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SOFA 2016

The State of Food and Agriculture 2016 (SOFA): Climate change, agriculture and food security

The 2016 SOFA report presents evidence on today and tomorrow’s impact of climate change on agriculture and food systems. The report assesses the options to make agriculture and food systems resilient to climate change impacts, while minimizing environmental impacts. It shows that making agriculture and food systems sustainable is both economically and technically feasible. However barriers to the adoption of appropriate technologies and management practices will have to be lowered, especially for smallholder farmers and women farmers amongst them. Likewise, an overhaul is needed of agricultural and food policies to shift incentives in favour of investments, worldwide, in sustainable technologies and practices.

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Recent eBook releases

Averting risks to the food chain: A compendium of proven emergency prevention methods and tools

This publication, based on 23 FCC-EMPRES information sheets published on a monthly basis by the FCC Intelligenceand Coordination Unit of the FAO Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department, showcases some of the bestpractices currently in use. This publication promises to help experts, policy makers, national institutions, and development workers in ourjoint pursuit of a world without hunger. 


Regional Gender Strategy and Action Plan 2017–2019 for Asia and the Pacific

The Regional Gender Strategy and Action Plan aims to provide focus for the FAO gender-related work in Asia and the Pacific and identify delivery mechanisms for the period 2017-2019. 


Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015. How are the World's Forests Changing? Second edition

This publication is the latest in a series of reports by FAO, the first of which was published in 1948. It is a synthesis of key results from the 2015 Global Forest Resources Assessment which is conducted every five years. It summarizes findings and data sources and links to more detailed publications and online resources.


OECD-FAO Guidance for Responsible Agricultural Supply Chains

The guidance is a summary of existing voluntary standards and principles, including the Principles for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems (CFS RAI) endorsed by the CFS in 2014. The guidance aims to help companies implement existing standards by providing recommendations on the steps that they should undertake to identify and address risks of adverse impacts that stem from their activities.


Food Outlook: Biannual Report on Global Food Markets. October 2016

 From a global perspective, food markets are expected to remain generally well balanced in 2016/17 amid large export availabilities and relatively low and more stable international prices, especially for cereals. The world food import bill is set to dip to a six-year low, while still remaining above the USD 1 trillion mark.

Good emergency management practice: the essentials. A guide to preparing for animal health emergencies

This manual sets out in a systematic way the elements required to achieve an appropriate level of preparedness for any disease emergency in animals. In particular, this manual focuses on the control of transboundary animal diseases. Some of the principles presented may also be helpful in preparing for food safety, zoonotic and even non-infectious disease emergencies.


The State of Food and Agriculture 2016 (SOFA): Climate change, agriculture and food security

The 2016 SOFA report presents evidence on today and tomorrow’s impact of climate change on agriculture and food systems. The report assesses the options to make agriculture and food systems resilient to climate change impacts, while minimizing environmental impacts. It shows that making agriculture and food systems sustainable is both economically and technically feasible.

State of the World's Forests 2016 (SOFO): Forests and agriculture: land use challenges and opportunities

The State of the World’s Forests (SOFO) 2016 shows that it is possible to increase agricultural productivity and food security while halting or even reversing deforestation, highlighting the successful efforts of Costa Rica, Chile, the Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Tunisia and Viet Nam. Integrated land-use planning is the key to balancing land uses, underpinned by the right policy instruments to promote both sustainable forests and agriculture.


The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2016 (SOFIA): Contributing to food security and nutrition for all

This issue of The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture aims to provide objective, reliable and up-to-date data and information to a wide range of readers – policy-makers, managers, scientists, stakeholders and indeed all those interested in the fisheries and aquaculture sector. As always, the scope is global and the topics many and varied. This edition uses the latest official statistics on fisheries and aquaculture to present a global analysis of trends in fish stocks, production, processing, utilization, trade and consumption. It also reports on the status of the world’s fishing fleets and analyses the make-up of human engagement in the sector.


Food Outlook: Biannual Report on Global Food Markets. June 2016. Includes a Special Feature — Pulses: a Multi-faceted crop

This issue of Food Outlook includes a special features section,"Pulses: A multi-faceted crop" that presents information and production, consumption and trade statistics on pulses, the contribution of pulses to environmental sustainability and nutritional benefits of pulses.


