Communication for development Knowledge

Posted July 1999

Special: The first mile of connectivity

Editors, contributors


The Editors

Foreword
1. Introduction

  • Why the first mile?
  • Telecommunication services and stakeholders
    2. Lessons learned
  • Communication for sustainable development
  • Eyes see; ears hear
  • Participatory rural communications appraisal
  • Radio and video
  • State media for democratic development
    3. Technologies
  • Telecommunications for sustainable development
  • Rural telecommunications in Africa
  • Integrated rural development through telecommunications
    4. Applications
  • Internet and rural development
  • Participatory approaches to rural connectivity
  • Empowering communities
  • Rural telecentres
  • Training community animators
  • Video conferencing
  • Connecting with the unconnected
    5. Policies
  • Global information infrastructure
  • Rural networking cooperatives
  • Public and private interests
    Editors, contributors
  • Don Richardson

    Don Richardson is an associate professor with the School of Rural Extension Studies, Faculty of Environmental Design and Rural Development, University of Guelph, Canada. He is also the Director of the University of Guelph's Don Snowden Program for Development Communication. His experience includes rural development initiatives involving participatory access to communication technologies such as video, community radio and print media. In recent years he has dedicated much of his time to advancing rural telecommunications for development in Canada and around the world, including rural telephone and rural Internet project work and research in countries such as Egypt, the Philippines, Haiti, Ghana, Senegal, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Mexico and Chile.

    Dr Richardson currently manages a Canadian International Development Project, "Institutional Strengthening for the Dikirnis Development Support Communication Centre" in rural Egypt. He is also the Director of International Projects with the TeleCommons Development Group, a consulting firm specializing in rural telecommunications for development. His consultancy work has included assignments with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the Canadian International Development Agency, the International Development Research Centre, and SR Telecom, a rural wireless telephone equipment manufacturer based in Canada.

    Don Richardson
    School of Rural Extension Studies
    University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada
    Tel: 519-824-4120 ext. 3811; Fax: 519-836-9941
    E-mail: drichard@uoguelph.ca or don@tdg.ca
    WWW: http://www.oac.uoguelph.ca/res or http://www.telecommons.com

    Lynnita Paisley

    Lynnita Paisley is currently a project director with Mission Aviation Fellowship (MAF), a non-governmental organization that works closely with the Red Cross and other relief agencies to provide aerial lifelines, delivering medicines, food water, and other critical supplies. Mission Aviation also oversees the MAFnet global communications network with more than 70 hubs, carrying more than two million messages a month. Her responsibilities with MAF include project management for a management training programme in Angola, and liaison between MAF and international agencies.

    Ms Paisley is currently completing her M.Sc. in Rural Extension Studies at the University of Guelph, Canada. She has many years of professional writing and editorial experience. Prior to beginning her M.Sc. she spent three years working on development projects and teaching assignments in Ghana. When not travelling for work or spending time on her MSc, she contributes her time to her family farm, Laurenda Holsteins, in Beaverton, Ontario, Canada.

    School of Rural Extension Studies
    University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada
    Tel: 519-824-4120 ext. 6121; Fax: 519-836-9941
    E-mail: lpaisley@uoguelph.ca
    WWW: http://www.oac.uoguelph.ca/res


    Contributors

    Jon Anderson

    Jon Anderson is a forestry extension officer with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). He is involved in a number of FAO activities, including facilitating the development of effective, participatory and efficient extension and rural support systems for natural resource management and has about 20 years of experience in Africa with different types of organizations in integrated participatory natural resource management activities which included communication for development, extension and policy activities.

    Jon Anderson
    FORC, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy
    E-mail: Jon.Anderson@fao.org
    WWW: http://www.fao.org/fo

    Chike Anyaegbunam

    Chike Anyaegbunam is the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' (FAO) Regional Communication Training Adviser to the Southern African Development Community's (SADC) Centre of Communication for Development based in Harare, Zimbabwe. He is the creator of Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal (PRCA), an innovative communication research methodology for human and rural development purposes. He is also the designer of an experiential communication-training programme for extension officers and other rural development workers in the Southern Africa region and beyond.

