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SOME POSSIBILITIES OF HOW TO REDUCE LOSSES
IN SHEEP KEEPING

Lengyel, Lajos Nagy, Zoltán
Tóth, István Délborsod Co-operative
University of Agriculture Sciences for Fish and Sheep Farming
Faculty of Agricultural Gelej, Hungary
Engineering College
Meztúr, Hungary

ABSTRACT

---------------------------------------------
INTRODUCTION

This establishment is proved by the crisis that was typical of the past decades and the publications of the researchers (Illés B.Cs. 1995; Daróczi L. - Kukovics S. 1995; Jávor A. 1996; Lengyel L. - Tóth J. 1995) dealing with this theme.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The basic objective of the examination was to show the profitability of the branch with more than 4 000 ewes, where the crossbreeding of milking directed type-formation was 75 percent in relation to different constructions.

RESULTS

Table 1. Composition of the stock per type-construction

Type-construction

1993

1994

1995

1996

 

how many

%

how many

%

how many

%

how many

%

Merino

1 174

26

1 565

34

843

24

688

20

(Merino x Pleven Blackhead) F1

2 726

58

2 384

50

1 225

34

-

-

PlF1 selected

389

8

399

8

494

14

1 345

39

PlF1 total

3 115

66

2 783

58

1 719

48

1 345

39

PlF1 x East Friesian

382

8

392

8

688

19

-

-

PlF1 x East Friesian selected

-

-

-

-

332

9

1 401

41

PlF1 x East Friesian selected total

382

8

392

8

1 020

28

1 401

41

Total

4 678

100

4 740

100

3 582

100

3 434

100

Table 2 shows the specific milk yield per ewe per year.

Table 2. The formation of the specific milk yield per type-construction (litres/ewe)

Name

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Merino

45.1

40.0

51.0

50.1

53.7

(Merino x Pleven Blackhead) F1

49.7

65.5

72.0

87.0

-

PlF1 selected

82.9

75.1

87.0

94.7

70.1

PlF1 x East-Friesian

-

93.8

100.00

105.0

-

PlF1 x East-Friesian selected

-

-

-

115.00

112.7

Milk yield per average number of ewe

55.0

55.2

71.9

78.5

87

The formation of yield depending on the current purchasing price significantly influences the greatness of income.

Table 3. The structure of income

Name

Mutton

Milk

Wool

Rejected ewe

Expense support

Total

Examined
years

HUF
(000)

%

HUF
(000)

%

HUF
(000)

%

HUF
(000)

%

HUF
(000)

%

HUF
(000)

%

1993

10 196

56.2

5 578

30.8

1 289

7.0

50

0.3

1036

5.7

18 158

100

1994

14 155

54.7

8 018

31.0

1 038

4.1

1269

4.9

1405

5.4

25 885

100

1995

15 389

51.7

9 710

32.6

835

3.1

2106

7.1

1657

5.6

29 756

100

1996

21 870

56.7

10 857

28.2

1 211

3.2

2354

6.1

2249

5.8

38 541

100

Table 4 shows the specific income, expense and profit of the branch.

Table 4. The formation of specific expenses, income and profit of the branch in 1993-1996

Specification

Income

Production cost

Profit

 