Pulses: Nutritious seeds for a sustainable future

This coffee table book is part guide and part cookbook— informative without being technical. The book begins by giving an overview of pulses, and explains why they are an important food for the future. 


Better Farming 1. The Way to Work, the Living Plant

This handbook (1970) is designed for intermediate level agricultural education and training. This manual is a translation and adaptation of "Methodes de travail - La plante vit," published by the Agri-ServiceAfrique of the lnstitut africain pour le developpement economique et social (INADES), and forms part of a series of booklets. Grateful acknowledgement is made to the publishers for making this text available for English-language agricultural education and training.The text covers the reasons for learning about plants, what plants are, and how to germinate and grow plants.


Better Farming 2. The Plant, the root

This handbook is designed for intermediate level agricultural education and training. The text explains different root systems, how root systems are built, what a radicle consists of, root hairs and and the function of roots within soil.


Better Farming 3. The Plant, the stem

This handbook is designed for intermediate level agricultural education and training. The illustrated text explains how to identify a plant stem using yam, groundnut, maize, kapok or baobab and cotton as examples. It teaches the reader about two types of stems, herbaceous and woody, and the covers function of the stem with the plant system.


Better Farming 4. The Plant, the leaf

This handbook is designed for intermediate level agricultural education and training. The manual describes leaf shape, function and how to protect leaves from diseases and pests. It is illustrated with examples.


Better Farming 5. The Plant, the flower

This handbook is designed for intermediate level agricultural education and training. This illustrated manual uses groundnut and maize flowers as examples to teach about how a flower functions for fertilization with the reproductive organs of the plant, and how seeds and fruit are generated. It also covers seeds and sowing, and storage of grain and seeds.


Better Farming 6. The Soil, man and the soil

This handbook is designed for intermediate level agricultural education and training. This illustrated manual discusses traditional farming systems and presents reasons for smallholders to change methods in order to improve crop production. Soil depletion and soil improvement are also presented.


Better Farming 7. The Soil, how the soil is made up

This handbook is designed for intermediate level agricultural education and training.This illustrated manual explains the layers that compose soil, how to cultivate a soil, go over the elements of clay, sand and silt in soils, and explains how humus, air, and water in the soil enrich it.


Better Farming 8. The Soil, the living soil, working the soil 

This handbook is designed for intermediate level agricultural education and training. This illustrated manual addresses how soil is formed and how plants and living organisms change the soil, how soil can be destroyed and the impact of fire on soil. It has a unit on working the soil that describes why the soil should be worked and the tools and methods for working it.


Better Farming 9. The Soil, working the soil (continued)

This handbook is designed for intermediate level agricultural education and training. This illustrated manual focuses on working the soil. It covers how to choose fields for cultivation, clearing them of tree stumps, tilling, sowing, crop management, irrigation, drainage and harvesting.


Better Farming 10. The Soil, conserving the soil, improving the soil

This handbook is designed for intermediate level agricultural education and training. This illustrated manual focuses on soil conservation. It explains erosion and then covers methods and techniques for erosion control and improving the soil with fallow, manures, crop rotation, fertilizers and compost.


Better Farming 11.  Animal Husbandry - Introduction

This handbook is designed for intermediate level agricultural education and training.This illustrated manual introduces animal husbandry and the benefits to the farmer.


Better Farming 12. Animal Husbandry - Feeding Animals

This handbook is designed for intermediate level agricultural education and training. This illustrated manual focuses on how to feed calves and cattle, how food is digested by cattle, and how to improve pastures and growing fodder crops.


Better Farming 13.  Animal Husbandry - Looking after animals; how cattle reproduce

This illustrated manual instructs the user on how to house animals and breed cattle, including how to improve enclosures, what to do about parasites, how to take care of wound, vaccination, cattle diseases, reproduction systems, fertilization, pregnancy, calving and castration of bulls.


Farmer Field School Guidance Document: Planning for Quality Programmes

This FFS Guidance Document focuses on the process and critical decisions that are necessary when starting a new FFS programme, and guides the reader through the essential steps required to establish a solid basis for such programmes, in tune with the specific local conditions. It also defines the essential elements and processes required to ensure programme relevance, quality, growth and sustainability.


Inclusive Business Model:Guidelines for improving linkages between producer groups and buyers of agricultural produce

Aimed at designers of agricultural value chain projects, rural development projects and enterprise development projects, together with grassroots NGOs that implement smallholder commercialization projects, these guidelines have been developed to facilitate the design and implementation of interventions that strengthen business models linking smallholders to value chains.


Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication

The Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SSF Guidelines) represent the first ever international instrument dedicated to small-scale fisheries. They represent a global consensus on principles and guidance for small-scale fisheries governance and development.


Policy Analysis Paper: Policy Mainstreaming of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services With a Focus on Pollination

FAO developed a protocol to identify and assess pollination deficits in crops – resulting in a global meta-analysis, with data from eleven countries. Results emerging from this endeavour give strong indication that pollination deficits may exist in a wide variety of farming systems across the world. As a response to this science, researchers and policymakers from the eleven countries considered the range and types of actions that can address pollination deficits, and developed an indicative set of policy responses. This publication is a result of this work, which considers the mainstreaming of ecosystem services at both national and international levels, with a focus on pollination services.


Exploring the concept of water tenure

The purpose of this paper is examine the notion of tenure in connection with water resources and to explore whether the concept of water tenure has the potential to make a useful contribution towards resolving the world’s water resources challenges. It seeks to provide answers to the following questions: (a) What is water tenure? (b) Does water tenure really exist or is water simply too different from other natural resources? (c) Could the concept of water tenure be useful in terms of the development of natural resources policies and practices? (d) Is there scope for further work on the possible development of guidelines on water tenure?


Strengthening Coherence between Agriculture and Social Protection to Combat Poverty and Hunger in Africa: Framework for Analysis and Action

This document presents a Framework for Analysis and Action with the purpose of filling this knowledge gap. By drawing from concrete country experiences, the Framework will help to clarify the benefits of strengthening coherence between agriculture and social protection, and to identify the options available for achieving this through policy and programming.


Strengthening Coherence between Agriculture and Social Protection to Combat Poverty and Hunger in Africa: Diagnostic Tool

This Diagnostic Tool can assist you in: identifying and mapping the scope and nature of linkages between agriculture and social protection interventions in their countries, including supportive and constraining factors; and understanding people’s experiences and perceptions of linkages between agricultural and social protection programmes and how these linkages (or lack of them) affect their livelihoods. This will provide a basis for identifying options for strengthening coherence, which will inevitably depending on specific country contexts.


Forty years of community-based forestry: A review of its extent and effectiveness

This publication is FAO’s first comprehensive look at the impact of community-based forestry since previous reviews in 1991 and 2001. It considers both collaborative regimes (forestry practised on land with formal communal tenure requiring collective action) and smallholder forestry (on land that is generally privately owned). The publication examines the extent of community-based forestry globally and regionally and assesses its effectiveness in delivering on key biophysical and socioeconomic outcomes, i.e. moving towards sustainable forest management and improving local livelihoods. The report is targeted at policy-makers, practitioners, researchers, communities and civil society.



Mapping the vulnerability of mountain peoples to food insecurity

This publication gives voice to the plight of mountain people and sends a message to policy-makers on the importance of including mountain development in their agendas as well as specific measures and investments that could break the cycle of poverty and hunger of mountain communities and slow outmigration from mountain areas.


Fishing operations. 3. Best practices to improve safety at sea in the fisheries sector

These guidelines have been produced to support implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries with regard to safety at sea in the fisheries sector. Their purpose is to enable relevant authorities to develop and implement strategies aimed at improved safety, health and conditions of service at sea in capture fisheries and aquaculture operations. They apply to all commercial fishing activities, as well as activities at sea within the aquaculture sector and may also be applied to vessels engaged in fisheries research. However, these guidelines are not directed at sport and recreational activities.


Enhancing the potential of family farming for poverty reduction and food security through gender-sensitive rural advisory services

Rural advisory services (RAS) can play an important role in addressing gender inequalities. This paper is based on an examination of a broad selection of existing literature on gender-sensitive RAS. It looks at gender-differentiated barriers in access to RAS and challenges of effectively targeting women family farmers when delivering these services.  The paper provides recommendations on what can be done to improve the gender-sensitivity of RAS.


Global guidelines for the restoration of degraded forests and landscapes in drylands:Building resilience and benefitting livelihoods

These guidelines target two main groups – policymakers and other decision-makers, and practitioners – because both have the power to bring about positive change. While they should be tailored to suit regional and local contexts, they present the essential components for the design, implementation and sustainability of restoration initiatives that can help build ecological and social resilience and generate benefits for local livelihoods.


