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Tool

2021

Engaging with small and medium agrifood enterprises to guide policy making. A qualitative research methodological guide

The methodology captures the multifaceted nature of small and medium agrifood enterprises (SMAE) business models, adding contextual insights to the literature and policy formulation processes on these small firms, which are often treated homogenously. The framework upon which the methodology is based links the business model of an SMAE to various policy areas including farmer-market linkages, decent employment (including gender equality and youth inclusion aspects), rural finance and investment, nutrition, food losses and waste as well as food safety and quality. This makes it possible to identify intervention areas that can help reconcile the commercial objectives of SMAEs with sustainable rural [...]

Issue paper

2021

Biogas systems in Rwanda – A critical review

Identifying sustainable sources of renewable energy is key to ensuring that countries can grow on a sustainable path that also meets climate change targets as outlined in countries’ NDCs.Among renewables, bioenergy can attract investments in the rural sector and help farmers to improve their income by increasing agricultural production and diversifying markets for by-products, such as digestate. FAO’s Bioenergy and Food Security (BEFS) Approach assists countries in defining which bioenergy options can be both sustainable and viable while ensuring food security and protecting the environment.In Rwanda the agriculture sector plays a key role in its economy, contributing around one-third of [...]

Issue paper

2021

Applying blockchain for climate action in agriculture: state of play and outlook

The objective of this study is to provide insights into potentialities, steps, and best practices in applying blockchain technology (BCT) to use cases in agriculture in the context of climate change, to explore the opportunities and challenges in applying the BCT in agricultural sectors with the aims of reducing greenhouse gas emission, increasing carbon sequestration, as well as supporting farmers’ adaptation to climate change. Furthermore, this study also aims to shed light on policy options and propose policy guidance adapted to developing countries on blockchain applications.

Briefs

2021

Blooming drylands – a practical approach for context-dependent economic, social and environmentally sustainable transformations

This policy brief is intended to inform decision-makers of nine transformational actions to sustain dryland production systems under the impact of climate change. It highlights the relevance of the local context for interventions and the importance of traditional and tested adaptive agrosilvopastoral strategies for building resilience. In addition, it emphasizes the potential for scaling up and using complementary technologies over wider areas. In particular, the roles of both women and men should not be neglected in terms of maintaining, creating and restoring dryland sustainable landscape.

Issue paper

2021

Building climate-resilient dryland forests and agrosilvopastoral production systems. An approach for context-dependent economic, social and environmentally sustainable transformations

With climate change impacts already felt in the world’s drylands, there is an urgent need for action, at various scales and initiated by different stakeholders, to ensure the sustainability of food production and livelihoods in these regions in the coming decades. There is also the need to rapidly establish baselines, assess and start monitoring progress on sustainability, emerging as result of the action taken.To aid in this effort, this paper provides a short list of expected transformations (under each of the three sustainability pillars) for guiding the planning and implementation of policy, governance and practice-level actions. Gender and indigenous people’s [...]

Tool

2021

Applying the degree of urbanisation — A methodological manual to define cities, towns and rural areas for international comparisons

Applying the Degree of Urbanisation — A methodological manual to define cities, towns and rural areas for international comparisons has been produced in close collaboration by six organisations — the European Commission, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UNHabitat), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and The World Bank.This manual develops a harmonised methodology to facilitate international statistical comparisons and to classify the entire territory of a country along an urban-rural continuum. The degree of urbanisation classification defines cities, towns and semi-dense areas, [...]

Issue paper

2021

Extending social protection to rural populations. Perspectives for a common FAO and ILO approach

Despite the importance of social protection, today more than 70 percent of the world’s population still has no or limited access to comprehensive social protection. Coverage in rural areas, where about 80 percent of the world’s poor live, is even lower. Achieving an effective extension of the coverage of social protection benefits and services to the rural population is a key challenge which must be addressed in order to achieve SDG 1.3. “Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable”.This will require bridging gaps [...]

Issue paper

2021

Emissions due to agriculture. Global, regional and country trends 2000–2018

The FAOSTAT emissions database is composed of several data domains covering the categories of the IPCC Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector of the national GHG inventory. Energy use in agriculture is additionally included as relevant to emissions from agriculture as an economic production sector under the ISIC A statistical classification, though recognizing that, in terms of IPCC, they are instead part of the Energy sector of the national GHG inventory.FAO emissions estimates are available over the period 1961–2018 for agriculture production processes from crop and livestock activities. Land use emissions and removals are generally available only for [...]

Briefs

2021

Social protection and climate change

Climate change poses a major threat to reducing poverty, eradicating hunger, and achieving sustainable development. It accelerates the frequency and intensity of extreme natural hazards, thus affecting the lives and livelihoods of those living in rural areas. Protecting poor and vulnerable small-scale food producers from climate change-related risks is necessary for achieving FAO’s strategic objectives and Sustainable Development Goals 1 (ending poverty) and 2 (zero hunger). This brief stresses the important role social protection plays in supporting inclusive climate risk-management strategies that contribute to safeguarding livelihoods and increasing the resilience of households.

Issue paper

2021

The impact of disasters and crises on agriculture and food security: 2021

On top of a decade of exacerbated disaster loss, exceptional global heat, retreating ice and rising sea levels, humanity and our food security face a range of new and unprecedented hazards, such as megafires, extreme weather events, desert locust swarms of magnitudes previously unseen, and the COVID-19 pandemic. Agriculture underpins the livelihoods of over 2.5 billion people – most of them in low-income developing countries – and remains a key driver of development. At no other point in history has agriculture been faced with such an array of familiar and unfamiliar risks, interacting in a hyperconnected world and a precipitously [...]
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