Communication Knowledge

April 2001

Strategic approaches to HIV prevention and AIDS mitigation in rural communities and households in Sub-Saharan Africa

Part 4

1 2 3 4

Annex 1: A pyramid of involvement by PWHAs47

The pyramid shows the increasing levels of involvement of PWHA. The GIPA principle advocates for involvement at all levels.

Annex 2: Cooperation Framework UNAIDS/FAO

Cooperation Framework
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO)

Whereas it is FAO's constitutional mandate to improve food production and distribution as well as the condition of rural population and to promote international action for the implementation of the Plan of Action adopted by the World Food Summit;

Whereas UNAIDS has been given the primary task of mobilizing a broad-based response to the global health and development challenges posed by HIV/AIDS, in view of the fact that the HIV epidemic has reached every country in the world, and more than 95 percent of all HIV-infected people live in the rural and urban areas of developing countries;

Whereas FAO and UNAIDS recognise that it is in their mutual interest to intensify cooperation between themselves and to establish appropriate working procedures to that effect;

Now, therefore, FAO and UNAIDS have agreed as follows:

  1. The purpose of this Cooperation Framework is to strengthen co-operation between the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). This Cooperation Framework recognises the expertise of each institution and seeks to establish operational and practical modalities of cooperation in order to alleviate the impact of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) on food security and to reduce vulnerability to HIV/AIDS through sustainable rural development.

  2. FAO and UNAIDS recognize the need to take advantage of their respective comparative advantages in order to develop cooperation under the terms of this Cooperation Framework. In this regard, the two institutions are committed to mobilizing and carrying out a broad-based response to the problem of HIV/AIDS in relation to agricultural development and food security.

  3. In the interest of promoting smooth and productive collaboration between UNAIDS and FAO, the following principles will govern their relationship in order to define specific mechanisms that will facilitate collaboration and cooperation. Since UNAIDS and FAO constitute centers of expertise for the United Nations (UN) system in their respective fields of endeavor, specialists of the two institutions will collaborate directly, both at Headquarters and in the field.

  4. At the country level, UNAIDS works through UN Theme Groups on HIV/AIDS, Country Programme Advisers, and Intercountry Teams. In its effort to lead the expanded response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, UNAIDS works in partnership with governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the business sector as well as its seven Co-Sponsors (UNICEF, UNDP, UNDCP, UNFPA, UNESCO, WHO, and the World Bank), and other regional and international bodies. In its efforts to increase agricultural production and improve food security, FAO works in partnership with governments, regional organizations, international organizations, NGOs and, where appropriate, with the private sector. All these partners constitute vital links for the facilitation, and development of an effective cooperation network.

  5. UNAIDS and FAO will formally inform their respective teams of field staff of this Cooperation Framework and will provide appropriate additional guidance for cooperation at the field level. Both FAO and UNAIDS are fully committed to collaborating and working with the UN Country Teams, which offer opportunities to conduct in a systematic manner exchange of expertise and to develop joint initiatives and strategic planning where possible.
  6. FAO and UNAIDS will undertake a series of joint activities such as:
  7. UNAIDS and FAO will continue the practice of regular attendance at the meetings of each other's governing bodies, interagency coordination meetings and working-level technical meetings in areas of mutual concern, including through the Network on Rural Development and Food Security of the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC).
  8. In order to permit a regular review of the implementation of this Cooperation Framework and to encourage a regular consultation process, a one-day meeting will be convened once a year, alternating between the Headquarters of FAO and the Secretariat of UNAIDS.
  9. This Cooperation Framework will take effect on the date of signature indicated below. It may be modified at the request of any of the parties by mutual agreement.

For the Joint United Nations
Programme on HIV/AIDS


For the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United
Nations (FAO)



Academy for Educational Development. 1999. Potential uses of food aid to support HIV/AIDS mitigation activities in Sub-Saharan Africa, Draft paper prepared by Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance.

ACTIONAID Kenya. 1996. HIV/AIDS Situation Analysis, by Ngugi E. from the University of Nairobi and Kenya Voluntary Women Rehabilitation Institute

Aubel, J. 1994. Guidelines for studies using the group interview technique, Training papers in population and family welfare education in the worksetting, International Labour Office (ILO) in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).

