the United States of America Country Profiles for Organic Agriculture
Legal and Institutional FrameworkLegislation relating to organic agriculture
Government policy for organic agriculture
Inspection and certification of organic products marketed domestically
Inspection and certification of organic export products
Domestic market of organic products
Research, training and extension for organic agriculture
Awareness of organic agriculture
Two major pieces of federal legislation have defined the organic food and fibre industry in the USA:
• The Organic Foods Production Act of 1990, as amended (7 U.S.C. 6501 et seq.) (1)
• The National Organic Programme of 2002 (2)
USDA definition of organic agriculture as specified in the regulation (1):
"Organic agriculture is a production system that is managed in accordance with the Organic Foods Production Act and regulations to respond to site-specific conditions by integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promotes ecological balance and conserve biodiversity.”
The sectors covered by the National Organic Programme include the following: production of food (animals and crops) and fibre products; food processing standards; labelling standards; certification standards and accreditation standards (1). Although state and private norms developed since the 1970s have been the basis for the development of the national organic standards, use of the term ‘organic’ and labelling of products as ‘organic’ may only be used on those products grown in accordance with the OFPA and the National Organic Programme standards.
The Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 (OFPA) defined the requirements for production, processing and certification of foods labelled as "organic". Congress passed the OFPA in order to establish national standards governing the marketing of certain agricultural products as organically produced products, to assure consumers that organically produced products meet a consistent standard and to facilitate commerce in fresh and processed food that is organically produced. The USDA National Organic Programme (NOP) was designed to implement OFPA and under this law the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was mandated to write a regulation that explained the law to producers, handlers and certifiers (3).
(1) National Organic Programme. 2002. Background information. National Organic Programme official website (available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/FactSheets/Backgrounder.html)
(2) National Organic Programme. 1990. Organic Foods Production Act of 1990. National Organic Programme official website (available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/archive/OFPA.html)
(3) Swezey, S. 2004. National organic programme background. In Organic Farming Compliance Handbook (available at http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/organic/complianceguide/national1.pdf)
Date: 1 Jun 2005
The USDA National Organic Programme includes provisions for the establishment of USDA-approved state organic programme. State Organic Programmes (SOP) are intended to provide States with the authority to enforce the production and handling requirements of the National Organic Standards (NOS) within the State. Under certain conditions, States may also request approval from the USDA for more restrictive production and handling requirements (1). Currently there are no USDA-Approved State Organic Programmes.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture developed standards and regulations that ensured that organically labelled products met consistent nationwide standards. In 1998, USDA staff prepared a proposed rule that was reviewed by other government agencies and open to pubic comment. The OFPA required that an advisory board, the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB), be assembled to help USDA write the regulation. The final draft of the rule was disseminated in December 2000 and enforcement began in October 2002. The NOP was charged with the administration and enforcement of the rule. When enforcement of the rule was initiated, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) began to accredit state, private and international organizations or persons to become “certifying agents” (2 and 3).
The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for the promotion of organic agriculture through several USDA sponsored projects. The 2002 Farm Bill included several first-time research and technical assistance provisions of US$15 million for organic farming research and another US$5 million for a national cost-share programme to help defray the costs of certification incurred by organic producers. In 2001, the USDA announced that an organic certification cost-share programme worth US$1 million was available to share the cost of organic certification in certain states. Producers were eligible for reimbursement of up to 70 percent of the cost of certification, not to exceed US$500 (4 and 5).
Under the US Farm Bill of 2002, certified organic producers who produce and market only organic products and do not produce any conventional or non-organic products are exempt from paying an assessment under any commodity promotion law. Organic growers had concerns about paying assessments that did little or nothing to market organic products. Methods for improving the treatment of certified organic agricultural products under Federal marketing orders will be evaluated as part of the research and extension provisions authorized under the Farm Act (5).
Some states also offer support for organic conversion. Iowa for example uses the USDA Environmental Quality Indicators programme to offer organic farmers US$20 per hectare to a maximum of 16 hectares to try organic production for a 3-year period (3).