Guidelines for Developing a National Strategy for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: Translating the Second Global Plan of Action for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture into National Action

These guidelines shall assist countries to implement the Second GPA in harmony with other relevant national and international commitments. Cognizant of each country’s needs, capacities and constraints, national strategies for PGRFA should identify a national vision, goals and objectives, and the corresponding plan of action, including responsibilities, resources, and timeframes for activities relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of PGRFA.


World Program of the Census of Agriculture 2020, Volume I: Programme, concepts and definitions

The census of agriculture is one of the key pillars of a national statistical system, and in many developing countries it is often the only means of producing statistical information on the structure and other relevant aspects of the agriculture sector. Moreover, it is the only data collection instrument that produces statistical information on farms at the lowest geographical level and therefore it is an essential source of information for governments and decision-makers in member countries.


Running Out of Time: The Reduction of women's work burden in agricultural production

Based on a broad literature review, this publication discusses rural women’s time poverty in agriculture, elaborates on its possible causes and implications and provides insight into the various types of constraints that affect the adoption of solutions for reducing work burden. This paper raises questions about the adequacy of women’s access to technologies, services and infrastructure and about the control women have over their time, given their major contributions to agriculture.


Handbook for monitoring and evaluation of child labour in agriculture

The Handbook offers guidance and tools for assessing the impacts of agricultural and food security programmes and projects on child labour in family-based agriculture. The Handbook furthermore encourages the user to identify good agricultural practices for preventing and reducing child labour in agriculture.


Status of the World's Soil Resources. Technical Summary

This document presents a summary of the first Status of the World’s Soil Resources report, the goal of which is to make clear the essential connections between human well-being and the soil.  The report synthesizes the work of some 200 soil scientists from 60 countries. It provides a global perspective on the current state of the soil, its role in providing ecosystem services, and the threats to its continued contribution to these services.



Safeguarding land tenure rights in the context of agricultural investment

This guide has been developed in response to concerns regarding large-scale land acquisitions and the need to increase investment in agriculture. It aims to provide additional guidance to government authorities engaged in the promotion, approval and monitoring of investments at all stages of the investment cycle.


The impact of disasters on agriculture and food security

This study assesses the impact of medium to large scale natural hazards and disasters on the agriculture sector and subsectors in developing countries between 2003 and 2013, focusing on direct physical damage and indirect economic losses. The findings of the study are expected to support national and international efforts to reduce damage and losses caused by disasters and strengthen the resilience of the agriculture sector, in line with resilience targets set under the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the Sustainable Development Goals, and the Universal Climate Change Agreement.


Promotion of Fruit and Vegetables for Health:Report of the Pacific Regional Workshop

The island countries of the Pacific generally face challenges in securing year-round adequate supply of fresh fruit and vegetables. It was recognized that NGOs, civil society and especially faith-based organisations can play a key role among stakeholders in increasing awareness and facilitating programmes to improve availability and consumption of fruit and vegetables for health. It is important to join efforts and support the PROFAV initiative and become active stakeholders.


FAO's Work on Climate Change:United Nations Climate Change Conference 2015

This booklet presents the key messages of FAO on climate change and food security. It includes a synthesis of the most recent support provided by FAO to countries to face the impacts of climate change. It also brings together the most relevant knowledge on climate change including tools and methodologies FAO can offer to countries to report on their greenhouse gas emissions coming from the agriculture, livestock and forestry sectors.


The Second Report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Assessments

This report updates the global assessment provided in the first report on The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, published in 2007.  Drawing on 129 country reports, it presents an analysis of the state of livestock diversity, the influence of livestock-sector trends on the management of animal genetic resources, the state of capacity to manage animal genetic resources, including legal and policy frameworks, and the state of the art in tools and methods for characterization, valuation, use, development and conservation.


Save and Grow in practice: maize, rice, wheat: A guide to sustainable cereal production

This new book looks at the application of “Save and Grow” practices and technologies to production of the world’s key food security crops – maize, rice and wheat. With examples drawn from developing countries worldwide, it shows how eco-friendly farming systems are helping smallholder producers to boost cereal yields, improve their incomes and livelihoods, conserve natural resources, reduce negative impacts on the environment, and build resilience to climate change.


