Право на питание в разных странах мира

  Мексика

The Constitution of the United Mexican States explicitly guarantees the right to adequate food.

The United Mexican States have become a State party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) in 1981 by way of accession.

CONSTITUTIONAL RECOGNITIONS OF THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD

Explicit protection of the right to adequate food

Article 4: “[...] All individuals have the right to nutritional, sufficient and quality nourishment. The State shall guarantee this. [..] The State, in all decisions it makes and all actions it carries out, will safeguard and comply with the principle of doing what is in the best interest of children, thus entirely guaranteeing their rights. Boys and girls have the right to having their nutritional, health, educational and recreational needs satisfied for their proper development. This principle should guide the design, enforcement, following up and evaluation of the public policies focused on childhood. [...]” 

 

National status of international obligations

Artículo 1: “In the United Mexican States, all individuals shall be entitled to the human rights granted by this Constitution and the international treaties signed by the Mexican State [...]"

"The provisions relating to human rights shall be interpreted according to this Constitution and the international treaties on the subject, working in favor of the broader protection of people at all times. [...]”

Article 133: "This Constitution, the laws derived from and enacted by the Congress of the Union, and all the treaties made and execute by the President of the Republic, with the approval of the Senate, shall be the supreme law of the country. The judges of each state shall observe the Constitution, the laws derived from it and the treaties, despite any contradictory provision that may appear in the constitutions or laws of the states."

Other pertinent provisions for the realization of the right to adequate food

Artículo 27.XX: “The State shall provide good conditions to achieve total development in rural communities, for the purpose of creating jobs, guaranteeing welfare of the peasant population and their participation in national development.  […] The comprehensive and sustainable rural development referred to in the previous paragraph shall also include, among its aims that the State shall guarantee the sufficient and timely supply of basic nourishment established by law.”

INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) – 1948

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) – 1966

Status: Accession (1981)

Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) – 1979

Status: Ratification (1981)

Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) – 1989

Status: Ratification (1990)

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) – 2006

Status: Ratification (2007)

Законодательство и политика, признающие право на достаточное питание

Рекомендации по постепенной реализации права человека на достаточное питание в контексте национальной продовольственной безопасности содержатся в Руководящие принципы в отношении права на питание, принятых Советом ФАО и одобренных Комитетом по всемирной продовольственной безопасности.

Учитывая, что право человека на достаточное питание может быть реализовано с помощью различных правовых и политических действий, приглашаем вас посетить Страновые профили ФАОЛЕКС, где представлен широкий перечень мер, принятых на национальном уровне. Некоторые из документов, которые можно найти, это законодательство и меры политики, которые затрагивают ряд соответствующих Руководящих указаний, например, о доступе к ресурсам и активам (Руководящее указание 8), безопасности пищевых продуктов и защите потребителей (Руководящее указание 9), поддержке уязвимых групп (Руководящее указание 13) и стихийных бедствий и техногенных катастроф (Руководящее указание 16).

Ниже можно найти меры политики и законодательства, в которых прямо упоминается право на питание.

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