1993

1994

1995

1996

1993

1994

1995

1996

1993

1994

1995

1996

Merino

3 022

5013

6 382

9 284

3 148

4 912

4 548

8 245

-126

602

734

1 039

(Merino x Pleven Blackhead)F1

3 910

5522

7 829

-

3 625

4 522

6 877

-

266

1 000

952

-

PlF1 selected

4 913

6153

9 807

9 920

4 211

5 030

8 439

8 860

702

1 123

1 369

1 060

Total PlF1

4 036

5612

397

9 920

3 698

4 595

7 326

8 860

338

1 017

1 072

1 060

PlF1 x East Friesian

5 324

6176

10 989

-

5 110

5 699

8 320

-

211

474

2 668

-

PlF1 East Friesian selected

-

-

9 145

13 092

-

-

7 563

11 162

-

-

1 581

1 930

Total PlF1 East-Friesian

5 324

6176

9 745

13 092

5 110

5 699

7 809

11 162

211

474

1 936

1 930

Total

3 882

5461

8 307

11 223

3 670

4 626

7 069

9 676

212

835

1 238

1 547

Total income per ewe is increasing year by year. In this yield in 1995-96 the purchasing price-increase played a significant role. The greatest income - 13 092 Ft/ewe - was reached by the Pleven F1 x East-Friesian stock. Despite the significant expenses that are typical of type-construction (as the effect of the yield and purchasing price) the profit was also the greatest.
Of course, in as much as the purchasing price of sheep-milk (which has in relation to cow-milk in the USA a 1:4 and in Spain a 1:3 ratio, has less than a 1:2 ratio in Hungary) would be similar to the sheep-milk producing western countries' purchasing price, the branch could reach much greater profit.
The income of the branch within four years increased by 2.9, while the production costs increased 2.6 times, which are reflected by the profit indices. Inasmuch as the expected alternative expenses after investments, or the underdeveloped income should be taken into account, the branch could be a lossmaker under these circumstances as well.
Conclusions can be drawn from the favourable tendency formation of indices leading to the favourable effect of type-formation breeding. In 1996 the stocks with less than 25 percent milked were not burdened by the relative great costs of unmilked stocks because of a small specific yield (Table 5).
Table 5. The funds contribution and amount per ewe

Specifi-cation

Funds contribution

Funds amount

 

1993

1994

1995

1996

1993

1994

1995

1996

 

HUF

%

HUF

%

HUF

%

HUF

%

HUF

%

HUF

%

HUF

%

HUF

%

MFM

1 007

67

2 482

89

2 878

68

5 144

82

-2.6

-

902

78

1 220

68

1 086

68

PlF1

1 425

94

2 748

98

3 810

89

-

-

504

124

1 310

113

1 508

84

-

-

PlF1 selected

2 666

176

3 629

130

5 161

121

5 529

88

946

232

1 526

132

2 014

112

1 111

69

Total PlF1

1 850

-

2 889

-

4 194

-

5 529

-

473

-

1 356

-

1 654

-

1 111

-

PlF1 x
East-Friesian

2 568

170

2 921

104

6 507

153

7 501

120

438

107

882

76

3 307

183

-

-

PlF1 x East Friesian selected

-

-

-

-

5 031

118

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 164

120

2 330

145

Total PlF1 x East Friesian

2 568

-

2 921

-

5 508

-

7 501

-

438

-

882

-

2 536

-

2 330

-

* per ewe

1 515

100

2 799

100

4 259

100

6 257

100

408

100

1 158

100

1 803

100

1 603

100

On the basis of the above-displayed data it can be determined that there was a rise of funds amount in some construction.
Funds contribution and amount were greater at PlF1 x East-Friesian and PlF1 x East-Friesian selected stocks. The above indices support the fact that the growth of surplus expenditure plays a significant role in the formation of profit.

CONCLUSIONS

· The security of profit by sheep keeping is a ground for specialization towards consistent breeding work.
· The formation of the price of sheep products (mutton, milk) is the determining factor of profitability.
· Besides the relatively favourable formation of the purchasing price of slaughtered sheep, the price of milk is relatively low compared to the European countries' prices, and we might add that reduction of export aid could put a stop to the booming of the branches.
· Continuation of type-formation crossbreeding is a possibility of further yield increase.
· Keeping of Merino stock might bring greater income and profitability if there should be favourable meat purchasing prices, but the double utilization (mutton, milk) might reduce the richness of profit acquisition.
· The branches cannot give up investments, subsidy of reconstructions either, besides the support of breeding and purchasing price.
· Participation of integrated organizations is indispensable in the development of branches.
REFERENCES

Daróczi, L. & Kukovics, S. 1995. [Shortage of the wew-milk - troubles - possibilities]. In: Magyar Juhászat [Hungarian Sheep Breeding] 1995, 10:2-3.
Illés, B.Cs. 1995. [Examination of the factors influenced the profitability of the sheep-branch, possibilities of the increasing of the competition]. In: Dissertation.
Jávor, A. 1996. [What kind of support-system do we need?] In: Magyar Juhászat [Hungarian Sheep Breeding] 1996, 7:5-7.
Lengyel, L. & Tóth, I. 1995. The results of sheep milking-equipment with reference to labour organization. In: Bulletin of the University of Agricultural Sciences I. Gödöll, pp. 333-342.
Lengyel, L. 1995. The profitability situation of sheep-milk production in Hungary. In: Cercetaaria stientifica si tehnica in spriinul dezvoltarii si restructurarii agriculturii. Timisoara. pp. 11-18.

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