v) Crop and fodder production involves the selection of annual and perennial crops, their cultivars and varieties, to meet local consumer and market needs according to their suitability to the site and their role within the crop rotation for the management of soil fertility, pests and diseases, and their response to available inputs. Perennial crops are used to provide long-term production options and opportunities for intercropping. Annual crops are grown in sequences, including those with pasture, to maximize the biological benefits of interactions between species and to maintain productivity. Harvesting of all crop and animal products removes their nutrient content from the site and must ultimately be replaced to maintain long-term productivity.
vi) Good practices related to crop and fodder production will include those that select cultivars and varieties on an understanding of their characteristics, including response to sowing or planting time, productivity, quality, market acceptability and nutritional value, disease and stress resistance, edaphic and climatic adaptability, and response to fertilizers and agrochemicals; devise crop sequences to optimize use of labour and equipment and maximize the biological benefits of weed control by competition, mechanical, biological and herbicide options, provision of non-host crops to minimize disease and, where appropriate, inclusion of legumes to provide a biological source of nitrogen; apply fertilizers, organic and inorganic, in a balanced fashion, with appropriate methods and equipment and at adequate intervals to replace nutrients extracted by harvest or lost during production; maximize the benefits to soil and nutrient stability by re-cycling crop and other organic residues; integrate livestock into crop rotations and utilize the nutrient cycling provided by grazing or housed livestock to benefit the fertility of the entire farm; rotate livestock on pastures to allow for healthy re-growth of pasture; and adhere to safety regulations and observe established safety standards for the operation of equipment and machinery for crop and fodder production.