    Mr Anyaegbunam holds a doctorate degree in communication from the University of Iowa, with specialization in instructional design, participatory communication and developing development. He has worked as a communication trainer and adviser with a variety of international development agencies, including UNICEF and USAID. Between 1988 and 1993, he edited two University of Iowa publications, Journal of communication inquiry (1993) and international studies newsletter of the Center for International and Comparative Studies. He is the author of several academic papers, including From domination to participation: political democracy and broadcast media ownership/ control in Nigeria which won the best student paper award at the 1991 American Broadcasting Education Association (BEA) Annual Convention in Las Vegas, USA.

    Chike Anyaegbunam

    SADC Centre of Communication for Development
    FAO Project GCP/RAF/297/ITA
    SAFR, Box 3730, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Phone; 263-4-722723/722734; Fax: 263-4-795345 or 722713
    WWW: http://www.zimbabwe.net/sadc-fanr/sccd/sccd.htm

    David Barr

    David Barr is a rural telecommunication specialist and consultant. He is a professional engineer with postgraduate studies in technical engineering, telecommunications management and financial studies at Queen's University and Cornell University. His current consulting roles include work with SR Telecom Inc. on many telecommunications related projects in Canada and internationally. In Canada he represents SR Telecom with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), Industry Canada and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). Internationally he represents SR Telecom on projects in Asia and Latin America, together with representation to the International Tele- communications Union, Development Sector, with a specific role on questions related to communications for rural and remote areas. He is also the Telecom Specialist for a CIDA Project in India executed by Agriteam Canada.

    Mr Barr had an extensively diversified and interesting 32 year career with Bell Canada including overseeing the technological evolution of Bell's network, and management and technical direction of Bell's research and development programme. Following his career at Bell Canada he worked with Digital Equipment Canada providing sales support to Digital Equipment's Bell Canada and Telecom Canada Stentor sales account team. He has also carried out consulting projects for the Telecommunications Executive Management Institute of Canada (TEMIC) and the Telecommunications Research Institute of Ontario (TRIO). Mr Barr operates a farm near Ottawa, Ontario, Canada and is very familiar with the reality of "teleworking" from a rural area.

    David Barr
    Southdean Farm
    10031 Hyndman Road, RR #2
    Mountain, Ontario K0E 1S0, Canada
    Tel: 613-989-1720; Fax: 613-989-1721 -or- 613-989-1644
    E-mail: dave.barr@sympatico.ca
    WWW: http://www.srtelecom.com

    L. Van Crowder

    L. Van Crowder is Senior Officer, Communication for Development, Extension, Education and Communication Service, FAO. Before joining FAO in 1993, he was associate professor of agricultural communication and education at the University of Florida, USA. Positions that he has held during 20 years of working in communication, education and extension include technology generation and transfer specialist with the Inter-American Association for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) in Jamaica and rural communication and extension advisor with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in Bolivia.

    L. Van Crowder
    SDRE
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy
    E-mail: loyvan.crowder@fao.org
    WWW: http://www.fao.org/sd

    David Dion

    David Dion is Information Technology Officer at the Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean of the FAO. Prior to this posting, he was running the Field Support Unit of the Computer Division at FAO Headquarters in Rome, responsible for providing technical support in communications and computing to all FAO field offices and projects. Before joining FAO, he was the director of Inter Press Service Telecommunications, providing network and communications services to the Inter Press Service international news wire organization. He has also worked as a correspondent and senior editor for Inter Press Service.

    Andrew Dymond

    Andrew (Andy) Dymond is a senior business strategist and planning consultant in telecommunications and information technology with Teleconsult. As both an economist and a professional engineer, he combines a broad technical background with qualifications in development economics and marketing experience in the telecommunications industry.

    With extensive experience in sector reform, policy development, market analysis and business planning, Mr Dymond specializes in the development and commercialization of rural telecommunications services and has earned international recognition for his authority in this field. He has undertaken research and analysis on rural telecommunications development in more than 30 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas. In the course of his career, he has undertaken assignments for both PTT and private sector telecommunications operators, manufacturing industries, corporate users, government agencies, regulatory authorities, development banks and agencies, and commercial financial institutions.