Barnett, T. & Blaikie, P.M. 1992. AIDS in Africa: its present and future impact. London, UK, Belhaven Press.

Bijlsma, M. 1997. Living positively: nutrition guide for people with HIV/AIDS, Second Edition, Mutare City Health Department, Zimbabwe.

Donahue, J. 1998. Community-based economic support for households affected by HIV/AIDS, Discussion Paper #6 on HIV/AIDS Care and Support, USAID.

Hemrich, G. 1997. HIV/AIDS as a cross-sectoral issue for technical cooperation. GTZ HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control in Developing Countries Paper No. 1, 1997.

ILO. June 2000. HIV/AIDS: a threat to decent work, productivity and development, Document for discussion at the Special High-Level Meeting on HIV/AIDS and the World of Work, International Labour Conference, 8 June 2000, International Labour Office, Geneva, 2000. Also available on the Internet at the following address:

Kelly, M. J. 2000. The encounter between HIV/AIDS and education, University of Zambia, Lusaka.

Matlin, S. A. (date unknown) HIV/AIDS and education: mobilising action, Commonwealth secretariat, London, United Kingdom.

FAO HIV/AIDS publications

FAO (1993) The socio-economic impact of AIDS on rural families in Uganda, with an emphasis on the youth by Topouzis, D., FAO Rome.

1994 What has AIDS to do with agriculture? by Haslwimmer, M., FAO, Rome.

1995. The effects of AIDS on farming systems in Eastern Africa by Barnett, T. & Haslwimmer, M., FAO, Rome.

1996. Fighting AIDS in rural areas: Why and how should extension workers help, Ideas Book, SDRE/FAO, Rome.

January 1997. The impact of HIV/AIDS on rural households/communities and the need for multisectoral prevention and mitigation strategies to combat the epidemic in rural areas (with special emphasis on Africa), by Eric Baier, FAO, Rome.

November 1997. Impact du VIH/SIDA sur les systemes d'exploitations agricoles en afrique de l'Ouest, by Black, M., FAO, Rome.

December 1997 The rural people of Africa confronted with AIDS: a challenge to development (Summary of FAO studies on AIDS), FAO, Rome.

FAO/UNDP. 1998. The implications of HIV/AIDS for rural development policy and programming: focus on Sub-Saharan Africa, by D. Topouzis, FAO, Rome. Also available on the Internet at the following address:

1998. Rural children living in farm systems affected by HIV/AIDS: some issues for the rights of the child on the basis of FAO HIV/AIDS studies in Africa, by J. du Guerny. Paper presented at the UNHCR Committee on the Rights of the Child: day discussion on "Children living in world with AIDS", FAO, Rome. Also available on the Internet at the following address:

1999. HIV/AIDS and the commercial agricultural sector of Kenya - impact, vulnerability, susceptibility and coping strategies, by G. Rugalema with S. Weigang and J. Mbwika, FAO/UNDP,. Also available on the Internet at the following address:

1999. AIDS and agriculture: can agricultural policy make a difference, by J. du Guerny, FAO, Rome.

FAO/UNAIDS. September 1999. Sustainable agricultural/rural development and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, by D. Topouzis and J. du Guerny, FAO/UNAIDS joint publication

2000. HIV/AIDS in Namibia: the impact on the livestock sector, by Engh, I., Stloukal, L. & du Guerny, J., FAO, Rome.

(forthcoming) HIV/AIDS and nutrition: helping families cope, by F. Egal and A. Valstar, FAO, Rome.

FAO communication for development publications

1999. Voices for change, by Balit, S. in collaboration with the Communication for Development Group Extension, Education and Communication Service, FAO, Rome

1994. Communication: a key to human development, by Fraser, C. & Villet, J. in collaboration with the Communication for Development Group, FAO, Rome

1994. Applying DSC methodologies to population issues: a case study in Malawi, by Decock, A., Kavinya, A. and Alam, S., Communication for Development Case Study 12. Extension, Education and Communication Service, Research, Extension and Training Division Sustainable Development Department

1995. Understanding farmers' communication networks: an experience in the Philippines, Communication for Development Case Study 14, Extension, Education and Communication Service, Research, Extension and Training Division Sustainable Development Department.

