Posted November 1997
17-20 June, 1997
The Chairman, Dr Robert Scholes, opened the meeting. On behalf of Josu Montalban Goicoechea, Director of Diputación Foral de Urbanismo, Dr Luis Rodriguez Herrero, Director of the Instituto de Estudios Territoriales de Vizcaya, welcomed the participants of the meeting and stated that the Instituto de Estudios Territoriales de Vizcaya and the Biosphere Reserve of Urdaibai were pleased to host the meeting in Guernica. He emphasised that man must live in harmony with his environment and this presents many challenges. Further, he stated to understand the impact man is having on the environment it is necessary to monitor long-term changes that are occurring in ecosystems. Prof. John Townshend, Chairman of the Joint Scientific and Technical Committee of the Global Climate Observing System thanked Dr Rodriguez Herrero for his remarks, for the local organizational support to the meeting, and for the substantial financial contribution that Diputado Foral de Urbanismo had made towards the meeting.
Dr Scholes stated that the purpose of the meeting was to bring together representatives from selected networks to provide the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS) steering committees with advice on the best way to proceed in developing a network of ecological sites to meet both GCOS and GTOS objectives. The participants were asked to make a series of recommendations to the GTOS Steering Committee and the JSTC of GCOS that, if accepted, would result in a nucleus for a GTOS network that would not only meet the needs of the Global Observing Systems, but also the needs of individual networks and sites. Specific goals for the meeting were to:
The provisional agenda was approved, though later modified as the meeting progressed.
International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP)
Dr Scholes welcomed the participants on behalf of IGBP. While IGBP is not a monitoring programme a significant amount of data that is directly useful to the Global Observing Systems is being collected. IGBP wants to assist the G3OS's to make many of the current IGBP observations operational. IGBP clearly supports the Global Observing Systems and the need for a set of long-term observations, which will further research efforts in the future.
Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS)
Mr Jeff Tschirley, Director of GTOS welcomed the participants and reviewed the structure and main elements of the programme. GTOS was created to provide policy makers, resource managers and researchers with access to the data needed to detect, quantify, locate, understand and warn of changes (especially reductions) in the capacity of terrestrial ecosystems to support sustainable development. The focus is on five key development issues of global or regional concern:
- Changes in land quality;
- Availability of freshwater resources;
- Loss of biodiversity;
- Pollution and toxicity; and
- Climate change.
An important GTOS objective is to link scientific information with policy development. This will be achieved through equitable partnerships between data providers and users. Included in these two groups are governments, national and international scientific programmes, Secretariats of International Conventions related to the environment (e.g. Biodiversity, Climate Change and Desertification), UN agencies, non-governmental organizations and the private sector.
GTOS is sponsored by five organizations - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Meteorological Organization (WMO) who make modest annual contributions to the operation of the programme. The secretariat is operated by FAO in Rome.
Following a preparatory stage, GTOS began operation in 1996. It has issued two publications - the Scientific and Technical Planning Group Report, and GTOS and the Conventions. The GTOS Steering Committee met in December 1996 in Rome. A coordination and implementation sub-group met in May 1997 to review a draft programme implementation plan which will be completed during 1997.
During the preparatory phase, a terrestrial ecosystem monitoring sites meta-database (TEMS) was established which is an international directory of long-term terrestrial monitoring sites around the world. TEMS presently operates on Oracle software, is web-based, is searchable and contains information on more than 700 sites. It is planned to continue development of this meta-database, including the addition of more sites, improved user interface and a PC-based version.
Mr Tschirley outlined the elements of a GTOS global network demonstration project which would serve to demonstrate the value of linking existing terrestrial monitoring networks by concentrating on a few topics of common interest and that are of global or regional importance. Among the characteristics that would be sought among the participating networks are:
- Common ground with GTOS
- Technical experience and maturity
- Active data gathering
- International context
- Broad geographic coverage
- Coverage of data-poor regions
- Functional complementarity
- Expectation of continuity.
It is envisioned that a network demonstration project could help to promote the sharing and exchange of terrestrial data, and compare methods used to collect it. Specific studies could be undertaken to document how networks function, their user groups, and different uses of the data such as for modelling. GTOS was prepared to establish a Network panel to advise the GTOS Steering Committee (GTSC) and guide the evolution of a network of networks.