    Prior to joining Teleconsult, Mr Dymond was a founding principal of Intelecon Research and Consultancy Ltd., which merged with Teleconsult in January 1996.

    Andrew Dymond
    Teleconsult
    Deloitte & Touche Consulting Group
    #200 - 1100 Melville Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6E 4A6, Canada
    Phone: 604-601-3000; Fax: 604-687-7289
    E-mail: contact@teleconsult.com
    WWW: http://www.teleconsult.com

    Johan Ernberg

    Johan Ernberg holds a Master of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. He has been employed in by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in various positions, since 1968. He is currently responsible for the programmes No. 9, Integrated Rural Development, and No. 12, Development of Telematics and Computer Networks, of the Buenos Aires Action Plan, adopted by the World Telecommunication Development

    Conference (WTDC/94).

    Johan Ernberg
    International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
    CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland
    Tel: +41 22 730 50 90; Fax: + 41 22 730 62 04
    E-mail: ernberg@itu.int
    WWW:
    http://www/itu.ch

    Neil Ford

    Neil Ford is a specialist in development communication and participatory methodologies. He has consulted for specialized agencies of the United Nations and NGOs in Central Asia (Kyrgyz Republic), South Asia (Bhutan), south-east Asia (Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia and Thailand) and Africa (Namibia, Malawi and Zimbabwe). His work focuses on the use of media to communicate the views and opinions of local people to decision-makers in a more equal and effective manner. To achieve this objective, he often uses participatory methodologies such as "participatory rural appraisal" (PRA) or "appreciative inquiry", ensuring that media productions are planned from the point-of-view of local people. He has recently joined the International Institute for Sustainable Development to manage its programme Community Adaptation and Sustainable Livelihoods.

    Mr Ford's professional background includes ten years as a radio journalist for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. In 1985 he won a national journalism award for his work in Arctic Canada. He has a M.Phil. in the Sociology and Politics of Development from Cambridge University (UK), a Bachelor of Journalism from Carleton University (Ottawa), and a Bachelor of Arts from Queen's University (Kingston).

    Neil Ford
    Manager
    Community Adaptation and Sustainable Livelihoods
    International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
    161 Portage Avenue East, 6th Floor
    Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3B 0Y4, Canada
    Tel: 204-958-7796
    Fax: 204-958-7710
    E-mail: nford@iisd.ca
    WWW: http://iisd.ca/

    Linda Garcia

    Linda Garcia is a well-known expert and consultant in the field of telecommunications and information technology policy, and she has written and spoken extensively on the subject. Employed at the United States Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) from its earliest years in the late 1970s until its elimination by Congress in September 1995, she has helped to institute and promote innovative and interdisciplinary approaches to analysing the relationship between technology and society. At present, she is the Resident Scholar at the Foundation for Rural Service, a non-profit association of the National Telephone Cooperative Association. In addition, she is an adjunct professor at Georgetown University, where she teaches courses in International Telecommunications, Electronic Commerce, and Tele- communications and Economic Development in both the School of Foreign Service and the Communication, Culture, and Technologies Program. She is currently writing a book on Networking in the information age.

    At OTA, Ms Garcia held the positions of Project Director and Senior Associate. Included among the OTA studies that she directed are: Intellectual Property Rights in an Age of Electronics and Information, Critical Connections: Communications for the Future, Rural America at the Crossroads: Networking for the Future, Global Standards: Building Blocks of the Future, The Electronic Enterprise: Looking to the Future, and Global Communications: Opportunities for Trade and Aid.

    From October 1995 to June 1996 Ms Garcia was a staff member of the United States House of Representatives, Committee on Science. In addition, she has served on the editorial board of the Journal of Socioeconomics, and Standardview, and is presently a member of the Board of Directors of the Telecommunications Policy Research Conference and of the Solstice Project, as well as a member of the Advisory Council of the Petra Foundation.