1996. Artists as Experts: a participatory methodology to produce traditional and popular media. Based on population communication experiences in Africa, by Decock, A. and Van Poelje, R. Communication for Development Branch, Population Programme service.

1998. Knowledge and information for food security in Africa: from traditional media to the internet, Communication for Development Group, FAO Extension, Education and Communication Service, Research, Extension and Training Division Sustainable Development Department

1998. The first mile of connectivity. Advancing telecommunications for rural development through a participatory communication approach. by Richardson, D. and Paisley, L. in collaboration with the FAO Extension, Education and Communication Service, Research, Extension and Training Division Sustainable Development Department Communication for Development

Hegle, J. (November 1999) Factoring HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation into the programming of SG 2000 in Malawi, in collaboration with Global 2000-Carter Center Task Force for Child Survival and Development

Jenkins, C. & Mugrditchian, D. (August 1994) STD/AIDS prevention among commercial sex and transport workers in Papua New Guinea, Paper drafted in collaboration with the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research and AIDSCAP/ Family Health International

Okatcha, K. 1999. The impact of AIDS on older people, in The Courier Africa-Caribbean, Pacific European Union

Over, M. 1998. Coping with the impact of AIDS. AIDS Analysis Africa (Southern Africa Edition), 9 (3)

PANOS. 1992. The hidden cost of AIDS. London.

Piotrow, T.P. et al, . 1997. Health communication: lessons from family planning and reproductive health, Praeger, Westport-Connecticut-London.

Pisani, E. December 1999. AIDS in the 21st Century: some critical considerations, in SAfAIDS News Vol. 7, No.4 December 1999. Also available on the Internet at the following address:

Restrepo-Estrada, S. & Fraser, C. 1998. Communicating for development: human change for survival. London: I.B. Tauris Publishers.

Royal Tropical Institute. 1999. Draft Workshop Report: The impact of AIDS of food security, organised by TANESA, Mwanza, Tanzania, Lake Zone ARI Ukiriguru Client Oriented Research Project, Mwanza, Tanzania, ARI Maruku, Bukoba, Tanzania & Royal tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Rugalema, G. 1998. It is not only the loss of labour: HIV/AIDS, loss of household assets and household livelihood in Bukoba district, Tanzania, Paper presented at the East and Southern Africa Regional Conference on Responding to HIV/AIDS: Development needs of African Smallholder Agriculture, Harare (June 8-10)

SADC-CCD/FAO. 1998. Participatory rural communication appraisal: starting with the people, by Anyaegbunam, C., Mefalopulos, P. & Moetsabi, T. in collaboration with the SADC Centre of Communication for Development, Harare, and the Food and Agricultural Organisation, Rome.

SAfAIDS & Commercial farmers union. 1996. Orphans on farms: Who cares? An exploratory study into foster care for orphans children on commercial farms in Zimbabwe, SAfAIDS, Harare.

SAfAIDS. 1999. "ILO tackles HIV/AIDS at workplace", in SAfAIDS News Vol.7, No.4, December 1999, SAfAIDS, Harare, Zimbabwe.

"The impact of HIV/AIDS: a case study of SAfAIDS", in SAfAIDS News, Vol.7, No.4, December 1999, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Sauerborn, R. et. al (1996) "Household strategies to cope with the economic costs of illness", Social Science and Medicine, 43 (11).

UNAIDS. (September 1995). Report from a consultation on the socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS on households (Chiangmai-Thailand), UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Also available on the Internet at the following address:

April 1997. Community mobilization and AIDS, Technical Update, Best Practice Collection, UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland.

1998. Expanding the global response to HIV/AIDS through focused action. Reducing risk and vulnerability: definitions, rationale and pathways. Key Material, Best Practice Collection, UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland.

July 1998. HIV/AIDS and the workplace: forging innovative business responses, Technical Update, Best Practice Collection, UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland.

October 1998. AIDS education through IMAMS: a spiritually motivated community effort in Uganda, UNAIDS Case Study, UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland.

March 1999. Funding priorities for the HIV/AIDS crisis in Thailand, UNAIDS Best Practice Collection, UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland.

March 1999. HIV/AIDS prevention in the context of new therapies. Report of a meeting organised by UNAIDS and the AIDS Research Institute of the University of California at San Francisco, Geneva 23-24 February 1998. Key Material, Best Practice Collection, UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland.