It was hoped that a demonstration project could be discussed during the meeting and participants were asked for their advice on the conceptual approach, priority issues to be addressed, and suggestions on how to proceed.
Global Climate Observing System (GCOS)
Prof. John Townshend presented the background of the GCOS. The GCOS was established after the Second World Climate Conference to ensure the acquisition of the observations required to meet the needs for:
- Climate system monitoring, climate change detection, and response monitoring, especially in terrestrial ecosystems;
- Data for application to national economic development;
- Research towards improved understanding, modelling, and prediction of the climate system.
To meet these objectives, the GCOS planning took a comprehensive view of the observational requirements for climate information, and addressed the required observations from the atmosphere, ocean, land surface, and cryosphere. It must include surface-based and space-based observations, and a comprehensive data system.
The GCOS is planned as a phased programme, building upon the present observational activities of the operational and research programmes of the participating countries. For the atmosphere, a close coordination with ongoing WMO programmes has begun. The GCOS programme is currently assessing existing operational systems, including the World Weather Watch (WWW), the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW), and operational hydrology programmes. Based on these assessments, recommendations will be made for enhancements or new observations, which should be done, in concert with existing programmes, to ensure the climate needs are met. In a similar fashion for the ocean, the GCOS programme is cooperating with the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) in its efforts to establish a Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). For Terrestrial Systems a joint programme with the GTOS was established.
The detailed scientific plans for GCOS have considered the full scope of issues, including the requirements of users/participants, the contributions of current research and operational programmes and data systems, and the participation of both international and national organizations. The scientific scope includes atmosphere, ocean, land surface, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and ecosystem processes. With the completion of these important plans and documents in 1995, GCOS entered a new phase in 1996, that of implementation. The initial implementation of GCOS has led to improved seasonal to interannual predictions of climate. It is expected that as GCOS continues to be implemented, countries will see benefits not only from improved climate predictions but also in planning for sustainable development and in assessing the impacts of climate change on both agricultural and natural ecosystems.
Prof. Townshend stated it is recognised that operational programmes such as WMO's WWW, GAW and others are well organized and contributing significantly to GCOS. However, there is a clear and defined need for in situ observations from the land surface to support GCOS objectives of detecting climate change on a regional basis, assessing seasonal to interannual climate variability, simulating long-term climate change and evaluating the impact of climate change, particularly on terrestrial systems.
He concluded by stating that the GCOS objectives for the meeting were essentially the same as outlined by the Chairman. It is important to gain an agreement from the networks on the way forward and agree on at least the initial steps to forming a network of sites for in situ observations.
There is widespread recognition of the value of and need for systematic collection of ecosystem data to meet requirements of sustainable development, conservation of resources, the needs of the international conventions, and the validation of measurements and information derived from satellite data. While few activities take place at the global level there is an enormous data collection effort at the national or regional levels. The Fontainebleau meeting (1992) laid out a framework for a global system to monitor terrestrial ecosystems. The planning for GTOS began after the Fontainebleau meeting. During the planning phases of GTOS a Global Hierarchical Observing Strategy (GHOST) was defined by the GCOS/GTOS Terrestrial Observation Panel for Climate (TOPC) and the GTOS Scientific and Technical Planning Group. That strategy has had extensive review and it is believed that it can form the basis of networks and sites working together for some common objectives. The strategy has been endorsed by a meeting of hydrology experts held in Geneva in April 1996 and by the G3OS meeting on In Situ Observations for the Global Observing Systems held in Geneva in September, 1996. The In Situ Observation meeting identified, among others, the need for a mechanism through which existing sites and networks can be coordinated, enhanced and augmented. Finally, space agencies require in situ data for the conduct of calibration and validation studies as well as for effective use of routine, long-term satellite observations. A global terrestrial network of ecological sites will be particularly useful for this purpose.
Included below is a brief statement of the primary goal(s) for each of the networks.
ECN goals are to collect, store, analyse and interpret long-term data based on a set of key variables which drive and respond to environmental change at terrestrial and freshwater sites across the UK. ECN data will be used to distinguish short-term fluctuations from long-term trends associated with man's activities and to predict future changes.
