields was about 124 percent. More than 60 percent of the total irrigated area was located in the districts of Thrissur, Palakkhad, Kasaragod and Alappuzha [IN18]. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Lakshadweep
The irrigated area has been reported to be about 1 000 ha [IN06]. The net area sown is 2 755 ha [IN19]. The whole of the cultivated area is cropped with coconuts. In parts of the cultivated area, other crops are grown in intercropping systems. Irrigation water is usually provided by wells. However, because of the limited availability of this resource, the extraction of irrigation water by using motor pumps has been banned [IN20].

Madhya Pradesh
The irrigated area was 5 514 979 ha in the agricultural year of 1998-99, which was about 36 percent of the net area sown. The cropping intensity on irrigated fields is about 103 percent. High densities of irrigated areas are to be found in the north and west of the state while irrigation density in the east of the state is generally low [IN21]. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Maharashtra
The irrigated area was 3 140 200 ha in the agricultural year of 1997-98, which was about 18 percent of the net area sown. The cropping intensity on irrigated fields is about 118 percent. The highest irrigation density is to be found in Pune Division, which consists of the districts of Pune, Solapur and Ahmadnagar [IN22]. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Manipur
Statistics on the total extent of irrigated areas on a district level were not available. Therefore, the irrigated area per district was estimated using an inventory on gross irrigated-rice areas per district in the period 1994-2000 [IN23]. For each district, the maximum annual value within this period was selected. These district values gave a total of 92 860 ha for the entire state and were then scaled down to fit to the net irrigated area per state, which was reported to be about 65 000 ha [IN06]. About 40 percent of the net area sown was assumed to be irrigated. According to the estimates, most of the irrigated area is located in the central districts of Bishnupur and Imphal. The estimates of irrigated area per district are shown in this table.

Meghalaya
The irrigated area on the district level totalled 45 045 ha in the agricultural year of 1991-92 [IN24], which was about 22 percent of the net area sown. The net irrigated area in 1999-2000 was reported to be 48 000 ha [IN06]. However, these figures in the all-India inventory have their origin in the agricultural year of 1984-85. Therefore, the district values, shown in this table, were not scaled to meet the figures given for 2000.

Mizoram
The irrigated area in the agricultural year of 1999-2000 was 9 000 ha, which was about 10 percent of the net area sown [IN06]. Related figures for the three districts of Mizoram were not available.

Nagaland
The irrigated area in the agricultural year of 1999-2000 was 63 000 ha, which was about 24 percent of the net area sown [IN06]. The irrigated areas per district were available for the agricultural year of 1991-92 and yielded a total of 58 900 ha [IN25]. Therefore, the district-level irrigated area was scaled so that the sum met the statistics for 2000. These estimated irrigated areas per district in 1999-2000 are shown in this table.

Orissa
The irrigated area in the agricultural year of 1999-2000 was estimated to be 2 090 000 ha. This was about 34 percent of the net area sown [IN06]. However, the figures for Orissa in the all-India inventory refer to 1989-90, because more recent statistics on net irrigated area were not available. In order to estimate irrigated area per district, an inventory of the created irrigation potential on the district level was used [IN26]. The inventory refers to the agricultural year of 1999-2000 and distinguishes the kharif and rabi cropping seasons. In all districts, the available potential for kharif crops is higher than the potential for rabi crops. Therefore, it was used to estimate the area equipped for irrigation. The potential in the districts totalled 2 380 740 ha and was scaled to fit the figures for the net irrigation area as given by the all-India inventory. The estimates of irrigated area per district are shown in this table.

