全球的食物权

  巴 西

The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil explicitly guarantees the right to adequate food.

The Federative Republic of Brazil has become a State party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) in 1992 by way of accession.

CONSTITUTIONAL RECOGNITIONS OF THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD

Explicit protection of the right to adequate food

Article 6: “Education, health, food, work, housing, transportation, leisure, security, social security, protection of motherhood and childhood, and assistance to the destitute are social rights, as set forth by this Constitution.”

Art. 6º: "São direitos sociais a educação, a saúde, a alimentação, o trabalho, a moradia, o transporte, o lazer, a segurança, a previdência social, a proteção à maternidade e à infância, a assistência aos desamparados, na forma desta Constituição."

Directive principles of state policy

Article 208: “The National Government's duty towards education shall be effectuated through the guarantees of (…) VII. educational assistance in all stages of basic education by means of supplemental programs of school books, teaching materials, transportation, nutrition and health care."

Art 208: “O dever do Estado com a educação será efetivado mediante a garantia de:[...] VII - atendimento ao educando, em todas as etapas da educação básica, por meio de programas suplementares de material didáticoescolar, transporte, alimentação e assistência à saúde."

 

Article 227: “It is the duty of the family, the society and the Government to assure children and adolescents, with absolute priority, the rights to life, health, nourishment, education, leisure, professional training, culture, dignity, respect, liberty and family and community harmony, in addition to safeguarding them against all forms of negligence, discrimination, exploitation, violence, cruelty and oppression.”

Art. 227:  "É dever da família, da sociedade e do Estado assegurar à criança, ao adolescente e ao jovem, com absoluta prioridade, o direito à vida, à saúde, à alimentação, à educação, ao lazer, à profissionalização, à cultura, à dignidade, ao respeito, à liberdade e à convivência familiar e comunitária, além de colocá-los a salvo de toda forma de negligência, discriminação, exploração, violência, crueldade e opressão."

National status of international obligations

Article 5: ". The rules defining fundamental rights and guarantees apply immediately. . The rights and guarantees established in this Constitution do not exclude others derived from the regime and principles adopted by it, or from international treaties to which the Federative Republic of Brazil is a party. International treaties and conventions on human rights approved by both houses of the National Congress, in two different voting sessions, by three-fifths votes of their respective members, shall be equivalent to Constitutional Amendments."

Art. 5: "1°. As normas definidoras dos direitos e garantias fundamentais têm aplicação imediata. Os direitos e garantias expressos nesta Constituição não excluem outros decorrentes do regime e dos princípios por ela adotados, ou dos tratados internacionais em que a República Federativa do Brasil seja parte.  Os tratados e convenções internacionais sobre direitos humanos que forem aprovados, em cada Casa do Congresso Nacional, em dois turnos, por três quintos dos votos dos respectivos membros, serão equivalentes às emendas constitucionais."

Other pertinent provisions for the realization of the right to adequate food

Article 7: “The following are rights of urban and rural workers, among others that aim to improve their social conditions: 
IV – nationally unified minimum monthly wage, established by law, capable of satisfying their basic living needs and those of their families with housing, food, education, health, leisure, clothing, hygiene, transportation, and social security, with periodical adjustments to maintain its purchasing power, it being forbidden to use it as an index for any purpose;”

Art. 7º: “São direitos dos trabalhadores urbanos e rurais, além de outros que visem à melhoria de sua condição social: IV - salário mínimo , fixado em lei, nacionalmente unificado, capaz de atender a suas necessidades vitais básicas e às de sua família com moradia, alimentação, educação, saúde, lazer, vestuário, higiene, transporte e previdência social, com reajustes periódicos que lhe preservem o poder aquisitivo, sendo vedada sua vinculação para qualquer fim;"

INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) – 1948

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) – 1966

Status: Accession (1992)

Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) – 1979

Status: Ratification (1984)

Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) – 1989

Status: Ratification (1990)

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) – 2006

Status: Ratification (2008)

承认足够食物权的立法和政策

粮农组织理事会通过的并得到世界粮食安全委员会认可的《食物权准则》提供了关于如何在国家粮食安全背景下逐步实现充足食物权的指南。

考虑到可以通过各种法律和政策行动来实现获得充足食物的人权,我们邀请您访问 FAOLEX国家概况数据库, 其中收集了已经在国家一级采取的各种措施。您可能会发现一些文件是与某些相关准则相关的法规和政策,例如与获取资源和资产的准则(准则8)相关的措施,与食品安全和消费者保护准则(准则9)相关的措施,与对弱势群体的支持(准则13)相关的措施,以及与自然灾害和人为灾难(准则16)相关的措施。

您可以在下面找到明确提及食物权的政策和法规

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