The goals are:
The primary goals of the LTER Network are to facilitate research:
The concepts of the LTER Network are in agreement with those of GTOS, but LTER has a stronger emphasis on research than monitoring.
The primary goals of CERN are:
The primary goals of ICP IM are:
In a more long-term perspective the IM concept is useful among other things in monitoring ecosystem effects of climate change, ozone depletion and changes in biodiversity.
The major goal is to improve the understanding of ecological systems and environmental degradation processes.
ROSELT is a monitoring system of desertification for African countries with the following major goals:
The goal of the CGIAR is to contribute, through its research, to promoting sustainable agriculture for food security in the developing countries.
The goals of AMAP are:
The Euro Fluxnet will address the following specific goals:
The goal of the programme is:
To describe and understand the interactive physical, chemical and biological processes that regulate the total earth system, the unique environment that it provides for life, the changes that are occurring in this system, and the manner in which they are influenced by human actions.
Dr Scholes presented the GHOST that has been developed by the GCOS/GTOS TOPC and the GTOS Scientific and Technical Planning Group. The strategy is based on the principle that it is not possible to measure everything, everywhere, all the time. It is therefore necessary to design an optimal sampling strategy that retains adequate spatial and temporal resolution, but is also affordable and practical. A hierarchical strategy in which at one extreme a few variables are measured regularly in a large number of places, and at the other extreme a large number of variables are measured in a few locations for a limited period, meets these requirements. The hierarchy divides fairly naturally into five tiers, each with more-or-less unique characteristics and roles although existing facilities often straddle more than one tier. The concept is applicable to the three main areas which GHOST is concerned with -- the land surface, freshwater ecosystems and cryospheric surfaces -- each of which would have their own hierarchy, but sharing tier 5. The observing system could be built largely out of existing national and international observation systems, research centres and stations, with modest additions of stations and sites where representation is inadequate.
The proposed hierarchy is incompletely nested. In other words, not all research stations (tier 3) have associated research centres (tier 2) and vice versa, sites with stations, and so on; but in most cases there are strong linkages between the tiers. Within the hierarchies for the land, freshwater and cryosphere, there needs to be a balance between different types of systems: for example between natural, agricultural and urban ecosystems on the land; between rivers, lakes, and estuaries in freshwater systems; and between ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers and permafrost in the cryosphere. There is also a geographical balance, which ranges from broad representation at tiers 1 and 2, detailed representation at tier 3, unbiased sampling at tier 4 and complete coverage at tier 5.
In summary GHOST is:
But should not be considered:
Dr Josef Cihlar presented a list of requirements as defined by the GCOS/GTOS TOPC. The specifics of these requirements are contained in Version 2.0 of the GCOS/GTOS Plan for Terrestrial Climate-related Observations. It is recognised that the climate-related requirements are only a part of the ultimate GTOS needs. He explained that the philosophy used in identifying the key variables was to examine the climate-related objectives of the global observing systems and then identify variables that must be observed to meet these objectives. This was supplemented by assessing the current use of each potential variable (directly, through numerical models, etc.) and also its potential uses in the future. If a variable met one of these needs it was included in the list of key variables. The desired specifications for each variable in terms of accuracy, spatial and temporal resolution were then established. The key variables are described in detail in the above report and are also available on the World Wide Web (http://www.wmo.ch/web/gcos/pub/top_vr_2.html). Following the recent Global Observing Systems Space Panel meeting these specifications are being refined by the TOPC so as to be more meaningful to both satellite and in situ observations. It is expected that the revised requirements will be completed by September, 1997
The concept of using a demonstration project that all participating networks could find useful and at the same time serve a useful purpose for GCOS and GTOS was introduced by Dr Cihlar. He presented two potential candidates (soil carbon and global forest cover). Dr Cihlar stated in principle a demonstration project should serve several objectives: demonstrate the effectiveness of a Global Observing System Network (GOS-Net) by generating important global data sets which could not be produced otherwise; provide a test bed for the development of mechanisms for the collaboration among networks and sites, including issues of coordination, data sharing and exchange, etc.; and obtain the experience needed for a further development of the global terrestrial network. He noted at the beginning of his presentation that the two particular projects may or may not be appropriate as initial demonstration projects, but was presenting them for two purposes
A project to characterise soil carbon was originally identified as a candidate project at the In Situ Observations for the Global Observing Systems meeting held in Geneva in September 1996. The rationale behind the proposal was that soil carbon plays a key role in maintaining soil structure and productivity and is also one of the largest pools in the global carbon cycle. A pre-proposal has been prepared by the TOPC and circulated for comments. The goal of the project would be to produce a global data set for the distribution of the total soil carbon and its associated variables to:
The comments received to date are wide-ranging from "it is too ambitious" to "this data set is one of the most valuable that could be produced". Dr Cihlar pointed out that the precise characterisation of carbon in various pools is not feasible at the global scale without much time and financial resources. Hence such a project, while potentially very useful, would be extremely difficult to complete in a relatively short period of time and in a highly accurate manner.