Achieving Zero Hunger: The Critical Role of Investments in Social Protection and Agriculture. Second edition

This paper provides estimates of investment costs, both public and private, required to eliminate chronic dietary energy deficits, or to achieve zero hunger by 2030.


Making it count: increasing the impact of climate change and food security education programmes

The research is summarized and evaluated to develop a set of recommendations on how to better focus educational activities for maximum impact on individuals, local communities and the wider world. The challenge for educators now is to turn this evidence into reality; to develop and deliver educational resources and experiences that trigger long-term behavior change.


Voluntary guidelines to support the integration of genetic diversity into national climate change adaptation planning

The guidelines take account of the characteristics of different genetic resources for food and agriculture which face different challenges and opportunities in respect to climate change. The objectives of the guidelines are to promote the use of genetic resources for food and agriculture in climate change adaptation and support their integration into national climate change adaptation planning; to support the genetic resources experts ; and to promote the involvement of genetic resources stakeholders in the national climate change adaptation planning process.


Mediterranean food consumption patterns:Diet, environment, society, economy and health

The objective of this document is to highlight the role that the current food consumption patterns play in food and nutrition security, public health, environment protection and socio-economic development in the Mediterranean region.


The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets 2015–16 (SOCO) Trade and food security: achieving a better balance between national priorities and the collective good

This edition of The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets aims to reduce the current polarization of views on the impacts of agricultural trade on food security and on the manner in which agricultural trade should be governed to ensure that increased trade openness is beneficial to all countries. By providing evidence and clarity on a range of topics, the report seeks to contribute to a more informed debate on policy choices and to identify required improvements in the policy processes within which these choices are made.


1964 - 2014 FAO Investment Centre: 50 Years of development support

We have prepared this book to tell the story of how the Investment Centre came to be and what it is now, and what we hope it will be in the years to come.



Processing of fresh-cut tropical fruits and vegetables: A technical guide

This technical guide reviews, from a theoretical and practical perspective, the critical issues that must be addressed for fresh-cut produce to meet consumer demand for convenience, quality and safety. A case study on fresh-cut processing in Thailand is included. The guide should be of practical value to small processors, trainers and extension workers who provide support to individuals engaged in production of fresh-cut tropical produce for sale.



70 Years of FAO (1945-2015)

This book tells the story of these seven decades of the history of FAO, its protagonists and their endeavours. We have dug into the FAO archives to bring to light unpublished black and white images, which form a portfolio of evocative images of the early years of the Organization.



The State of Food Insecurity in the CARICOM Caribbean: Meeting the 2015 hunger targets: Taking stock of uneven progress

This report presents the overview of food and nutrition security from the standpoint of what FAO classifies as the four pillars of food security, in the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG).


The State of Food and Agriculture 2015 (SOFA): Social Protection and Agriculture: Breaking the Cycle of Rural Poverty

Despite significant progress in meeting the Millennium Development Goals on poverty and hunger, almost a billion people still live in extreme poverty (less than $1.25 per person per day) and 795 million still suffer from chronic hunger. Much more will have to be done to achieve the new Sustainable Development Goals on eradicating poverty and hunger by 2030.


The State of Food and Agriculture 2015 in Brief (SOFA)

The State of Food and Agriculture 2015 in Brief is a summary of FAO’s major annual flagship report. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on reducing poverty have been met by many countries, yet many others lag behind and the post-2015 challenge will be the full eradication of poverty and hunger.


The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) 2015: Meeting the 2015 international hunger targets: taking stock of uneven progress

This year´s annual State of Food Insecurity in the World report takes stock of progress made towards achieving the internationally established Millennium Development Goal (MDG1) and World Food Summit hunger targets and reflects on what needs to be done, as we transition to the new post-2015 Sustainable Development Agenda. The report reviews progress made since 1990 for every country and region as well as for the world as a whole. Progress towards the MDG 1 target, however, is assessed not only by measuring undernourishment, or hunger, but also by a second indicator – the prevalence of underweight children under five years of age. The 2015 report not only estimates the progress already achieved, but also identifies remaining problems, and provides guidance on which policies should be emphasized in the future. Key factors that have determined success to date towards food security and nutrition goals are identified. The list of factors – economic growth, agricultural productivity growth, markets (including international trade) and social protection – is by no means exhaustive.


