全球的食物权

  尼泊尔

The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal explicitly guarantees the right to adequate food.

The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal has become a State party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) in 1991 by way of accession.

CONSTITUTIONAL RECOGNITIONS OF THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD

Explicit protection of the right to adequate food

Article 36:
(1) Every citizen shall have the right relating to food.
(2) Every citizen shall have the right to be safe from the state of being in danger of life from the scarcity of food.
(3) Every citizen shall have the right to food sovereignty in accordance with law.”

Implicit protection of the right to adequate food

Article 42:
(2) Citizens who are economically very poor and communities on the verge of extinction, shall have the right to special opportunity and facilities in the areas of education, health, housing, employment, food and social security, for their protection, progress, empowerment and development.
(3) People with physical impairment shall have the right to a dignified way of life and equal access to social services and facilities, along with their diversity identity.”

Other pertinent provisions for the realization of the right to adequate food

Article 50: “(1) It shall be the political objective of the State to strengthen a federal democratic republican system to ensure an atmosphere where democratic rights are exercised by acknowledging sovereignty, independence and integrity of the country to be of utmost importance; by protecting freedom, equality, property and all citizens through rule of law; by embracing the norms and values of fundamental rights and human rights, gender equality, proportional inclusion, participation and social justice; and by maintaining a just system in all spheres of national life in order to establish a government system aimed at public welfare, while maintaining relations between federal units on the basis of cooperation between them, and internalizing the principle of inclusion in the governance system on the basis of local autonomy and decentralization,”

Article 51: “The State shall pursue the following policies:

(b) Policies regarding political and governance system:

  • (1) Guaranteeing people’s welfare and all-round-progress through economic, social and cultural transformation, while defending and strengthening political achievements and their development.
  • (2) Maintaining rule of law by protecting and practicing human rights.

(h) Policies regarding the basic needs of citizens:

  • (12) Increasing investment in the agricultural sector by making necessary provisions for sustainable productivity, supply, storage and security, while making it easily available with effective distribution of food grains by encouraging food productivity that suits the soil and climate conditions of the country in accordance with the norms of food sovereignty.”

Article 52: “It shall be the obligation of the State to maintain Nepal's independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, autonomy of Nepal, protecting and promoting fundamental rights and human rights, and to observe the directive principles of the State and gradually implementing the policies.”

INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) – 1948

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) – 1966

Status: Accession (1991)

Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) – 1979

Status: Ratification (1991)

Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) – 1989

Status: Ratification (1990)

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) – 2006

Status: Ratification (2010)

承认足够食物权的立法和政策

粮农组织理事会通过的并得到世界粮食安全委员会认可的《食物权准则》提供了关于如何在国家粮食安全背景下逐步实现充足食物权的指南。

考虑到可以通过各种法律和政策行动来实现获得充足食物的人权,我们邀请您访问 FAOLEX国家概况数据库, 其中收集了已经在国家一级采取的各种措施。您可能会发现一些文件是与某些相关准则相关的法规和政策,例如与获取资源和资产的准则(准则8)相关的措施,与食品安全和消费者保护准则(准则9)相关的措施,与对弱势群体的支持(准则13)相关的措施,以及与自然灾害和人为灾难(准则16)相关的措施。

您可以在下面找到明确提及食物权的政策和法规

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