Pondicherry
The irrigated area was 21 390 ha in the agricultural year of 2000-01. This was about 88 percent of the net sown area. The cropping intensity on irrigated fields was about 160 percent [IN27]. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Punjab
The irrigated area was 4 020 700 ha in the agricultural year of 2000-01. This was about 94 percent of the net area sown and about 80 percent of the total geographical area of the state of Punjab. The cropping intensity on irrigated fields was about 190 percent. In the district of Ludhiana, all the cultivated area was irrigated, and more than 98 percent of the area sown was irrigated in 12 of the 17 districts [IN28]. Therefore, Punjab can be seen as one of the most intensive agricultural and irrigated areas in the world. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Rajasthan
The irrigated area was 5 611 874 ha in the agricultural year of 1999-2000, which was about 36 percent of the net area sown. The cropping intensity on irrigated fields was about 123 percent. The density of irrigated areas tends to be higher in the northern districts of the state (Gangangar, Hanumangarh, Alwar, Baratpur and Dausa). Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Sikkim
The irrigated area was 16 000 ha in the agricultural year of 1985-86. This was about 17 percent of the net are sown, and these are the most recent statistics available [IN06]. Data for irrigated area on the district level were not available.

Tamil Nadu
The irrigated area was 3 018 839 ha in the agricultural year of 1998-99. This was about 54 percent of the net area sown. The cropping intensity on irrigated fields was about 120 percent. With the exception of the districts of Nilgiris, Chennai and Toothukudi, the fraction of irrigated net sown area exceeded 30 percent in all districts [IN30]. The density of irrigated areas was high, in particular in the northeast of the state. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Tripura
The irrigated area in the state of Tripura was about 35 000 ha, which was about 13 percent of the net area sown. The figures refer to the agricultural year of 1992-93 [IN06]. Irrigation statistics on the district level were not available.

Uttaranchal
Irrigation statistics for the state of Uttaranchal are not available yet. Therefore, irrigation statistics for the districts of the former Uttar Pradesh territory for the period before the existence of Uttaranchal (agricultural year of 1996-97) were used in order to estimate irrigated area in Uttaranchal [IN31]. For districts formed post-1997, more recent statistics available in the district profiles provided by the National Informatics Centre were also used (available at http://districts.nic.in). Irrigated area per district was estimated as shown in this table. The areas totalled 332 502 ha. More than 60 percent of the total irrigated area of the state is located in the districts of Hardwar and Udhamsingh Nagar.

Uttar Pradesh
The irrigated area in the agricultural year of 1999-2000 was 12 469 624 ha [IN32]. This was about 74 percent of the net area sown and 51 percent of the total geographical area of the state. The cropping intensity on irrigated fields was about 141 percent. In particular, in Meerut Division (districts of Meerut, Bagpat, Ghaziabad, Bulandshahar and Gautam Budh Nagar), the cultivated area is completely irrigated. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

West Bengal
The irrigated area in the agricultural year of 1987-88 was 1 911 000 ha, which was about 35 percent of the net area sown. More recent statistics on net irrigated area were not available for West Bengal [IN06]. Gross irrigated area in the agricultural year of 1997-98 was reported to be 4 570 000 ha [IN33]. In order to estimate the area equipped for irrigation on a district level, the gross area irrigated was divided by the district-specific cropping intensity [IN34]. Because separate cropping intensities for irrigated and rainfed land were not available, the irrigated areas so computed totalled 2 484 952 ha and were scaled to fit the total area as given by the statistics (1 911 000 ha). The resulting figures for irrigated area per district are shown in this table.