Summary of provisions that directly affect the U.S. organic sector:
• The Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative authorized US$3 million per year in new mandatory appropriations in fiscal years 2003-07. Funds were used to administer competitive research grants, largely through USDA’s Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service. Research was to focus on determining desirable traits for organic commodities; identifying marketing and policy constraints on the expansion of organic agriculture; and conducting advanced research on organic farms, including production, marketing, and socioeconomic research (5).
• Other research and extension provisions for organic agriculture that were authorized, but not mandated, included data development on organic agricultural production and marketing; facilitated access to organic research conducted outside the USA for research and extension professionals, farmers, and others; and a mandated report on the need for additional funding for research and promotion of organic agricultural products (5).
• Several other provisions in the 2002 Farm Act indirectly affected organic crop and livestock producers. Processes used to produce agricultural commodities (including organically produced products) were included in the definition of products that qualify for value-added market development grants (5).
Two of the largest technical assistance programmes funded by USDA included the following:
• The Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas (ATTRA)—a USDA-funded, non-profit information centre on sustainable farming—provides technical assistance, publications, and resources on organic agriculture and other topics to farmers, extension agents, market gardeners, agricultural researchers, and others across the USA (6).
• USDA''s Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Programme (SARE) provides programme contacts, publications, funded projects, funding opportunities, and an interactive calendar of sustainable agriculture events. Regional organic farming conferences are hosted by a variety of industry, government, and academic sponsors and may be a useful source of information. SARE provides a wide range of information resources on organic farming and sustainable agriculture (7).
Since 1996, the USDAs Community Food Projects (CFP) Competitive Grants Programme has provided funding for community-based food and agriculture projects that help to meet the food needs of low-income people and increase the self-reliance of communities in providing for their own food needs. The total amount of grant funding for this programme was approximately US$4.6 million a year (8). Though not all of the agricultural and horticultural projects funded through this programme are certified organic, the principle of agricultural sustainability is strongly emphasized.
(1) National Organic Programme. 2002. Background information. National Organic Programme official website (available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/FactSheets/Backgrounder.html)
(2) Swezey, S. 2004. National organic programme background. In Organic Farming Compliance Handbook (available at http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/organic/complianceguide/national1.pdf)
(3) National Organic Programme. 2002. National Organic Programme official website (available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/indexIE.htm)
(4) USDA Economic Research Service (ERS). 2002. Organic farming and marketing: questions and answers. (available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/Organic/Questions/orgqa2.htm)
(5) USDA Economic Research Service (ERS). 2002. Organic agriculture provisions. (available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/Features/farmbill/analysis/organicagriculture.htm)
(6) ATTRA. 2005. National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service. (available at http://www.attra.org/)
(7) SARE. 2005. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education. (available at http://www.sare.org/)
(8) CFSC. 2005. The Community Food Security Coalition. (available at http://www.foodsecurity.org/index.html)
Date: 1 Jun 2005
USA is the world’s largest market for organic food with retail sales of organic food and beverages amounting to approximately US$12 billion in 2003 (1). The Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 (OFPA) directs the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to accredit certification bodies so they can certify that producers and handlers representing their products as organic have complied with USDA regulations. The National Organic Programme requires that operations or portions of operations that produce or handle agricultural products that are intended to be sold, labelled, or represented as 100 percent organic, organic, or made with organic ingredients or food group(s), must be certified by a USDA accredited certifying agency (2).
The USDA Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service is the competent authority that consents accreditation (3). As of March 2005, there were 95 accredited certification bodies operating in the USA. Of these, 56 were USA-based organizations (58 percent) and 41 were foreign-based organizations (42 percent) (4).
Imported agricultural products may be sold in the USA if they are certified by USDA-accredited certification bodies. USDA has accredited certifying agents in several foreign countries, and has applications from New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Spain, Canada (and two of its provinces), Israel, and Denmark. In lieu of USDA accreditation, a foreign certifying agent may receive recognition when USDA has determined, upon the request of a foreign government that the foreign certifying agent’s government is able to assess and accredit certification bodies as meeting the requirements of the USDA National Organic Programme. The OFPA requires USDA to review the certification programmes under which imported organic products are produced to ensure that they meet the requirements of the National Organic Programme (NOP) (5). Certification bodies operating in foreign countries may apply for USDA accreditation and will be evaluated based on the same criteria as domestic certifying agents.
