xi) Successful animal production requires attention to animal health that is maintained by proper management and housing, by preventive treatments such as vaccination, and by regular inspection, identification, and treatment of ailments, using veterinary advice as required. Farm animals are sentient beings and as such their welfare must be considered. Good animal welfare is recognized as freedom from hunger and thirst; freedom from discomfort; freedom from pain, injury or disease; freedom to express normal behaviour; and freedom from fear and distress.

xii) Good practices related to animal health and welfare will include those that minimize risk of infection and disease by good pasture management, safe feeding, appropriate stocking rates and good housing conditions; keep livestock, buildings and feed facilities clean and provide adequate, clean bedding where livestock is housed; ensure staff are properly trained in the handling and treatment of animals; seek appropriate veterinary advice to avoid disease and health problems; ensure good hygiene standards in housing by proper cleansing and disinfection; treat sick or injured animals promptly in consultation with a veterinarian; purchase, store and use only approved veterinary products in accordance with regulations and directions, including withholding periods; provide adequate and appropriate feed and clean water at all times; avoid non-therapeutic mutilations, surgical or invasive procedures, such as tail docking and debeaking; minimise transport of live animals (by foot, rail or road); handle animals with appropriate care and avoid the use of instruments such as electric goads; maintain animals in appropriate social groupings where possible; discourage isolation of animals (such as veal crates and sow stalls) except when animals are injured or sick; and conform to minimum space allowances and maximum stocking densities.



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