References

[IN01]: Government of India. 2001. Report on census of minor irrigation schemes 1993-94. Ministry of Water Resources (available at http://164.100.8.59/census/startcon.htm).
[IN02]: Government of Andhra Pradesh, Department of Agriculture. District-wise net area irrigation by various sources in Andhra Pradesh (1999-2000), (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN03]: Government of Arunachal Pradesh. 2001. Statistical abstract of Arunachal Pradesh 2000, Directorate of Economics and Statistics (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN04]: Government of India. Land use classification and irrigated area (1997-98 & 1998-99). Ministry of Agriculture (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN05]: Government of India. 2004. District profiles. National Informatics Centre, Ministry of Communications and IT (available at http://gist.ap.nic.in/).
[IN06]: Government of India. 2003. State-wise net area under irrigation by sources in India (1999-2000). In Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation, Statistical Abstract 2002 (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN07]: Government of Bihar. District-wise net area irrigated by other sources and total net area irrigated in Bihar (1991-92 to 1993-94). Agricultural Department (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN08]: Fertilizer Association of India. 2002. District/source-wise gross irrigated area in Bihar - part II (1997-98). In: Fertiliser and agriculture statistics, Eastern Region (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN09]: Government of Chhatisgarh. 2001. District-wise net area sown/area irrigated in Chhatisgarh (1999-2000). In: Chhatisgarh in charts and graphs 2001. Directorate of Economics and Statistics (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN10]: Government of Delhi. 2002. Area irrigated by different sources in Delhi (1994-95 to 1998-99). In: Economy survey of Delhi 2001-02. Department of Planning (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN11]: Government of Goa. Irrigated area and irrigation by different source in Goa (during 1999-2000). Directorate of Agriculture (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN12]: Government of Gujarat. District/source-wise area irrigated in Gujarat (1998-99). Department of Agriculture (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN13]: Government of Haryana. 2002. District-wise net area under irrigation in Haryana (1999-2000). In: Statistical Abstract of Haryana (2000-01). Economic and Statistical Organisation, Planning Department (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN14]: Government of Himachal Pradesh. District-wise irrigation intensity in Himachal Pradesh (1998-99 & 1999-2000). In: Annual season and crop report 1999-2000 (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN15]: Fertilizer Association of India. 2002. District/source-wise irrigated area in Jammu and Kashmir (2000-01). In: Fertiliser and agriculture statistics, Northern Region, 2001-2002 (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN16]: Fertilizer Association of India. 2002. District/source-wise gross irrigated area in Jharkhand - part II (1997-98). In: Fertiliser and agriculture statistics, Eastern Region (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN17]: Government of Karnataka. 2002. District-wise net area irrigated by various sources in Karnataka (1998-99). In: Karnataka at a glance 2000-01. Directorate of Economics and Statistics (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN18]: Government of Kerala. District/source-wise net area irrigated in Kerala (1999-2000). Directorate of Economics and Statistics (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN19]: Government of India. Area under crops in Lakshadweep - part VI (1991-92). In: Indian agricultural statistics 1991-92. Ministry of Agriculture (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN20]: Government of Lakshadweep. Lakshadweep - land, soil, climate. Department of Agriculture (available at http://lakshadweep.nic.in).
[IN21]: Government of Madhya Pradesh. District/source-wise net irrigated area in Madhya Pradesh (1998-99). In: Agricultural statistics 2000. Directorate of Agriculture (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN22]: Government of Maharashtra. District-wise sources of water supply and area irrigated in Maharashtra - part IV (1997-98). In: Season and crop report 1997-98 (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN23]: Government of Manipur. 2002. District-wise estimated area under rice by different types of irrigation in Manipur - part III (1993-94 to 1999-2000). In: Statistical abstract of Manipur 2001. Directorate of Economics and Statistics (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN24]: Government of India. 1992. District-wise area irrigated and crops irrigated of Meghalaya (1991-92), part I. In: Indian agricultural statistics. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN25]: Government of India. 