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This article illustrates how the introduction of modern geospatial surveying technology in Tanzania has failed to resolve a boundary conflict. The conflict exists between the state and nature conservation authorities on one side and a rural community of pastoralists on the other. The article shows how state and conservation officials have relied on the insights from fact-finding exercises to dismiss rural land use practices that are not represented in official maps. Pastoralists resist these state- and conservation-centered practices of fixed boundaries to maintain a historical, vital geography of seasonal access to pastures and water. In conclusion, this article highlights the pitfalls of geospatial land surveys and fact-finding exercises that unearth and lay bare a boundary conflict previously hidden from the state’s view. Through enhanced legibility, rural communities may become visible to the state, risking dispossession and evictions.

Year of publication: 2019
Organization: Individual authors 
Topic: Conflict, Land
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: Eastern Africa

“Strengthening the Livelihoods Resilience of Pastoral and Agropastoral Communities in South Sudan’s Cross-border Areas with Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda” is a three-year project funded by European Union that aims to improve governance and conflict prevention to reduce forced displacement and irregular migration in the cross-border areas of South Sudan. This publication is a baseline study and its main objective is to collect information on the indicators that will be used to estimate the impact of the cross-border project after its three year implementation. An additional objective is to gain a better understanding of the drivers of instability and irregular migration, as well as of the determinants of food security and resilience. The primary tool used in this study is the RIMA-II model developed by FAO. This report presents the results of the baseline survey; it is based on data collected by FAO and partners during July - August 2017 under the nationwide Food Security and Nutrition Monitoring Survey (FSNMS), triangulated with qualitative data from secondary sources.

Year of publication: 2019
Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 
Topic: Conflict, Food security, Resilience
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: Eastern Africa

This checklist seeks to provide companies with operational guidance on how to ensure due diligence when operating in areas where projects may affect indigenous peoples. Based on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) and ILO Convention No. 169, this Checklist aligns the principles and rights in these two instruments with the human rights due diligence approach set out in the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. It outlines key questions business should consider in engagement with indigenous peoples and their communities.

Year of publication: 2019
Organization: Individual authors 
Topic: Indigenous peoples
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: Global

La campagne agropastorale 2017/18 au Sahel a été marquée par un déficit et une mauvaise répartition spatio-temporelle des pluies. Une diminution importante de la production de biomasse, ainsi qu’un tarissement précoce des points d’eau ont été constatés dès la fin de la saison des pluies.

Les productions fourragères très faibles et quasi inexistantes dans certaines zones d’élevage en Mauritanie, au nord du Sénégal, au Sahel Burkinabé, au nord et à l’est du Niger, à l’ouest et à l’est du Sahel tchadien et par endroits au Mali, ont causé une soudure pastorale précoce ayant touché en particulier les populations rurales de ces zones ainsi que celles qui vivent dans les zones de concentration de bétail. Pour atténuer l’impact de la crise et renforcer la résilience des populations affectées, la FAO a conçu un mécanisme de réponse d’urgence qui a été mis en oeuvre par les bureaux de la FAO dans les six pays touchés – Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritanie, Niger, Sénégal et Tchad.

Year of publication: 2019
Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 
Topic: Environmental services, Resilience
Language: Français
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: West Africa

This book is a call to act more strategically and draw lessons from 50 years of pastoral and agropastoral development investments, interventions and implementation in Ethiopia. It outlines the more resilient, prosperous, and sustainable pathways for pastoral and agropastoral livelihoods in the future. The book combines the results of an impact analysis of the development investments over half a century, a review of the existing thinking in pastoral and agropastoral development, and an assessment of the current socioeconomic conditions affecting pastoral and agropastoral communities. The aim is to paint a compelling picture of present pastoral and agropastoral development trends in Ethiopia and suggest alternative pathways for the future. Considering the challenges as well as the opportunities available in Ethiopia’s pastoral and agropastoral areas, recommendations are provided for future interventions to achieve drought-resilient, transformed, and sustainable pastoral and agropastoral livelihoods, ecosystems, and institutions that would result in peaceful, inclusive, and prosperous pastoral and agropastoral communities.

Year of publication: 2019
Organization: International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), World Bank 
Topic: Environmental services, Organization, Resilience, Social services
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: Eastern Africa

Indeed the considerable contribution of rangelands to livelihoods and national economies is being increasingly recognized. While acknowledging the very specific and widespread challenges of the rangelands, a review of their role and potential is emerging. This change in position has been informed by better understanding and appreciation of their social, ecological and economical dynamics, and the management systems that are evolving over centuries. Nevertheless, there remains confusion in the discourse of rangelands and their importance, role and future. The overall goal of these guidelines is to contribute to improved rangeland management by illustrating a wide range of innovative rangeland management practices. This is by grouping them, clarifying their characteristics and requirements, and by illustrating their impacts on ecosystem services and human wellbeing. The ultimate aim is to demonstrate – through this unique set of convincing case studies – the value and potential of investment in rangelands. It is also hoped that these guidelines will stimulate, and assist, the identification of further cases.

Year of publication: 2019
Organization: World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT), TerrAfrica 
Topic: Land
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: West Africa, Central Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa

La région du Sahel est confrontée à des crises agropastorales récurrentes et cycliques, essentiellement dues à des sécheresses localisées et une forte variabilité climatique, exacerbées par des problèmes structurels et de détérioration de la sécurité. Ces crises ont des conséquences dramatiques sur les moyens d’existence des populations basés sur l’agriculture et l’élevage et aggravent l’insécurité alimentaire et la malnutrition des familles.

Year of publication: 2019
Organization: European Union (EU), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 
Topic: Food security, Resilience
Language: Français
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: West Africa

For thousands of years, mobile pastoralist communities have been moving through the rangelands with their herds in search of pasture and water, making the most of scarce resources. This traditional form of livestock husbandry has persisted over the years because of its well-known interaction with nature. However, the protected areas have become a real threat to the lives and livelihoods of mobile pastoralists in many parts of the world. In this paper, the authors look at the network of Spanish drove roads, with new data on the overlap between these routes, protected areas and areas of high biodiversity. It raises some serious questions for reflection by the protected area community in relation to the practice of mobile pastoralism. From basic human rights issues to acknowledging the services pastoralists provide. Readers are invited to reflect on an issue that is not clear-cut and requires much more dialogue, as well as joint action to mitigate conflict and promote collaboration.

Year of publication: 2019
Organization: Individual authors 
Topic: Environmental services
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: Europe
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