The use of the term ‘Organic’ is restricted to those producers and processors who are certified by a USDA accredited certification agency. Farms and handling operations that sell less than USS$5 000 a year in organic agricultural products are exempt from certification. Such operations may label their products organic if they abide by the standards, but they cannot display the USDA Organic Seal. Retail operations, such as grocery stores and restaurants, do not have to be certified. A civil penalty of up to US$10 000 can be levied on any person who knowingly sells or labels as organic a product that is not produced and handled in accordance with the NOP (5).
1. Kortbech-Olesen, R. 2003. The North American Market. In Proceedings of the Seminar on the Production and Exports of Organic Fruit and Vegetables in Asia. Bangkok, Thailand. (available at http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/006/AD429E/AD429E00.HTM)
2. National Organic Programme. 2002. Certification. (available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/FactSheets/CertificationE.html)
3. National Organic Programme. 2002. Certifying Agent Accreditation and Equivalency to Imported Products. (available from http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/FactSheets/AccreditationE.html)
4. National Organic Programme. 2005. Accredited Certifying Agents. (available from http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/CertifyingAgents/Accredited.html)
5. National Organic Programme. 2002. Background Information. (available from http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/FactSheets/Backgrounder.html)
Date: 1 Jun 2005
For export markets, USA certified organic producers understand that organic standards vary around the world and producers must know the organic standards of the country to which they sell to, in order to successfully capitalize on the marketing opportunities. Any of the USA-based certification programmes, whether they are accredited or not by USDA, may certify export products to other countries as long as the importing country is willing to accept the product.
When exporting U.S. organic goods, export arrangements between the USDA and foreign governments must be made prior to product exportation (1). USDA authorized accredited certification bodies issue export certificates on raw and processed organic agricultural products; however, the certification bodies must officially request authorization from USDA to issue export certificates.
Although any USDA accredited programme can operate within the USA, at this time there are no foreign inspection agencies operating domestically (2). As of May 2005, there were 15 accredited certification bodes that comply with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Guide 65 (2).
1. National Organic Programme. 2002. Issuance of Export Certificates Under an Export Arrangement. (available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/NOP/TradeIssues/ExportCertIssuance.html)
2. National Organic Programme. 2005. Official Status Listing of Organic Certification Agencies Currently Under Assessment by USDA for compliance with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Guide 65. (available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/lsg/arc/iso65.htm)
Date: 1 Jun 2005
Organic agriculture is the fastest growing segment of USA agriculture with organic food sales accounting for 1-2 percent of total food sales which value was estimated at US$7.8 Billion in value for 2000 (1 and 2). Annual growth in retail sales of organic products has equalled 20 percent or more since 1990 (2). Organic products are sold in nearly 20 000 natural food stores and in 73 percent of all conventional supermarkets and grocery stores (1). The USA organic industry crossed a threshold in 2000: for the first time more organic food was purchased in conventional supermarkets than in any other venue (1). There has been an equally dramatic growth in direct marketing of organic produce with increasing number of farmers markets. According to the USDA, the number of farmer''s markets in American cities and towns increased by nearly 80 percent between 1994 and 2002 (3). Farmer’s markets provide a direct marketing outlet for many small- to medium-scale organic growers. Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) operations (most of which sell organic produce), have increased in number from less than 50 in 1986 to over 1000 in 2000 (4). The growth rate of the organic sector has attracted multinational food corporations and many of the largest food companies (Coco Cola, Heinz, Kellogg, Kraft, etc) have already acquired organic food brands or companies (5).