1992. District-wise area irrigated and crops irrigated of Nagaland (1991-92), part I. In: Indian agricultural statistics 1991-92. Ministry of Agriculture (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com). [IN26]: Fertilizer Association of India. District/source-wise gross area irrigated in Orissa (1999-2000). In: Fertiliser and agriculture statistics, Eastern Region, 2001-02 (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN27]: Fertilizer Association of India. District-wise land utilization (area cropped / area irrigated) in Pondicherry (2000-2001). In: Fertiliser and agriculture statistics, Southern Region, 2001-02 (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN28]: Fertilizer Association of India. District/source-wise irrigated area in Punjab (2000- 2001). In: Fertiliser and agriculture statistics, Northern Region, 2001-02 (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN29]: Government of Rajasthan. District-wise net area irrigated by sources in Rajasthan - part II (1999-2000). In: Agricultural statistics 1999-2000. Directorate of Economics and Statistics (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN30]: Government of Tamil Nadu. District-wise area sown & irrigated in Tamil Nadu (during 1998-99). Directorate of Agriculture (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN31]: Government of Uttar Pradesh. Commissionery/district-wise irrigated area, tubewells and canals in Uttar Pradesh (1996-97). Irrigation Department (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN32]: Fertilizer Association of India. District/source-wise irrigated area in Uttar Pradesh (1999-00). In: Fertiliser and agriculture statistics, Northern Region, 2001-02 (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN33]: Fertilizer Association of India. District/source-wise gross area irrigated in West Bengal (1997-98). In: Fertiliser and agriculture statistics, Eastern Region, 2001-02 (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN34]: Government of West Bengal. District-wise cultivable area, net cropped area, gross cropped area and cropping intensity of West Bengal (1999-2000). Evaluation Wing Directorate of Agriculture (available at http://www.indiaagristat.com).
[IN35]: Dutt, G.K. & Kundu, A.K., eds. 1987. Irrigation atlas of India. Revised edition. Calcutta, India, National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation, Department of Science and Technology.
[IN36]: Central Board of Irrigation and Power. 1994. Irrigation map of India 1994. New Delhi.
[IN37]: Wu, C., ed. 1990. Land-use map of China (1:1,000 000 scale). Beijing, Science Press.
[IN38]: Roy, P.S., Agrawal, S., Joshi, P. & Shukla, Y. 2003. The land cover map for Southern Asia for the year 2000. Version 3, GLC2000 database. European Commission Joint Research Centre (available at http://www.gvm.jrc.it/glc2000).
[IN39]: Earth Satellite Corporation. 2004. Landsat GeoCover (2000/ETM+) Edition Mosaics, tiles 071-354, 071-355, 071-359, 071-382, 071-390, 071-391, 071-393, 071-394 and 071-410. Sioux Falls, USA, USGS (available at http://glcfapp.umiacs.umd.edu:8080).
[IN40]: Ministry of Water Resources. 2005. 3rd census of minor irrigation schemes. Appendix I – concepts and definitions. New Delhi, India (available at: http://mowr.gov.in/micensus/mi3census/annexure-i.pdf).
[IN41]: Ministry of Agriculture. 2007. Agriculture statistics at a glance 2006. Table 14.2: Selected Categories of Land Use from 1950-51 to 2003-04. Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi, India (available at: http://dacnet.nic.in/eands/agStat06-07.htm).
[IN42]: Ministry of Water Resources. 2005. 3rd census of minor irrigation schemes. Table 6.1: Agriculture land and its use. New Delhi, India (available at: http://mowr.gov.in/micensus/mi3census/reports/national/vil/6p1.pdf).
[IN43]: Ministry of Water Resources. 2007. Plan-wise position of irrigation potential created and utilised (available at: http://wrmin.nic.in/writereaddata/mainlinkFile/File413.pdf, 19/06/2007).
[IN44]: Government of India, Planning Commission. The 10th five year plan (2002-2007). Volume II, sectoral policies and programmes, chapter 8.1: irrigation, flood control and command area development (available at: http://planningcommission.nic.in/plans/planrel/fiveyr/10th/volume2/v2_ch8_1.pdf).


Distribution of irrigated area in India per Federal State or Union Territory.

Federal State or Union Territory     Irrigated area (ha)
Andaman & Nicobar 1 093
Andhra Pradesh 4 384 124
Arunachal Pradesh 39 043
Assam 458 071
Bihar 3 439 545
Chandigarh 2 000
Chhatisgarh 1 078 400
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 6 000
Daman and Diu 1 000
Delhi 39 070
Goa 22 372
Gujarat 3 092 400
Haryana 2 888 000
Himachal Pradesh 101 897
Jammu and Kashmir 310 870
Jharkhand 185 455
Karnataka 2 491 871
Kerala 380 043
Lakshadweep 1 000
Madhya Pradesh 5 514 979
Maharashtra 3 140 200
Manipur 65 000
Meghalaya 45 045
Mizoram 9 000
Nagaland 63 000
Orissa 2 090 000
Pondicherry 21 390
Punjab 4 020 700
Rajasthan 5 611 874
Sikkim 16 000
Tamil Nadu 3 018 839
Tripura 35 000
Uttar Pradesh 12 469 624
Uttaranchal 332 502
West Bengal 1 911 000
India, total 57 286 407
     
   
   
       
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