FAO - AQUASTAT
 
Universität Bonn     FAO Home Page
  
Central pivot irrigation in the desert
   
   arrow AQUASTAT Home
(external link)
   
   arrow Global Map of Irrigation Areas
   arrow Map version 4.0.1
   arrow Irrigation by country
   arrow Methodology
   arrow Map quality
   arrow History
   arrow Publications
   
   arrow Latest map version
(external link)
   arrow Interactive map
(external link)
   arrow Map in Google Earth
(external link)
     

Global Map of Irrigation Areas

Pakistan

The total area equipped for irrigation (including ‘full or partial control irrigation’ and ‘equipped wetland and inland valley bottoms’ but excluding spate irrigation) for the four Pakistani provinces is reported in AQUASTAT and totals 14 327 000 ha for 1990 [PK01]. The net area irrigated in 2000 was reported to be 12 030 983 ha. In addition, there were 432 825 ha with spate irrigation. The gross area irrigated was 19 505 416 ha in the same year; 9 074 329 ha were cropped with kharif crops, 10 069 697 ha were cropped with rabi crops, and 361 388 ha with irrigated orchards [PK02]. The cultivated area in the districts of the Northern Territories along the border with India and China was assumed to be completely irrigated and totalled 90 464 ha [PK03]. The figures have their origin in the 1990 agricultural census. The total area equipped for irrigation in the country is 14 417 464 ha.

The large-scale canal-irrigated area was digitized from a map showing the irrigation infrastructure and the irrigated areas of the country [PK16]. Satellite imagery [PK17] was used to incorporate the small-scale schemes and to adjust the outlines of the digitized canal-irrigated areas.

The distribution of irrigated area by Federal state territory is listed in the table below.

The following sections present subnational irrigation figures for each of the federal states:

Balochistan
The irrigated area per district by irrigation-water source was derived from a recent inventory [PK04]. In most of the districts, the figures refer to 1995. For each of the districts, area irrigated by canals, tubewells, wells, springs and karezes was included, while irrigated area classified as flood irrigation or rainfed was not taken into consideration. The resulting area equipped for irrigation totalled 807 335 ha and the figures were then scaled so that the sum of the irrigated area of all districts was 767 120 ha. Almost 30 percent of the irrigated area of the state is located in the district of Jaffarabad. More than 90 percent of this district located in the Indus plain is equipped for irrigation. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Northern Territories
Irrigated area per district, totals 90 464 ha. It was assumed that all the cultivated area as reported by the 1990 agricultural census [PK03] was irrigated. However, other studies indicate that the irrigated area in this very remote, mountainous region might be even larger than that reported by the census [PK05]. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

North-West Frontier Province
Irrigated area per district totalled 804 282 ha in North-West Frontier Province [PK06] and 88 074 ha in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas [PK07]. Only areas irrigated by canals, tanks, tubewells, wells and pumps were considered because areas irrigated by other sources most probably indicate spate-irrigation areas. The figures refer to the 1999-2000 cropping season. Irrigated area per district was scaled so that the total was equal to the area equipped for irrigation as reported in the AQUASTAT database (719 152 ha). Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Punjab
The area equipped for irrigation is 10 325 678 ha [PK01]. The cultivated area was reported to be 12 350 000 ha in the 1999-2000 cropping season, of which 1 330 000 ha were current fallow [PK08]; 6 872 204 ha were reported cropped in the kharif season, 8 839 377 ha in the rabi season, and 173 086 ha were classified as orchard. Of the area sown, 13 395 904 ha were irrigated [PK02]. Therefore, about 84 percent of the cultivated area was equipped for irrigation and about 84 percent of the sown crops were growing on irrigated fields. The area equipped for irrigation was not available at district level. Therefore, it was estimated by computing first the fraction of area sown that was irrigated [PK09], and then by multiplying this fraction by the cultivated area per district [PK10]. The resulting area equipped for irrigation gave a total of 10 178 276 ha for the entire Punjab state territory. Therefore, the area equipped for irrigation per district was scaled so that the total area corresponded with the figures in the AQUASTAT report. Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.