June 1999. Comfort and Hope: Six case studies on mobilizing family and community care for and by people with HIV/AIDS. UNAIDS Best Practice Collection, UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland.

June 1999. Acting early to prevent AIDS: the case of Senegal. Key Material, Best Practice Collection, UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland.

September 1999. From principle to practice. Greater involvement of people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS (GIPA), by Roey, J., UNAIDS Best Practice Collection, Geneva, Switzerland.

December 1999. Peer education and HIV/AIDS: Concepts, uses and challenges. Key Material, Best Practice Collection, UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland.

December 1999. Statement of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS at the Third World Trade Organisation Ministerial Conference Seattle, UNAIDS Document, UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Also available on the Internet at the following address:

1999. A review of household and community responses to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa, by Mutangadura, G., Mukurazita, D. & Jackson, H., UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland.

1999. Draft Guidelines for preparation and execution of studies of the social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS, by Barnett, T. & Whiteside, A., UNAIDS Best Practice Collection, Geneva, Switzerland.

April 2000. HIV/AIDS and the education sector, Paper presented at the Fifteenth Meeting of the Committee of Cosponsoring Organizations (CCO) 8 April 2000, Rome.

UNFPA (April 1999) Support to HIV/AIDS-related interventions, Part I: Approaches to integrate HIV/AIDS concerns into UNFPA programme, Issue 11, UNFPA

Support to HIV/AIDS-related interventions, Part II: HIV/AIDS-related training, Issue 12 , UNFPA.

Support to HIV/AIDS-related interventions, Part IV: IEC and Advocacy, Issue 14, UNFPA.

Wageningen Agricultural University. April 1999. Conference Communique: AIDS, livelihood and social change in Africa. Position papers also available on the Internet at the following address:

Whiteside, A. June 1996. The HIV/AIDS epidemic: background, implications and concepts. Background paper prepared for the workshop Including HIV/AIDS in Development AID, June 1996.

World Bank. 1993. The impact of HIV/AIDS on African development, by Ainsworth, M. AFTHR. Washington, DC, USA

1998. The economics of AIDS Policy, in Policy and Research Bulletin Vol.9, Number 1, January-March 1998.

1999. Strategy Paper Intensifying action against HIV/AIDS in Africa: Responding to a development crisis, Africa Region, World Bank.

Useful HIV/AIDS websites

Activist organisations and links

Beyond Awareness Campaign

Global Network of people living with HIV/AIDS (GNP+)

International Council of AIDS Service Organisations (ICASO)

For more links see the UNAIDS website.

Conference sites

XIII International AIDS Conference, Durban

"AIDS, Livelihood and Social Change in Africa" Wageningen, 15-16 April 1999 (conference position papers)

United Nations Organisations

Food and Agricultural Organisation

International Labour Organisation

Joint UN Programme on AIDS

United Nations Development Programme and

United Nations Education, Social and Cultural Organisation

United Nations Population Fund

World Health Organisation

World Bank Programme on AIDS


Family Health International

European Union AIDS Programme

Health And Development Networks



Christian Aid-UK

The Communication Initiative


International AIDS Economic Network

Fondation du Present

Africa Southern Africa AIDS Information Dissemination Service (SAfAIDS)

Global forums




Regional forums


AF-AIDS (Africa)

Topic-specific areas



Community Research

Human R ights


National forums

Zambia (Health-L)

Bangladesh (Shohojogi)