Dig it! The Secrets of Soil 

These DIG IT! education materials were developed by NACD based on an exhibition developed by the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History and sponsored by the Soil Science Society of America and the Nutrients for Life Foundation. This version of Dig it! was adapted by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in the context of the International Year of Soils 2015.








Uses of geothermal energy in food and agriculture – Opportunities for developing countries

This book summarizes the current status of geothermal energy use in agriculture and agro-industry sectors around the world and seeks to provide developing countries with guidance on how to utilize geothermal energy to develop their agriculture and agro-industry sectors.


Making economic corridors work for the agricultural sector

This book shows how agrocorridors can be instrumental in attracting agribusiness investments into a specific territory, while improving physical connectivity and functioning of markets. It provides policy-makers and practitioners with evidence-based, practical instruments to guide the design and implementation of agrocorridors.


World Fertilizer Trends and Outlook to 2018

This report presents the world nitrogen, phosphate and potassium fertilizer medium-term supply and demand projections for the period 2014-2018.


The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2014

The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2014 presents updated estimates of undernourishment and progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) and World Food Summit (WFS) hunger targets.


Coping with Climate Change - The Roles of Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

This eBook aims to raise awareness of the important roles of genetic resources for food and agriculture in coping with climate change and to contribute to the mainstreaming of genetic resources for food and agriculture into climate change adaptation and mitigation planning at national and international levels.


The State of Food and Agriculture 2014 

The 2014 edition of The State of Food and Agriculture report considers innovations in family farms and their role in ensuring global food security, poverty reduction and environmental sustainability.


Food Outlook - October 2014

This twice-yearly report focuses on developments affecting the world’s food and feed markets and is closely associated with another major FAO publication entitled Crop Prospects and Food Situation.


The State of the World’s Forest Genetic Resources

This FAO flagship publication entitled The State of the World’s Forest Genetic Resources reviews the conservation, management and use of tree and other woody plant genetic resources that are valuable to human well-being. The report complements two other FAO flagship publications in the field of forestry, the annual State of the World’s Forests and the periodic Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA). It will help to differentiate between the state of the world’s forest resources and the state of the genetic resources on which they depend for their utility, adaptability and health.


State of the World's Forests 2014

This edition of The State of the World’s Forests systematically gathers and analyses data on the contribution of forests to people’s livelihoods, food, health, shelter and energy needs. It also suggests how information might be improved and policies adjusted towards enhancing the socioeconomic benefits of forests in the future.


The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014 (SOFIA)

The 2014 issue of The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture  analyses a number of important themes including the role of aquaculture in improving nutrition and reducing harmful practices and poor management that threaten the sector's sustainability.


Food Outlook - May 2014

This twice-yearly report, the Food Outlook focuses on developments affecting the world’s food and feed markets and is closely associated with another major FAO publication entitled Crop Prospects and Food Situation.


The feed analysis laboratory: establishment and quality control

This publication presents the sequence of activities for establishing a Feed Quality Analysis Laboratory: from initial planning, building and layout, through hiring suitable staff and selecting methods and equipment to culminating in accreditation, based on an estimated four-year time frame.


Quinoa in the kitchen

This publication explores the ancient origins of quinoa and outlines its nutritional properties and contributions to local gastronomic traditions, food biodiversity, and smallholder farmers and producers. The recipes were provided by world-renowned chefs, with emphasis placed on ease of preparation and use of local ingredients.


Guidelines for the fisheries and aquaculture sector on damage and needs assessments in emergencies

Populations depending on fisheries and aquaculture for their livelihoods are threatened, not only by natural hazards, but also by human-induced events beyond their control. These guidelines have been developed with a wide range of partners to support post disaster damage and needs assessments in the fisheries and aquaculture sector. 


Coping with water scarcity
An action framework for agriculture and food security

This report provides a conceptual framework for addressing food security under conditions of water scarcity in agriculture. The document examines the conceptual framework on which FAO’s water scarcity programme should be based, proposes a set of definitions associated with the concept of water scarcity, and indicates the main principles that FAO should follow to best support its member countries.


Genebank Standards for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

Plant genetic resources are a strategic resource at the heart of sustainable crop production. Their efficient conservation and use is critical to safeguard food and nutrition security, now and in the future. The loss of genetic diversity reduces the options for sustainably managing resilient agriculture, in the face of adverse environments, and rapidly fluctuating meteorological conditions. Well-managed genebanks both safeguard genetic diversity and make it available to breeders. These voluntary Standards set the benchmark for current scientific and technical best practices, and support the key international policy instruments for the conservation and use of plant genetic resources.