Price data collected by private and non-profit organizations have indicated substantial organic premiums for fruits, vegetables and milk over the last decade. Monthly farm gate price premiums for several major fruit and vegetable commodities consistently exceeded 100 percent between the years of 1992-1996. Supermarket scanner data showed similar results for frozen vegetables during this time period, as well as a 60 percent premium for organic milk over conventional milk brands. Organic grain and soybean crops enjoyed price premiums throughout the 1990s exceeding 50 percent for corn, soy beans, wheat and oats. Researches have also calculated price premiums of about 34 percent for clothing made from organically grown cotton (6). Though the supply of organic meats in general is relatively small, price premiums of US$2 to US$4 per pound can be expected from certified Organic beef (7). Organic foods are sold to consumers through three main venues – natural food stores, conventional grocery stores and direct-to-consumer markets.
Organic farmers associations
• Northeast Organic Farming Association (NOFA) - Each of the seven state organizations comprising the NOFA provide educational conferences, workshops, farm tours and printed materials to educate farmers, gardeners, consumers and land care professionals. NOFA produces a quarterly journal, The Natural Farmer, providing in-depth information on issues pertaining to organic agriculture in seven of the Northeast states (7).
• The Biodynamic Farming and Gardening Association – This non-profit, membership organization association was formed in the USA in 1938. The association has an educational focus and conducts conferences, workshops and seminars. The Association also publishes books and a bi-monthly journal, Biodynamics. The Association supports regional, grassroots membership associations and funds more formal research and training institutions (9).
• Ecological Farming Association – This non-profit educational organization promotes ecologically sound agriculture by bringing people together from all over the world through conferences and workshops to share ideas and experiences in producing organic foods and fibres (10).
• Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association - The purpose of this oldest and largest state organic organization in the USA, is to help farmers and gardeners grow organic food, to protect the environment, to promote stewardship of natural resources, to increase local food production, to support sustainable rural communities, and to inform consumers on the connections among healthful food, environmentally sound farming practices, and vital local communities (11).
• The Ohio Ecological Food & Farm Association was formed in 1979 and is a membership-based, grassroots organization, dedicated to promoting and supporting sustainable, ecological, and healthful food systems (12).
• The Organic Trade Association (OTA) - is the membership-based business association for the organic industry in North America. OTAs mission is to encourage global sustainability through promoting and protecting the growth of diverse organic trade (13).
There are an increasing number of programmes and initiatives throughout USA that serve to encourage local production and consumption of organic foods. The USDA-funded Community Food Security Coalition helps to organize, fund and provide technical assistance for nation-wide ‘Farm to School’ and ‘Farm to College’ programme. These multiple-objective initiatives serve to introduce locally produced organic foods into USA public schools and colleges and thereby offer opportunities for increasing farmer income, supporting the local economy and environmental quality, and improving students'''' eating habits (14). An example of a fully integrated project involving organic horticulture and agriculture within the public school system is the Edible School Yard Project at Martin Luther King Junior High School in Berkeley, California. The project is a collaboration of Berkeley businesses and the school district and involved the development of an organic garden and landscape which would be wholly integrated into the school''s curriculum and lunch programme (15). There are many similar programmes developing around the USA that are modelled after this programme.
1. Dimitri, C., and Greene, C. 2000. Recent patterns in the USA organic Food Market. Economic Research Service/USDA No. AIB777. (available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aib777/aib777c.pdf)
2. Kortbech-Olesen, R. 2002. The United States Market for Organic Food and Beverages. In International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO.