    Linda Garcia
    Foundation for Rural Service
    2626 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
    Washington, DC 20037-1695, USA
    Phone: 202-298-2364; Fax: 202-298-8742
    E-mail: DGarcia946@aol.com or frs@ntca.org
    WWW: http://www.frs.org

    Neal Gorenflo

    Neal Gorenflo's career in telecommunications spans 15 years and includes marketing and sales positions with AT&T. He currently is the Senior Industry Analyst for the Personal Communications Industry Association. Mr Gorenflo has a B.A. in American Culture from George Mason University and is preparing a thesis for Georgetown University's Communication, Culture and Technology graduate programme. Mr Gorenflo's research explores leadership in the knowledge economy and the relationships between communication technologies and social change.

    Neal Gorenflo
    Foundation for Rural Service
    2626 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
    Washington, DC 20037-1695, USA
    Phone: 202-298-2364; Fax: 202-298-8742
    E-mail: neal@nicom.com or frs@ntca.org
    WWW: http://www.frs.org/

    Heather Hudson

    Heather Hudson is the Telecommunications Program Director and a professor of Telecommunications Policy and Management at the McLaren School of Business, University of San Francisco. She received an Honors B.A. in English from the University of British Columbia, M.A. and Ph.D. in Communication Research from Stanford University, and J.D. from the University of Texas at Austin. She is the author of Global connections: the changing world of international telecommunications (1998); Communication satellites: their development and impact (1990) and co-author of Electronic byways: state policies for rural development through telecommunications (1992), Rural America in the information age: telecommunications policy for rural development (1989) and TeleFacts: telecommunications guides for small businesses (1990). She is also the author of A bibliography of telecommunications and socio-economic development (1988), When telephones reach the village (1984) and editor of New directions in satellite com-munications (1985). Dr Hudson has also published more than 50 articles and presented numerous conference papers and expert testimony on telecommunications applications and domestic and international policy issues such as universal service, information infrastructure, and telecommunications planning for socio-economic development.

    Dr Hudson has planned and evaluated communication projects in Alaska, northern Canada, and more than 30 developing countries in Asia and the Pacific, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. She has also consulted for telecommunications companies, state and federal government agencies, consumer and native organizations, foreign governments, and international organizations including the World Bank, the International Telecommunication Union, UNDP, UNESCO, USAID, CIDA, and the Commonwealth of Learning.

    Heather Hudson
    McLaren School of Business
    University of San Francisco
    2130 Fulton Street
    San Francisco, California 94117-1080, USA
    Tel: 415-422-6771 (x6642); Fax: 415-422-2502
    E-mail: HUDSON@vaxa.admin.usfca.edu
    WWW: http://www.usfca.edu/mclaren/Admin/Hudson.html

    Micheal (Mike) Jensen

    Mike Jensen has experience in 30 countries in Africa assisting with the establishment of Internet and computer based communications systems over the last 12 years. A South African born in Durban, he spent his formative years in Johannesburg before studying in the UK, Ireland and Canada. He sent his first e-mail 18 years ago while working as an ecologist in Canada. He then worked as a journalist on the Rand Daily Mail in Johannesburg before moving back to Canada in 1985 where he cofounded the country's national Internet service for NGOs called, coincidentally, The Web.

    Since 1990 Mr Jensen has worked as an independent consultant based in Johannesburg and Port St. Johns in the Eastern Cape, and is currently working on a variety of projects, in particular to establish rural multipurpose telecentres in a number of African countries.

    Micheal Jensen
    Independent Consultant
    507 Hermes St.
    Port St. Johns, Eastern Cape, 5120, South Africa
    Tel: +27-47-564-1351; Fax: +27-47-564-1351
    E-mail: mikej@wn.apc.org
    WWW: http://www3.sn.apc.org/africa

    Scott McConnell

    Scott McConnell is currently completing his graduate study requirements for a M.Sc. degree in Rural Planning and Development at the University School of Rural Planning and Development, University of Guelph, Canada. The focus of his graduate work has been on the use of the Internet as a tool for communication and information exchange between non-governmental organizations and their stakeholders in developing countries. Mr McConnell is in the process of testing evaluation frameworks in Uganda, East Africa, where he has investigated 33 NGOs in their ability to use the Internet for their daily information and communication needs.