1See "FAO and the socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS on Agriculture" (updated 1998) for a history of FAO activities and research in the area of HIV/AIDS. In 1993-1994 FAO conducted a first set of studies in East Africa to determine the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on agriculture: "The effects of HIV/AIDS on farming systems in East Africa" (FAO 1995). This paper can also be found on the internet:
2"In 1982, there was only 1 country in Africa, Uganda, with an adult prevalence rate higher than 2%. Today there are 21 countries with prevalence rates of more than 7%."( World Bank, Dec. 1999)
3From now on, whenever needs will be mentioned in this paper the author would like to show that she is clearly aware of the problematic definition in that there is no clear-cut, homogenous, fit-for- all "need". Hence, the definition of "need" is open to discussion as well as to subjective interpretations.
4There is an urgent need for more action- research to define the types of problems encountered, to identify the different needs of families (particularly of orphan-headed households), communities and support groups and consequently to plan a participatory process of problem-solving and socially appropriate interventions.
5From now on FAO will be referred to as the Organisation, unless otherwise specified.
6Stakeholders are the people the project, programme or intervention is trying to involve and assist. Stakeholders are those people who have a particular interest in solving a specific problem or improving a situation.
7See Annex 2 describing the Pyramid of Involvement of People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) developed by UNAIDS.
8Agricultural education and training policies need to take into account the gender implications and socio-economic impact of the epidemic on rural households and communities.
9This should not mean excluding those households perhaps not affected by AIDS-driven poverty yet still in dire straits and equally in need of assistance.
10Community ownership of programmes is critical for success therefore programmes need to be based on the felt needs with active participation of those whose livelihoods are most affected.
11This approach is in line with the "Call for Action for the children left behind by AIDS " drafted by UNAIDS, UNICEF and the BLCA in December 1999 in occasion of World AIDS DAY.
12From a personal communication with Robert van Poelje 1999, from KIT, the Royal Tropical Institute in The Netherlands
13This paper is available on the internet at the following website:
14"A shock to an existing system of livelihood at the national, regional, communal or household level which reduces the levels and expectations of life and welfare. It may mean the dissolution of the unit and involve the loss of individuals from poverty related causes other than as a direct result of HIV/AIDS illness or death." taken from Draft "Guidelines for preparation and execution of studies of the social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS", prepared by A. Whiteside and T. Barnett for the UNAIDS Best Practice Collection (1999).
15"Age and sex distribution of the labour force will change, due to the rising number of widows and orphans seeking a livelihood and the large proportion of people with AIDS in the age group 20-49 years, resulting in early entry of children into the active labour force due to economic need" (ILO: June 2000). The entire report is also available on the new ILO website on AIDS:
16For more information on the impact of HIV/AIDS on households see "The impact of HIV/AIDS on rural households/communities and the need for multi-sectoral prevention and mitigation strategies to combat the epidemic in rural areas"(Baier FAO: 1997)
17The impact of HIV/AIDS begins as soon as a member of a household starts to suffer from HIV-related illnesses and worsens after death.
18A recent study carried out by FAO in Namibia demonstrated that HIV/AIDS affects livestock production by: decreasing management of livestock resources, decreasing ability to control livestock pests and diseases, prompting the loss or impeding the transfer of livestock in accordance with inheritance norms, increasing the sale and slaughter of livestock (sacrifices, funerals), diminishing availability and consumption of livestock products, and finally by reducing the transactions and sales of livestock and their products. (Engh, Stloukal & duGuerny 2000). This paper is also available from the internet:
19For purely analytical purposes the author has distinguished between prevention of HIV and mitigation of the impact of AIDS, unless otherwise specified.
20Communities can be grouped in pre-impact incidences of infections but the impact is not yet visible; early-impact: the impact is visible but community and household coping strategies are still effective; and full-impact: breakdown of socio-traditional coping strategies. (Baier FAO: 1997)
21In Africa, 23 countries fall into this category. "HIV in these countries remains predominantly in groups whose behaviour places them at high risk but has the potential to spread rapidly to the general population. " ( World Bank 1999)
22For more information on prevention see the recommendations listed in a Paper prepared by UNAIDS: "HIV/AIDS prevention in the context of new therapies" , Report of a meeting organized by UNAIDS and the AIDS Research Institute of the University of California at San Francisco, UNAIDS 1999.
23Concerns can be raised on this approach. However, the intention of this exercise should be (1) to foster the active participation of PLWHA and affected families/communities and (2) contribute to breaking the standardised fear and stigmatisation of PLWHA, i.e. moving from the view that PLWHA are victims/patients/passive to a more positive view that PLWHA can be knowledgeable/active participants in society by contributing to the education and learning of others.