3. National Organic Programme. 2002. Farmer Markets Facts. (available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/farmersmarkets/facts.htm)
4. Center for CSA Resources. 2005. The Robyn Van En Centre. (available at http://www.csacenter.org/index.html)
5. Sligh, M. and Chrstman, C. 2003. Who owns organic? The global status, prospects and challenges of a changing organic market. Rural Advancement Foundation International –USA. Pittsboro, NC, USA. (available at http://www.rafiusa.org/pubs/OrganicReport.pdf)
6. Greene, C. 2001. U.S. Organic Farming Emerges in the 1990s: Adoption of Certified Systems Economic Research Service/ USDA No. AIB770. (available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aib770/)
7. Smith, G. 2002. What’s hot and what’s not: Beef trends in the supermarket. Montana State University Animal and Range Science Extension Service. (available at http://animalrangeextension.montana.edu/Articles/Beef/Q&A2002/Whatshot2.htm
8. Northeast Organic Farming Association. 2005. Official website. (available at http://www.nofa.org/index.php)
9. The Biodynamic Farming and Gardening Association. 2005. Official website. (available at http://www.biodynamics.com/bda.html)
10. Ecological Farming Association. 2005. Official website (available at http://www.eco-farm.org/)
11. Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association. 2005. Official website (available at http://www.mofga.org/)
12. The Ohio Ecological Food & Farm Association. 2005. Official website (available at http://www.oeffa.org/)
13. The Organic Trade Association. 2005. Official website. (available at http://www.ota.com/index.html)
14. Community Food Security Farm to School and College Programmes. 2005. Official website. (http://www.foodsecurity.org/farm_to_school.html)
15. The Edible School Yard Project. 2005. Official website. (available at http://www.edibleschoolyard.org/homepage.html)
Date: 1 Jun 2005
The USA Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Alternative Farming Systems Information Centre produces a comprehensive and a detailed listing of North American and international education and training opportunities in organic and sustainable agriculture. The publication, Educational and Training Opportunities in Sustainable Agriculture, 15th edition, provides descriptions and contact information for hundreds of colleges and universities, associations and institutions working in the areas of education, training, rural extension and technical assistance for farmers in topics in and relating to organic agriculture (1).
Other relevant institutions include;
• USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Organic Crop Production Programme has appointed a single extension agent to manage research and education efforts in the western states (2).
• The University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources (UC DANR) Cooperative Extension Programme of Marin County offers technical extension services and technical training for conventional, transition and organic producers (3).
• The University of California, Davis Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Programme (UCSAREP) – UCSAREP provides a diverse offering of education and training opportunities in the form of field trips and short courses for transitional and certified organic producers (4). UC Davis is developing the nation’s first undergraduate degree programme in Sustainable Agriculture which will address both the theoretical and applied aspects of certified organic production and sustainable agriculture.
• Organic Agriculture at Cornell University: The Cornell Organic Working Group. The Cornell Organic Working Group serves to increase meaningful applied and basic research, teaching and extension programmes in all aspects of organic agriculture for New York State. The working group provides cooperative extension services in all agricultural sectors (ornamentals, turf, vegetables, fruit, field crops, dairy, and livestock, marketing and value-adding) (5).
• The Rodale Institute. This non-profit organization was founded in 1947 by J.I. Rodale and has had an integral role in the development of organics in USA. The central thrust of Rodale has been connecting health soil with healthy people. This organization has been involved with conducting and encouraging scientific research, teaching, training and educating the public on soils, foods, human health and sustainable agriculture (6).
1. National Agricultural Library. 2003. Education and Training opportunities in Sustainable Agriculture 15th Edition. Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. (available at http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/edtr.htm)
2. USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS). 2002. Organic Crop Production Programme (available at http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/feb02/amer0202.htm)
3. The University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources (UC DANR) Cooperative Extension Programme of Marin County. 2005. Official website. (available at http://cemarin.ucdavis.edu/Custom_Program600/)
4. The University of California Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Programme (UCSAREP). 2005. Official website. (available at http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/events/)
5. Organic Agriculture at Cornell University: The Cornell Organic Working Group. 2005. Official website. (available at http://www.organic.cornell.edu/index.html)
6. The Rodale Institute. 2005. Who we are – background. Official website. (available at http://www.rodaleinstitute.org/about/what_set.html)
Date: 1 Jun 2005
There have been no large-scale and federally funded awareness campaigns in support of organic agriculture in the public (e.g. schools) or private sector (e.g. businesses, radio and or television). The federally funded awareness campaigns have taken the form of web-based information resources on the technical aspects of certified organic agriculture. The USDA National Organic Programme maintains a website providing information on organic foods, farming and certification standards and procedures for consumers and the general public (1). The Economic Research Service of the USDA provides an analysis of the growth and development of the organic food industry in USA (2).