The discussion which followed confirmed that at present such a project was probably not a suitable candidate for an initial collaborative effort and that it should be considered once GTOS is further developed and sources of funding can be found.
The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has proposed several projects to obtain practical experience in implementing global monitoring based on the integration of satellite and in situ observations. One proposed project is to develop a database of forest cover. The tentative objectives of this proposal are:
Dr Cihlar pointed out that this project was under development by CEOS, with a key workshop scheduled for July 1997. Nevertheless, he felt that the project presented an opportunity for the networks to become involved. Many of the networks indicated an interest in staying involved with this project as it was further developed. However, some networks from semi-arid regions were uncertain as to the relevance of the project, pointing out that the extent of geographic coverage and the definition of "forest" would be important in their potential participation. The project would also be of limited interest to networks concerned with agroecosystems. While it was decided not to pursue this project further at the meeting it was agreed that the project could meet the demonstration project objectives if the focus were on the forest ecosystems and networks. It was also agreed that additional networks should become involved, according to their interests.
To provide participants with another potential activity on which a demonstration project could be built. Prof. David Norse described the Coordinating Land Use and Cover Data and Analyses in Europe (CLAUDE) project. The overall objective of the project is to develop an internally consistent, Europe-wide plan for land use and land cover monitoring and research, and to link with other international programmes on this issue. The project will evaluate land use and land cover (LUC) data collection methods and data base structures as currently developed and used in several countries of the European Union (EU) in relation to environmental management and policy formulation needs. This will allow the assessment and monitoring of land use and cover changes, including ecosystem process changes, at different scales as a major input into a future joint approach to LUC in the EU. He felt that the data base structures and metadata that are developed in this project could be very useful to GTOS.
It was agreed that the GOS-Net should undertake a project which will demonstrate the potential of an initial network of sites to generate a reliable, useful product with global coverage and regional or local relevance, rapidly and efficiently, by adopting the hierarchical approach and using models to combine in situ and remotely sensed data. The participants concluded a set of output products, which have Net Primary Productivity (NPP) as their common foundation would serve this purpose, and is achievable within the desired time frame by collaboration with existing initiatives. The project is designed so that any network or site regardless of its level of sophistication can make a useful contribution.
Net Primary Production (NPP), which is the amount of new plant growth, which occurs within a given area over a specified time period (g m-2 y-1) is a key integrator of ecosystem function. It is the mechanistic basis of harvest yield, whether it be of edible plant products, timber or meat. Deviation of NPP from its expected value is an objective indicator of ecosystem degradation, which is of direct use to the Convention on Desertification. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) is a related variable derived from NPP which is of crucial importance in the global carbon cycle, and thus to the Framework Convention on Climate Change.
The calculation of NPP requires the collection of a set of input data which are valuable long-term observations in their own right: rainfall, temperature, soil water holding capacity and nitrogen content, land cover and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Land cover is of direct relevance to the Biodiversity Convention and Climate Change Convention; water holding capacity and nitrogen content of soils are measures of degradation, and nitrogen content correlates closely with soil carbon, of interest in the global carbon cycle. It was mentioned that a similar project was underway in the United States, and that information on that project was available on the Internet ( http://atlantic.evsc.virginia.edu/jhp7e/modlers). The NPP/NEP focus thus meets most of the requirements of a demonstration project.
