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INFORMATION ABOUT THE SITUATION IN THE SHEEP-BREEDING INDUSTRY IN THE CIS COUNTRIES

Zelyatdinov, Vildan
International Wool Secretariat Moscow Office
Moscow, Russia

UKRAINE

Sheep and wool production

The sheep flock of Ukraine has decreased from about nine million heads in 1990 to less than three million heads in 1997 (Table 1). About 50 percent of Ukrainian flock are Merinos: 30 percent of the sheep produce semi-fine wool (25 to 32 microns); the remaining 20 percent are different lines, such as Karakul sheep in Southern Ukraine and mountain breeds in the Carpatian region (above 38 microns). Reproduction rates have declined from about 96 lambs per 100 ewes during the final days of Soviet era to 58 lambs nowadays. The annual clip of greasy wool is expected to be just above 10 000 tonnes in 1997. Fifty-five percent of sheep are in households (Table 2).
The direct result of such a strong decline is that wool processing mills are now unable to pay for the fibre they want to buy. The former Soviet system strictly controlled all the economy and was responsible for all the payments. Nowadays, textile mills do not obtain any financial support from the government. The mills themselves are now converted into joint-stock companies, which means that all financial operations between wool producers and wool processors are conducted on the basis of pre-payment. The government subsidies stopped three years ago, so wool textile mills were able to make pre-payment only before 1995. They are unable to do the same today despite the current low price of wool: 1 Ukrainian Hrivnya (_ 55 US cents) per kilo greasy, which used to be 24 Soviet Roubles (or nominally about US$10) in 1991.

Wool processing

Today there are 26 wool processing mills in Ukraine, including the following ones:
· two major combines (in Chemihiv and Luhansk);
· three spinning mills ( Krivy Rih, Donetsk and Sumy );
· three mills for production of non-woven wool materials;
· other mills manufacturing woollen fabrics.

There are two wool scouring mills, in Kharkiv and Chernihiv (Charnigovwool). Both are practically idle: out of seven scouring lines at Charnigovwool only one line is running, and for only three or four days a week. The quality of wool scouring at Ukrainian facilities is not high.
Table 1. Number of sheep in principal regions (mln heads)

 

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Total

8.40

7.80

7.20

6.80

5.60

4.10

Crimea

1.03

1

1

0.90

0.70

0.50

Dnepropetrovsk region

0.50

0.44

0.4

0.37

0.30

0.18

Donetsk region

0.28

0.27

0.26

0.26

0.22

0.18

Zaporozhie

0.70

0.67

0.59

0.55

0.39

0.24

Krivoi Rog region

0.35

0.33

0.28

0.25

0.22

0.15

Nikolaev region

0.40

0.37

0.33

0.29

0.25

0.19

Odessa region

0.80

0.78

0.79

0.74

0.68

0.58

Kharkov region

0.28

0.25

0.23

0.22

0.19

0.16

Kherson region

0.90

0.86

0.79

0.77

0.60

0.39

Table 2. Production of greasy wool (actual weight mln kg)

 

1986-90

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

 

average

         

Total

29.7

26.6

23.1

21.1

19.2

13.9

Crimea

4

4.1

3.8

4.2

3.1

2.2

Dnepropetrovsk regio

1.7

1.4

1.2

1.1

1

0.7

Donetsk region

1.1

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.6

Zaporozhie

3.1

2.8

2.2

2

1.8

1.1

Krivoi Rog region

1.3

1.1

1

0.7

0.8

0.6

Nikolaev region

1.6

1.4

1.3

0.9

1

0.8

Odessa region

2.8

2.6

2.5

2.6

2.6

2.4

Kharkov region

1

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.4

Kherson region

4.2

4.2

3.4

3

2.9

2.2

Goats total

       

0.015

 

BELARUS - In 1991 the total number of sheep was about 400 000 heads; as of 1. January 1997 it was about 300 000 heads. 86 percent of all sheep are in households, where the people keep from 1 to 30 sheep mainly for family needs (meat). There are practically no Merino breed. The sheep are mainly of domestic breed: coarse wool, black and dark colours of wool. There are also semi-fine breeds with wool of 25 to 32 microns. In 1997, Belarus produced 400 tonnes of greasy wool; in 1991, production was about 1 000 tonnes.

AZERBAIJAN - In 1991 the total number of sheep was 5.4 million heads; whereas today it is 4.9 million heads. In 1996, 62 percent of sheep were kept in households. The number of sheep kept by one owner is from 1 to 600 heads. The remaining 38 percent are in the co-operatives.

GEORGIA - The total number of sheep in 1991 was 1.6 million now it has drastically gone down to 100 000 heads. Eighty percent of sheep are in households. The number of sheep owned by a farmer is very small because of the difficulties in the country during the last years. Ninety-five percent of sheep are coarse wool, black meant for meat. There is a unique breed of sheep - Tushinskaya - with white carpet-type wool produced for the traditional carpet industry. In 1991 Georgia produced 4 700 tonnes of greasy wool, now it is only 500 tonnes.

KAZAKHSTAN - In 1991 the total number of sheep was 35.7 million, and in 1997 it dropped down to 15.7 million heads. In 1996, 58 percent of sheep were still in collective cooperative farms. Fifty-five percent of sheep produce Merino wool, 38 percent (and now maybe more) are sheep of local breeds with coarse wool. In 1994 Kazakhstan bought 100 rams and 400 ewes from Australia to improve the quality of wool.