Two of the largest technical educational programmes funded by USDA which have a public education component include the following (3):
• The Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas (ATTRA) is a USDA-funded, non-profit information centre on sustainable farming provides technical assistance, publications, and resources on organic agriculture and other topics to farmers, extension agents, market gardeners, agricultural researchers, and others across the USA (4)
• USDAs Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Programme (SARE) provides programme contacts, publications, funded projects, funding opportunities, and an interactive calendar of sustainable agriculture events. Regional organic farming conferences are hosted by a variety of industry, government, and academic sponsors and may be a useful source of information. USDA’s Alternative Farming Systems Information Center provides a wide range of information resources on organic farming and sustainable agriculture (5).
There are a number of privately funded NGOs working on educational an awareness campaigns in support of organic agriculture. Most of the non-governmental organizations, educational institutions and for-profit entities maintain some form of awareness campaign for organic and sustainable agriculture as part of their ongoing activities. The USDA publication ‘Education and Training Opportunities in Sustainable Agriculture, 15th edition’ contains a comprehensive listing of USA ‘Associations and Organizations’ which actively maintain information and awareness campaigns in support of organic agriculture through their various publications and public events (6).
Some influential NGOs working on organic and sustainable agriculture advocacy campaigns are:
• The Organic Consumers Association – This is a grassroots non-profit public interest organization which deals with issues of food safety, industrial agriculture, genetic engineering, corporate accountability and environmental sustainability. They are the only organization in USA focused exclusively on representing the views and interests of organic food consumers. Their web site, research, and media team provides background information, interviews, and story ideas to TV and radio producers and journalists. Their field organizers provide advice and coaching to grassroots activists across the nation and coordinate a network volunteers involved in the promotion of organic agriculture (7).
• The Pesticide Action Network of North America (PANNA) – This organization provides scientific information and statistical data on the environmental quality and human health aspects of conventional agriculture. It also helps to organise and promote national and international campaigns in support of organic and sustainable agriculture and against the use of agro-chemicals (8).
There are over 20 000 independent natural food retailers in USA, many of which actively promote organic agriculture through sales and local information campaigns. Two of the largest natural food retailers, Whole Foods Market and Wild Oats Markets, actively promote organic and sustainable agriculture, fair trade and consumer participation in local and national agriculture policies through ongoing print and web-based information campaigns (9 and 10).
An increasing number of nationally recognized chefs are beginning to serve organic foods and promote organic and sustainable agriculture though their contributions to newspapers, public fundraising events and popular culinary publications (11). The sustainability trend has even reached the renowned kitchens and classrooms of the Culinary Institute of America, which has sponsored conferences on sustainable cuisine and integrates organic agriculture topics and tours into their curriculum (12).
1. National Organic Programme. 2002. Consumer Information. (available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/Consumers/Consumerhome.html)
2. The Economic Research Service of the USDA. 2002. Data: Organic Production. (available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/Data/organic/)
3. The Economic Research Service of the USDA. 2002. Organic Agriculture Provisions in the 2002 USA Farm Bill. (available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/Features/farmbill/analysis/organicagriculture.htm)
4. The Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas (ATTRA). 2005. Official website. (available at http://attra.ncat.org/)
5. Sustainable Agriculture Research Education. 2005. Official website. (available at http://www.sare.org/)
7. National Agricultural Library. 2003. Education and Training Opportunities in Sustainable Agriculture 15th Edition. Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. (available at http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/edtr.htm)
8. Organic Consumers Association. 2005. Official website. (available at http://www.organicconsumers.org/)
9. Pesticide Action Network North America. 2005. Official website. (available at http://www.panna.org/)
10. Whole Foods Issues and Action Page. 2005. Official website. (available at http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/issues/)
11. Wild Oats. 2005. Official website. (available at http://www.wildoats.com/app/cda/oat_cda.html?pt=TakeAction)
12. Chefs Collaborative. 2005. Official website. (available at http://www.chefscollaborative.org/index.php?name=homepage)
13. Natural Foods Merchandiser. 2005. Official website. (available at http://www.naturalinvestor.com/nfm-online/nfm_backs/Nov_99/sustainable.cfm)
Date: 1 Jun 2005
This is a provisional document pending government confirmation.
Date: 4 Aug 2005