全球的食物权

  津巴布韦

The Constitution of the Republic of Zimbabwe explicitly guarantees the right to adequate food.

The Republic of Zimbabwe has become a State party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) in 1991 by way of accession.

CONSTITUTIONAL RECOGNITIONS OF THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD

Explicit protection of the right to adequate food

Article 77: Right to food and water. - "Every person has the right to- (a) safe, clean and potable water; and (b) sufficient food; and the State must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within the limits of the resources available to it, to achieve the progressive realisation of this right.”

Article 81(1): “Every child, that is to say every boy and girl under the age of eighteen years, has the right –
(f) to education, health care services, nutrition and shelter.”

Article 50.5: "[...] (d) right to conditions of detention that are consistent with human dignity, including the opportunity for physical exercise and the provision, at State expense, of adequate accommodation, ablution facilities, personal hygiene, nutrition, appropriate reading material and medical treatment)."

Directive principles of state policy

Article 289: "Principles guiding policy on agricultural land In order to redress the unjust and unfair pattern of land ownership that was brought about by colonialism, and to bring about land reform and the equitable access by all Zimbabweans to the country's natural resources, policies regarding agricultural land must be guided by the following principles-- (e) the use of agricultural land should promote food security, good health and nutrition and generate employment, while protecting and conserving the environment for future generations.”

Article 19 (2): “The State must adopt reasonable policies and measures, within the limits of the resources available to it, to ensure that children – 

(b) have shelter and basic nutrition, health care and social services.”

 

National status of international obligations

Article 326:1. Customary international law is part of the law of Zimbabwe, unless it is inconsistent with this Constitution or an Act of Parliament. 2. When interpreting legislation, every court and tribunal must adopt any reasonable interpretation of the legislation that is consistent with customary international law applicable in Zimbabwe, in preference to an alternative interpretation inconsistent with that law.”

Other pertinent provisions for the realization of the right to adequate food

Article 3 (1): “Zimbabwe is founded on respect for the following values and principles – 
(c) fundamental human rights and freedoms.” 

Article 11: “The State must take all practical measures to protect the fundamental rights and freedoms enshrined in Chapter 4 and to promote their full realisation and fulfillment.”

Article 15: “The State must – 
(a) encourage people to grow and store adequate food; 
(b) secure the establishment of adequate food reserves; and 
(c) encourage and promote adequate and proper nutrition through mass education and other appropriate means.” 

Article 21 (2): “The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must endeavour, within the limits of the resources available to them 
(b) to provide facilities, food and social care for elderly persons who are in need.”

INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) – 1948

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) – 1966

Status: Accession (1991)

Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) – 1979

Status: Accession (1991)

Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) – 1989

Status: Ratification (1990)

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) – 2006

Status: Accession (2013)

承认足够食物权的立法和政策

粮农组织理事会通过的并得到世界粮食安全委员会认可的《食物权准则》提供了关于如何在国家粮食安全背景下逐步实现充足食物权的指南。

考虑到可以通过各种法律和政策行动来实现获得充足食物的人权,我们邀请您访问 FAOLEX国家概况数据库, 其中收集了已经在国家一级采取的各种措施。您可能会发现一些文件是与某些相关准则相关的法规和政策,例如与获取资源和资产的准则(准则8)相关的措施,与食品安全和消费者保护准则(准则9)相关的措施,与对弱势群体的支持(准则13)相关的措施,以及与自然灾害和人为灾难(准则16)相关的措施。

您可以在下面找到明确提及食物权的政策和法规

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