Sindh
The area equipped for irrigation was reported to be 2 515 050 ha [PK01]. The net area sown in the 1997-98 cropping season was 3 040 000 ha; 906 000 ha were sown more than once. In addition, 2 645 000 ha of the cultivated area were fallow land in the same season [PK11]. Area equipped for irrigation was not available at district level. Therefore, it was estimated as follows:

  • Area equipped for irrigation should be at least as high as the maximum value of irrigated areas per district in the 1997-98 rabi season [PK12] and the 1998 kharif-season [PK13]. The resulting figures for irrigated area per district gave a total of 2 073 100 ha.
  • District-based statistics on net area sown [PK14] and the proportion of irrigated to rainfed crops [PK15] were used to estimate the additional areas given by the difference from the AQUASTAT figures for the entire state.

Irrigated area per district is shown in this table.


References

[PK01]: FAO. 1997. Irrigation in the Near East region in figures, p. 188. Rome.
[PK02]: Government of Pakistan, Statistics Division. 2003. Agricultural census 2000 - Pakistan report. Lahore, Pakistan (available at http://www.statpak.gov.pk).
[PK03]: Shafiullah, A.A.H. 2003. Northern areas strategy for sustainable development. Background paper agriculture and food security, IUCN, Karachi, Pakistan (available at http://www.northernareas.org.pk).
[PK04]: Government of Balochistan. 2004. District database (available at http://bdd.sdnpk.org).
[PK05]: Ahmed, S. & Joyia, M.F. 2003. Northern Areas strategy for sustainable development. Background paper water, IUCN, Karachi, Pakistan (available at http://www.northernareas.org.pk).
[PK06]: Government of NWFP, Planning and Development Department, Bureau of Statistics. 2004. N-W.F.P. development statistics (available at http://www.nwfpbos.sdnpk.org).
[PK07]: Government of NWFP, Planning and Development Department, Bureau of Statistics. 2004. FATA development statistics (available at http://www.nwfpbos.sdnpk.org).
[PK08]: Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock. 2004. Agricultural statistics of Pakistan 2000-2001, Table 61 (available at http://www.pakistan.gov.pk).
[PK09]: Government of the Punjab. 2004. Punjab statistics, Table 43 (available at http://www.punjab.gov.pk).
[PK10]: Government of the Punjab. 2004. Punjab statistics, Table 2 (available at http://www.punjab.gov.pk).
[PK11]: Sindh Bureau of Statistics. 2002. Development statistics of Sindh, Table 4.16. Karachi, Pakistan (also available at http://sbos.sdnpk.org).
[PK12]: Sindh Bureau of Statistics. 2002. Development statistics of Sindh, Table 4.55. Karachi, Pakistan (also available at http://sbos.sdnpk.org).
[PK13]: Sindh Bureau of Statistics. 2002. Development statistics of Sindh, Table 4.46. Karachi, Pakistan (also available at http://sbos.sdnpk.org).
[PK14]: Sindh Bureau of Statistics. 2002. Development statistics of Sindh, Table 4.17. Karachi, Pakistan (also available at http://sbos.sdnpk.org).
[PK15]: Sindh Bureau of Statistics. 2002. Development statistics of Sindh, Table 4.40. Karachi, Pakistan (also available at http://sbos.sdnpk.org).
[PK16]: Ministry of Water and Power. 1994. Irrigation system of Pakistan. Islamabad, Chief Engineering Adviser’s Organisation.
[PK17]: Earth Satellite Corporation. 2004. Landsat GeoCover (2000/ETM+) Edition Mosaics, tiles 071-332, 071-333, 071-341, 071-342, 071-343, 071-344, 071-358, 071-359, 071-360 and 071-370. Sioux Falls, USA, USGS (available at http://glcfapp.umiacs.umd.edu:8080).


Distribution of irrigated area in Pakistan by Federal state territory

Federal state territory Irrigated area (ha)
Baluchistan 767 120
North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) 719 152
Punjab 10 325 678
Sindh 2 515 050
Northern Territories 90 464
Pakistan, total 14 417 464
     
   
   
       
arrow Printer friendly version
     
       © FAO, 2014           Questions or feedback?    aquastat@fao.org             Top