World Livestock 2013: Changing disease landscapes

World Livestock 2013: Changing disease landscapes offers a comprehensive approach for the promotion of global health and gives greater emphasis on agro-ecological resilience, protection of biodiversity and efficient use of natural resources to ensure safer food supply chains. The publication explores three key areas:  the Pressure, including drivers and risk factors that contribute to disease emergence, spread and persistence; the State, describing the disease dynamics that result from the Pressure and their subsequent impact; and the Response, required both to adapt and improve the State and to mitigate the Pressure.


Tackling climate change through livestock 

A global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities

Greenhouse gas emissions by the livestock sector could be cut by as much as 30 percent through the wider use of existing best practices and technologies. This report represents the most comprehensive estimate made to-date of livestock’s contribution to global warming – as well as the sector’s potential to help tackle the problem. This publication is aimed at professionals in food and agriculture as well as policy makers.


Crop yield response to water

This publication lists a set of tools which provide the means to sharpen assessment and management capacities required to: compare the result of several water allocations plans; improve soil-moisture control-practices under rainfed conditions; optimize irrigation scheduling (either full, deficit or supplementary); sustainably intensify crop production; close the yield and water-productivity gaps; quantify the impact of climate variability and change on cropping systems; enhance strategies for increased water productivity and water savings; minimize the negative impact on the environment caused by agriculture. These tools are invaluable to various agricultural practitioners including, but not limited to: water managers and planners; extension services; irrigation districts; consulting engineers; governmental agencies; non-governmental organizations and farmers´associations; agricultural economists and research scientists.

Part I. Yield response to water

Part II. Crop yield response to water: Herbaceous crops


Part III. Crop yield response to water: Fruit trees & vines


Milk and dairy products in human nutrition

Milk and dairy product are not only a vital source of nutrition but they also represent livelihood opportunities for farm families, processors and other stakeholders in dairy value chains. This publication draws together information on nutrition, and dairy-industry development, providing a rich source of useful material on the role of dairy products in human nutrition and the way that investment in dairy-industry development has changed.


Food Outlook, November 2013

Food Outlook is a biannual publication focusing on developments affecting global food and feed markets. The report focuses on developments in international markets, giving comprehensive assessments and forecasts on a commodity by commodity basis. The November 2013 issue includes a special feature on the revised methodology for the Food Price Index calculation.

The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2013: The multiple dimensions of food security

The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2013 presents updated estimates of undernourishment and progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) and World Food Summit (WFS) hunger targets. The latest assessment shows that further progress has been made towards the 2015 MDG target, which remains within reach for the developing regions as a whole, although marked differences across regions persist and considerable and immediate additional efforts will be needed.

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the context of national food security

The Voluntary Guidelines promote secure tenure rights and equitable access to land, fisheries and forests as a means of eradicating hunger and poverty, supporting sustainable development and enhancing the environment. They were officially endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security on 11 May 2012. Since then implementation has been encouraged by G20, Rio+ 20, United Nations General Assembly and Francophone Assembly of Parliamentarians.

Quality Assurance for Animal Feed Analysis Laboratories

FAO Animal Production and Health Manuals

Every sector of the livestock industry, the associated services and the wellbeing of both animals and humans are influenced by animal feeding. This document gives a comprehensive account of good laboratory practices, quality assurance procedures and examples of standard operating procedures as used in individual specialist laboratories. The manual will be useful for laboratory analysts, laboratory managers, research students and teachers and it is hoped that it will enable workers in animal industry, including the aquaculture industry, to appreciate the importance of proven reliable data and the associated quality assurances approaches.

Edible insects

Future prospects for food and feed security

Launched during the International Conference on Forests for Food Security and Nutrition, this publication describes the contribution of insects to food security. It shows the many traditional and potential new uses of insects for direct human consumption and the opportunities for and constraints to farming them for food and feed. It examines the body of research on issues such as insect nutrition and food safety, the use of insects as animal feed, and the processing and preservation of insects and their products.