KYRGIZSTAN - In 1991 the total number of sheep was 10 million heads, whereas in 1997 it was 4.3 million. In 1996, 84 percent of sheep were in households. Four to five stud-farms with 2 000 to 3 000 heads are in the state sector.

MOLDOVA - The number of sheep has not practically changed within the last seven years. In 1991 production of wool was 2 900 tonnes, and in 1997 it was 2 700 tonnes. Eighty-five percent of sheep are in households. Moldova is the country traditionally getting milk from the Tsigai breed. This branch of sheep-breeding will develop in the future.

TAJIKISTAN - In 1991 there were 3.3 million heads of sheep. Now the total is 2.0 million. In 1991 4 400 tonnes of greasy wool were produced; in 1997 it was 2 100 tonnes. The political situation is not stable, which is why there is a lack of information.

TURKMENISTAN - In 1991 the number of sheep was 5.5 million; in 1997 it was 6.5 million. In 1991, 16 300 tonnes of greasy wool were produced, in 1997 it was 18 900 tonnes. One of the main characteristics here is that 90 percent of sheep are Karakul (Astrakhan). These sheep are bred for the sake of lambs skins, which are very popular for fur overcoats.

UZBEKISTAN - Within the last seven years the number of sheep is more or less stable - 9.5 million heads in 1997. Fifty-five percent of sheep are in the private sector. The rest of the sheep are in co-operatives and state farms. Ninety-five percent are Karakul (Astrakhan) sheep (see the paragraph about Turkmenistan); the remaining 5 percent are fat-tail breeds kept for meat and fat.

RUSSIA - In 1991 the number of sheep was 58.2 million. In 1997 the number decreased to 22.7 million. The estimate goal for 1998 is 19 million heads. Fifty-two percent of sheep are in the private sector. Production of greasy wool in 1991 was 204 500 tonnes, in 1997 it was 68 000 tonnes.

CIS countries

Table 3. Sheep numbers as on 01.01.91 - 01.01.97 (mln heads)

 

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

Azerbaijan

5.4

5.3

4.9

4.5

4.6

4.5

4.9

Armenia

1.2

1

0.9

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.7

Belarus

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

Georgia

1.6

1.5

1.2

1

0.7

0.7

0.1

Kazakhstan

35.7

34.6

34.4

34.2

25.1

19.6

15.7

Kyrgizstan

10

9.5

8.7

7.3

5.1

4.1

4.3

Moldova

1.3

1.3

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.3

1.3

Russia

58.2

55.3

51.4

43.7

34.6

28

24.8

Tajikistan

3.3

3.4

3

2.9

2.5

2

2

Turkmenistan

5.5

5.6

6.3

6.3

6.6

6.5

6.5

Uzbekistan

9.2

10.1

10.3

10.4

10

9.3

9.5

Ukraine

8.4

7.8

7.2

6.9

4.1

3.3

3

Total

140.2

135.8

130.1

119.6

95.6

80.2

73.1

Table 4. Number of sheep and goats in various types of agricultural enterprises

(state farms and private sector)
correlation in % as of 01.01.91-01.01.96

 

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

 

State Private

State Private

State Private

State Private

State Private

State Private

Azerbaijan

53 47

51 49

47 53

46 54

42 58

38 62

Armenia

62 38

9 91

4 96

2 98

1 99

1 99

Belorus

47 53

41 59

36 64

26 74

20 80

14 86

Georgia

56 44

53 47

47 53

37 63

28 72

21 79

Kazakhstan

82 18

79 21

75 25

73 27

68 32

58 42

Kirgizstan

77 23

66 34

53 47

46 54

31 69

16 84

Moldova

36 64

31 69

27 73

21 79

17 83

15 85

Russia

72 28

69 31

64 36

59 41

53 47

48 52

Tajikistan

50 50

46 54

43 57

40 60

0 0

0 0

Turkmenistan

70 30

68 32

65 35

63 37

0 0

0 0

Uzbekistan

59 41

53 47

51 49

50 50

47 53

45 55

Ukraine

85 15

82 18

77 23

73 27

68 32

59 41

Table 5. Production of wool in all types of agricultural enterprises (actual weight in mln kg)

 

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

Azerbaijan

11.2

10.5

9.5

9.6

8.9

9.0

8.8

9.5

Armenia

2.8

2.4

2.1

2.1

1.7

1.5

1.5

1.7

Belarus

1.0

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.4

Georgia

6.2

4.7

4.2

3.7

3.4

3.3

3.0

0.5

Kazakhstan

107.9

104.4

96.5

94.6

75.3

58.3

40.9

32.0

Kirgizstan

39.0

36.6

33.7

31.2

21.2

14.8

12.1

12.0

Moldova

3.1

2.9

2.6

2.6

2.9

2.9

2.7

2.7

Russia

226.7

204.5

178.6

158.4

122.2

93.8

75.0

68.0

Tajikistan

4.6

4.4

3.7

3.2

3.1

2.6

2.1

2.1

Turkmenistan

16.0

16.3

16.6

18.5

19.2

19.3

18.9

18.9

Uzbekistan

25.8

25.3

27.4

26.6

24.9

19.5

18.0

18.0

Ukraine

29.8

26.6

23.1

21.1

1.3

13.9

11.1

11.0

Total

474.1

439.4

398.7

372.2

302.6

239

194.5

176.8

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