24 As mentioned above these would need to be identified during the research process. The ones presented have been identified only to give the reader an idea of the various types and levels of needs. Inevitably the nature and content of the needs will be context- specific as well as actor-specific.
25Education as it is intended here is about learning skills, knowledge, values, decision making, problem-solving, life skills. It is not necessarily in-school education, and neither is it intended to exclude adults. On the contrary the definition of of education
26This does not mean that programmes and activities can take place only if there is an enabling policy environment.
27The policy document is also available at the following internet address:
28Initiating prevention programmes in schools, will allow many teachers and students, are already affected by HIV/AIDS, to get more involved in the fight against the epidemic. It would also create a forum for social dialogue on issues related to sexuality in general and HIV/AIDS in particular.
29The model used to develop a strategic communication can also be adapted to education.
30For more information on the Rural Youth Programme see the website address:
31An example of a sound peer education programme is the Save Your Generation Association in Ethiopia. The goal of the association was to change health behaviours of out-of-school young people through peer education. This was achieved through the use of puppet drama, educational materials, training of peer counsellors/educators, youth income generating projects and advocacy. (see UNAIDS website for more details)
32In line with the Strategic Framework for FAO 2000-2015 corporate strategy A.3. Preparedness for, and effective and sustainable response to, food and agricultural emergencies states: "The challenge is to increase the resilience and capacity of countries and their populations to cope with the impacts of disasters that affect national and household food security, and when disasters do occur, to contribute to emergency operations and foster the transition from relief to recovery of the food and agricultural sectors."(FAO 1999:15)
33Definition: "A group of people who have something in common and will act together in their common interest" (UNAIDS 1999, Best Practice Collection on Community Mobilization). Although definitions do facilitate common understanding, we must beware of externally constructed definitions for they are usually incomplete. People must identify themselves as belonging to a community.
34For further details on Project Hope, see the UNAIDS website: in the publications section.
35In addition, projects supporting agricultural extension services need to review the impact of HIV/AIDS both in terms of increased mortality among agricultural extension staff, but also in terms of the reduction of the work time as a result of the increase in funeral attendance. For more information on this topic see FAO/UNDP study on HIV/AIDS and the commercial agriculture sector of Kenya by Rugalema (1999)
36Research-based prevention, care, support and impact-mitigation activities are the inseparable ingredients of a meaningful response to HIV/AIDS.
37For further details see the Telefood website:
38These recommendations are in line with the corporate strategies presented in the Strategic Framework for FAO 2000-2015. A.1: Sustainable rural livelihoods and more equitable access to resources; A.2: Access of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups to sufficient, safe and nutritionally adequate food.A.3. Preparedness for and effective and sustainable response to food and agricultural emergencies
39For more information on this topic see IMAU FAEPTI Project (UNAIDS) as a good example for diversification of income. 40FAO, UNDP and the World Bank have developed a Socio-Economic and Gender Analysis (SEAGA) training programme to help countries formulate gender-responsive, pro-poor and environmentally sustainable programmes. For more information on SEAGA see the corresponding website:
41An example is the website developed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Asia Pacific Development Information Programme (APDIP) on HIV and Development in Asia and the Pacific:
42The Guidelines for preparation and execution of studies of the social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS prepared by Whiteside and Barnett (UNAIDS 1998) deal with the question of assessing socio-economic impact. The document provides the basic concepts to guide thinking about the social and economic implications of HIV/AIDS, to assist those planning or commissioning socio-economic impact studies and consequently to develop effective responses to the immediate and long-term impacts.
43This does not imply that that there is a need to shift from high-input to low input in all AIDs-relates contexts, on the contrary, it should only take place where no other solution can be found. High-input could still be feasible in high prevalence areas if group formations are encouraged along with rotating work shemes so that the tasks are well distributed according to the special requirements of PLWHA and their caretakers.
44Two conferences have dealt with the need for a new agricultural research agenda, they are: (1) The Regional Conference for Eastern and Southern Africa held in Zimbabwe in June 19998 entitled "Responding to HIV/AIDS: technology Development Needs of African Smallholder Agriculture. The other one is the Conference AIDS, Livelihood, and Social Change in Africa which took place in Wageningen, the Netherlands April 1999, addressed the issue of a new agricultural agenda.
45Extension can assist farm households and specific target beneficiaries most affected to become organized into functional groups and community organizations (commodity groups, cooperatives)
46There is an urgent need to refocus farming research towards needs of youths, widows and widowers, elderly and orphans instead of exclusive attention for healthy, middle aged male farmers
47Source adapted from: From principle to practice. Greater involvement of People Living With or Affected by HIV/AIDS (GIPA). UNAIDS Best Practice collection (1999).

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