Trends and impacts on foreign investments in developing country agriculture 

Evidence from case studies 

Substantial increases in agricultural investments in developing countries are needed to combat poverty and realize food security and nutrition goals. In order to acquire an in-depth understanding of potential benefits, constraints and costs of foreign investment in agriculture and of the business models that are more conducive to development, FAO has undertaken research in developing countries. This publication summarizes the results of this research, in particular through the presentation of case studies on policies to attract foreign investment in agriculture and their impacts on national economic development in selected countries in Africa, Asian and Latin America.


Fishing harbour planning, construction and management

This publication should enable consultants, architects and contractors involved in any stage of design or construction of a fish landing or port to avoid the mistakes of old as it covers all the aspects of fishing port infrastructure, from inception to construction and management of the fishing port or landing once constructed. 

Part I deals with the planning required for fishing ports and includes the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, International Conventions, needs assessment and environmental auditing, all of which impact the decision-making process  during the planning stage.


Part II deals with the physical construction of the port itself and discusses issues relating to hydrographic surveys, dredging, breakwater construction, quays, slipways and construction materials. 


Part III deals with port management and covers both software (port management bodies) and the hardware (port fittings, shore based infrastructure, renewable energy and public health and hygiene) required to run the port.


Food Outlook, June 2013

Food Outlook is a biannual publication focusing on developments affecting global food and feed markets. The sub-title "Global Market Analysis" reflects this focus on developments in international markets, with comprehensive assessments and forecasts on a commodity by commodity basis.

Crop Prospects and Food Situation

Crop Prospects and Food Situation is published four times a year and focuses on developments affecting the food situation of developing countries and the Low-Income Food-Deficit Countries (LIFDCs) in particular. The report provides a review of the food situation by geographic region, a section dedicated to the LIFDCs and a list of countries requiring external assistance for food. It also includes a global cereal supply and demand overview to complement the biannual analysis in the Food Outlook publication.


Save and grow: cassava

A guide to sustainable production intensification

This is the first in a series of guides on applying FAO's ''save and grow'' model of agriculture to smallholder crops and farming systems. It illustrated the practical application of this ecosystem-based approach to profitable and sustainable cassava production.


The State of Food and Agriculture: Food systems for better nutrition

Malnutrition – in the form of undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and overweight and obesity – imposes unacceptably high economic and social costs on countries at all income levels. The causes of malnutrition are complex, yet all forms of malnutrition share one common feature: nutritionally inappropriate diets. The State of Food and Agriculture 2013 makes the case that healthy diets and good nutrition begin with food and agriculture.

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FAO in the 21st century

Ensuring food security in a changing world

This publication details our current knowledge on the complex and interrelated challenges that are compounding efforts to achieve global food security. It discusses likely implications for the food and agriculture sector and for hunger and poverty reduction efforts, including FAO's role in assisting members in the coming years.

Family Nutrition Guide

The Family Nutrition Guide is a practical guide that aims to improve the feeding and nutrition of families in developing countries. It is primarily written for health workers, nutritionists, agricultural extensionists or other development workers who design nutrition education materials and activities and work with people at community level. 


Fats and Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), in their roles as technical agencies of the United Nations (UN), are charged with providing science-based guidance on food and nutrition to national governments and the international community. 


Guidelines for measuring household and individual dietary diversity

The guidelines describe the use of the dietary diversity questionnaire at both the household and individual level, for which calculation of the score is slightly different in each case. The data collected can also be analyzed to provide information on specific food groups of interest. 


A New Deal for School Gardens

School gardens are run for a variety of reasons. Some that are gaining prominence in all parts of the world are the promotion of good diet, nutrition education, and the development of livelihood skills, together with the power to extend this learning beyond the school itself in a variety of ways. This educational focus can be an important long-term contributor to national health and food security. 


Regional Overview of Food Insecurity. Asia and the Pacific

Towards a Food Secure Asia and the Pacific

This regional overview has been prepared to take stock of the current food security situation, present the challenges of ensuring food security in the context of growing and changing patterns of food demand, and propose key measures that must be taken in a coordinated manner by different stakeholders in this very dynamic and populous part of the world. Part I presents the region’s progress in meeting the Millennium Development Goal 1 and the World Food Summit targets in reducing the proportion and number of undernourished, respectively. Part II discusses insights from a suite of indicators related to the four dimensions of food security (food availability, access to food, stability and utilization); the future outlook towards 2050; policies, actions, commitments and initiatives by countries and regional organizations to address existing and emerging food security challenges; and finally, the path ahead to eradicating hunger and ensuring food and nutrition security in the region.