    Scott McConnell
    University School of Rural Planning and Development
    University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 Canada
    Tel: 519-824-4120 ext. 6780; Fax: 519-767-1692
    E-mail: smcconne@uoguelph.ca or scottmar@istar.ca
    WWW: http://www.uoguelph.ca

    Paolo Mefalopulos

    Paolo Mefalopulos is the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' (FAO) Regional Communication Trainer in the Southern African Development Community's (SADC) Centre of Communication for Development, where he is part of the team advising and training the middle management and field workers of development projects in Southern Africa. When he first arrived in Zimbabwe he assisted Dr Anyaegbunam in the development of the innovative methodology known as Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal (PRCA).

    He has a number of different experiences in the field of Communication. After obtaining his Master of Arts in Telecommunications at Michigan State University he worked in the FIAT training company in Turin, Italy, where he participated in the develop-ment and production of a number of interactive multimedia training programmes. After this he joined UNESCO as a media expert and worked first in the Middle East and then in Guatemala, where he came directly and dramatically in contact with the reality of the development world. From then on he remained in this field trying to investigate and apply the potentials of communication to empower people in taking a bigger role in decisions concerning every aspect of their lives.

    Paolo Mefalopulos
    SADC Centre of Communication for Development
    FAO Project GCP/RAF/297/ITA
    SAFR, Box 3730
    Harare, Zimbabwe
    Phone: 263-4-722723/722734; Fax: 263-4-795345 or 722713
    E-mail: pmefalopulos@fanr-sadc.org.zw
    WWW: http://www.zimbabwe.net/sadc-fanr/sccd/sccd.htm

    Titus Moetsabi

    Titus Moetsabi is a lawyer by training, a development practitioner by practice and a writer, actor, theatre director by inclination. Currently he is a regional communication training adviser with the Southern African Development Community Center of Communication for Development.

    Mr Moetsabi is presently doing part-time Master of Philosophy research with the University of Zimbabwe in Communicating Legal Issues using theatre. He has been visiting lecturer in participatory rural appraisal, and intercultural communication at the University of Zimbabwe. For 11 years he has worked with the rural communities of Southern Africa in project conceptualization, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation, participatory planning, participatory communication research and programme planning and technical personnel assistance. His publications include A trainer's guide for empowerment, Fruits and other poems, and literary critiques of Small acts by Paul Gilroy, Participatory development: the case of Zimbabwe by John Makumbe, Society in Zimbabwe's liberation war by Ngwabi Bhebhe and Terence Ranger, and The aid relationship in Zambia: a conflict scenario by O. Saasa and J. Carlsson. Edited books are Creative children by Bodil Hoirup, and Directory of arts organizations in Zimbabwe which are both MS Zimbabwe publications.

    Titus Moetsabi
    SADC Centre of Communication for Development
    SAFR, Box 3730
    Harare, Zimbabwe
    Phone; 263-4-722723/722734; Fax: 263-4-795345 or 722713
    E-mail: tmoetsabi@fanr-sadc.org.zw or tmoetsabi@mango.zw
    WWW: http://www.zimbabwe.net/sadc-fanr/sccd/sccd.htm

    Patricia (Pat) Norrish

    Pat Norrish lived and worked overseas in Thailand, Ghana and Ethiopia for 14 years. During this time she worked in educational mass media (radio and TV) and in the preparation of extension material for health and agriculture projects. She has a degree in typography and graphic communication. Her interest in new communication technology began in the early 80's when she started researching the implications for the generators and users of text of the introduction of DTP and of new screen based technologies such as teletext.

    Since 1985 Ms Norrish has been a lecturer in communication at the Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Department (AERDD), The University of Reading in the UK. Her work covers face-to face and media communication. She regularly carries out consultancies overseas (South Africa, Namibia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Sri Lanka, India, etc.). Recent and current research is focused on information flows and communication for sustainable agriculture (India, Bangladesh and the Philippines), on improving communication strategies for the dissemination of renewable natural resources research from scientist to farmer (Bolivia, Ghana, India) and on the use of multimedia to support agriculture in Europe. In 1993 she carried out research for the World Bank on the use of new communication technologies to improve the flow of information on agriculture in developing countries.

