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Irrigation water use

Introduction Irrigated crop calendars Irrigation water requirement
Irrigation water withdrawal Discussion Conclusions Tables and References


arrow Table 1:  Example of an irrigated crop calendar
arrow Table 2a: Areas equipped for irrigation and cropping intensity by region
arrow Table 2b: Areas equipped for irrigation by region (in %)
arrow Table 3a: Irrigated harvested crop areas by region (in hectares)
arrow Table 3b: Irrigated harvested crop areas (in % of total irrigated crops)
arrow Table 3c: Irrigated harvested crop areas (in % of specific irrigated crops)
arrow Table 3d: Irrigated harvested cereal areas by region (in hectares)
arrow Table 3e: Irrigated harvested cereal areas (in % of total irrigated cereals)
arrow Table 4:  Water requirement ratio by country
arrow Table 5:  Water requirement ratio by region


arrow Crop coefficient
arrow Country groupings


ABS [Australian Bureau of Statistics]. 2011. Water use on Australian farms. Version 11 May 2011.

BGR/UNESCO. 2008. Map on groundwater resources of the world. World-wide Hydrogeological Mapping and Assessment Programme (WHYMAP). Accessed in October 2012.

FAO. 1995. Irrigation in Africa in figures. FAO Water Report No. 7. Rome.

FAO. 1997a. Irrigation in the Near East in figures. FAO Water Report No. 9. Rome.

FAO. 1997b. Irrigation in the countries of the Former Soviet Union in figures. FAO Water Report No. 15. Rome.

FAO. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration - Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. By: Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D. and Smith, M. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56. Rome.

FAO. 1999. Irrigation in Asia in figures. FAO Water Report No. 18. Rome.

FAO. 2000. Irrigation in Latin America and the Caribbean in figures. FAO Water Report No. 20. Rome.

FAO. 2003. World agriculture: towards 2015/2030. An FAO perspective. Edited by Jelle Bruinsma. Earthscan, London, and FAO, Rome.

FAO. 2005a. Irrigation in Africa in figures: AQUASTAT Survey 2005. FAO Water Report No. 29. Rome.

FAO. 2005b. A system of integrated agricultural censuses and surveys. Volume 1: World Programme for the Census of Agriculture 2010. FAO Statistical Development Series No. 11. Rome.

FAO. 2006. World agriculture: towards 2030/2050. Interim report. FAO, Global Perspective Studies Unit. Rome.

FAO. 2009a. Harmonized world soil database. By: Nachtergaele, Freddy; Velthuizen, Harrij van; Verelst, Luc and Wiberg, FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC.

FAO. 2009b. Irrigation in the Middle East region in figures: AQUASTAT Survey 2008. FAO Water Report No. 34. Rome.

FAO. 2010. Global major agricultural systems map. Accessed in October 2012.

FAO. 2011a. World agriculture: towards 2050/2080. FAO, Global Perspective Studies Unit. Rome. (Internal document).

FAO. 2011b. State of the world’s land and water resources for food and agriculture (SOLAW) - Managing systems at risk. FAO, Rome, and Earthscan, London.

FAO. 2012a. Irrigation in the Southern and Eastern Asia in figures: AQUASTAT Survey 2011. FAO Water Report No. 37. Rome.

FAO. 2012b. FAOSTAT online database.. Accessed in September 2012.

FAO. 2012c. Coping with water scarcity: an action framework for agriculture and food security. FAO Water Report No. 38. Rome.

FAO. 2012d. Low-income food-deficit countries (LIFDC) - List for 2012. Accessed in October 2012.

Gleick, P.H., Christian-Smith, J. and Cooley, H. 2011. Water-use efficiency and productivity: rethinking the basin approach. Water International 36 (7), 784-798.

Lehner, B. and Döll, P. 2004. Development and validation of a global database of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. Journal of Hydrology 296/1-4, 1-22.

New, M., Hulme, M. and Jones, P. 2000: Representing twentieth century space-time climate variability. Part 2: development of 1901-96 monthly grids of terrestrial surface climate. Journal of Climate 13, 2217-2238.

Perry, C.J. and Kite, G. 2003. Water accounting at basin scale: a critique of the AQUASTAT approach. Internal report.

Perry, C.J., Steduto, P., Allen, R.G., and Burt, C.M. 2009. Increasing productivity in irrigated agriculture: Agronomic constraints and hydrological realities. Agricultural Water Management 96, 1517-1524.

SAGE [Centre for Sustainability and the Global Environment]. 2012. River discharge database. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Accessed in October 2012.

Siebert, S., Döll, P., Feick, S., Hoogeveen, J. and Frenken, K. 2007. Global map of irrigation areas version 4.0.1. Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany / FAO, Rome. FAO Land and Water Digital Media Series No. 34.

Siebert, S., Burke, J., Faures, J.M., Frenken, K., Hoogeveen, J., Döll, P. and Portmann, F.T. 2010. Ground water use for irrigation - a global inventory. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 1863-1880.

UN [United Nations]. 2008. Handbook on the least developed country category: includion, graduation and special support measures. New York.

UN-OHRLLS [United Nations Office of the High Representative for the least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing states]. 2012. Criteria for identification and graduation of LDCs. Accessed in October 2012.

WB [World Bank]. 2012. How we classify countries. Accessed in October 2012.

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