    Pat Norrish
    AERDD
    The University of Reading
    3 Earley Gate, Whiteknights Road
    Reading RG6 6AL, UK
    Tel: +44 (0)118 931 8119 (direct); Fax: +44 (0)118 9261244
    E-mail: p.e.norrish@reading.ac.uk
    WWW: http://www.rdg.ac.uk/AERDD/

    Ricardo Ramirez

    Ricardo Ramirez is a member of the International Support Group, a decentralized non-profit association linking local experience in agroecosystem management. His professional experience includes work in the areas of agricultural knowledge and communication, participatory learning, research and evaluation, communication for development, facilitation of inter-disciplinary planning, and multistakeholder analysis. He has recently applied many of these cross-disciplinary skills in conjunction with rural telecommunication for development work on behalf of SR Telecom in the Philippines. Ricardo is currently undertaking a Ph.D. in Rural Studies at the University of Guelph, Canada. His research focuses on the grassroots-level developmental impacts of rural telecommunication investments.

    Prior to undertaking his Ph.D. Mr Ramirez worked with the Centre for Research and Information Exchange in Ecologically Sound Agriculture (ILEIA), in the Netherlands, and with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). At ILEIA he was the Coordinator of the Information & Communication Unit and was responsible for developing the ILEIA information & communication strategy with agricultural organizations around the world. At FAO he was a Communication Officer with the Communication for Development Group, Research, Extension and Training Division. His responsibilities included assessing the communication needs of rural development projects in Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, participating in communication for development project formulation missions, providing technical and operational backstopping to communication for development field programmes, and formulating and implementing communication for development research and evaluation activities.

    Ricardo Ramirez
    School of Rural Extension Studies
    and the Don Snowden Program for Development Communication
    University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 Canada
    Tel/Fax: 519-824-5519
    E-mail: rramirez@uoguelph.ca
    WWW: http://www.uoguelph.ca/~rramirez/ or http://www.ids.ac.uk/eldis/isg/isg.html

    Donald (Don) Snowden

    Don Snowden was an early pioneer in the field of communication for development. In 1967, he helped to catalyse the use of an approach known as the "Fogo Process." The Fogo Process is a people-centred community development approach that, via simple media tools, assists communities and individuals in "coming to grips" with their problems, opportunities and visions. The Fogo Process provided a model of communication for development practice that was far ahead of its time. Indeed, some development communication practitioners recognize that the field owes a world-wide debt to the Fogo Process and to the person who is largely responsible for promoting this participatory development communication methodology.

    With Snowden's vision and support, together with the talents of film and video producers from Canada's National Film Board (NFB), the Fogo Process was incorporated within the NFB's innovative Challenge for Change programme and The War on Poverty Program in Canada. By the mid-1970's Snowden and his colleagues were being asked to experiment with the Fogo Process in various parts of North America (especially in the Arctic and Alaska), Africa and Asia. It was while working on this project that Snowden died suddenly in Hyderabad, India, on 4 April 1984.

    Snowden's life and work have not been forgotten. The Don Snowden Program for Development Communication was established at Memorial University in Newfoundland, shortly after Snowden's death. In 1997 the Program moved to the School of Rural Extension Studies at the University of Guelph, under the direction of Dr Don Richardson. The purpose of the Don Snowden Program for Development Communication is to promote, through training, research, and advisory activities, communication for community development and the mobilization of human resources in developing regions of Canada and in Developing Countries.

    Don Snowden Program for Development Communication
    School of Rural Extension Studies
    University of Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada
    Tel: 519-824-4120 ext. 3811; Fax: 519-836-9941
    E-mail: drichard@uoguelph.ca or srimkus@uoguelph.ca
    WWW: http://www.oac.uoguelph.ca/~drichard/snowden or http://www.snowden.ca

    Wendy Truelove

    Wendy Truelove is a communications consultant with a particular interest in the use of ICTs for rural and agricultural development. She has worked with international development and industry organizations in the use of electronic media to facilitate communication and information exchange in the agri-food sector.

    E-mail: wendy@bush-telegraph.com



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