Following the development of the demonstration project it was decided not to break into working groups but rather jointly define a strategy for forming a global land network. The participants made a number of recommendations to the GTOS Steering Committee that if accepted would result in an initial GOS-Net. (See Section 7.)
The need for global data falls into two basic categories:
The two environmental themes require global in situ data sets if we are to respond to the changes that are occurring. Climate change, its detection, prediction and understanding its impacts clearly requires global data sets. Furthermore, the understanding and management response to desertification and land degradation requires global climate data sets.
Local to regional data sets collected world-wide are needed to address local to regional problems that are so pervasive that they occur around the globe. These include pollution by toxic substances, fresh water resources, and the loss of biodiversity. In these cases comparable data sets help focus attention on these issues and provide information for a global assessment of whether or not improvements are occurring and where further concerted international action may be required.
The participants indicated the interest of their networks was in assisting the Global Observing Systems to obtain required in situ data. They also felt that participation in a global network could enhance their effectiveness in a number of ways, including:
There was a discussion as to the scope of the network. Initially GOS-Net will be limited to those networks and sites that are making ecologically relevant freshwater or land-based observations. However it was concluded that a global network of existing networks and sites that was to serve all in situ GTOS and GCOS observational needs must include coastal zone area, hydrology and the cryosphere. (Because of their interest in coastal zones GOOS should be contacted to determine their interest in participating in such a network.) It was pointed out that there were separate efforts underway to develop a network of glacier and permafrost sites. It was recognised that a network of hydrological sites was also critical. GCOS and GTOS are well aware of significant efforts ongoing in particular the Flow Regimes for Experimental and Network Data Sets (FRIENDS) project, World Hydrological Cycle Observing System (WHYCOS) and the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) which will be used to begin the formation of a hydrological network in the near future.
There are a number of issues regarding methods, and data and information that need to be addressed by the global observing systems in general and by GTOS in particular. Two of short-term concern are a clearly defined data policy that articulates the Global Observing Systems, view regarding the availability of data and the timeliness with which data should be made available, and development of a set of standards for metadata (information about data sets). Some of the networks do not have metadata standards, but there was concurrence that metadata standards are crucial and those GTOS metadata standards need to be developed. There was insufficient time to fully develop these issues, hence the participants present agreed that they would send their existing data policies to the GTOS Secretariat and recommended that the Joint Data and Information Management Panel (JDIMP) develop a policy as soon as possible.
For a GOS-Net to respond to the Global Observing Systems' needs, it is necessary for the Global Observing Systems to clearly define the required variables. It was recognised that the climate variables have been well defined by the TOPC. However, the participants urged the GTOS Steering Committee to define the additional variables and requirements for the other priority issues as soon as possible. It was recommended that this be done in a two-step process. First using readily available information, develop a preliminary list of variables. Secondly undertake a more careful detailed examination of each variable to be sure that it is needed on a long-term basis. Information in the Report of the Conventions and from the DIVERSITAS programme provide excellent starting points for an initial cut at the required core variables. Such an analysis would assist not only the implementation of a GOS-Net, but more importantly it would provide an important input to Version 2.0 of the Global Observing System Space Plan.
The participants agreed that as a first step in forming a network that exchanging Internet addresses, so as to be able to refer to each other's pages, was a good idea.
An organizational structure and support for a network of ecological sites are critical. A recommended organizational structure was developed. While supporting the land-based needs of all G3OS's, organizationally it was felt that a network of ecological sites should be administered by one of the global observing systems. While currently the climate requirements are most clearly defined in the long term it was recommended to the Sponsors of the G3OS that GTOS take the lead in providing secretarial support to the network. It must be recognised that the network must meet the needs of GCOS and GOOS.
The networks participating in GOS-Net need to have a major say in how the network will be operated, hence the recommendation to have a Network Panel. The Network Panel would initially consist of representatives from all the participating networks plus additional representatives from the GTOS Steering Committee and the JSTC of GCOS.
It was recognised that there is a need to have secretariat support for GOS-Net, and that this will require resources. The participants agreed that the GOS-Net Secretariat need not be physically co-located with the GTOS Secretariat, but the lines of communication should flow both ways through the GTOS Secretariat. Dr Gosz, Director of the U.S. LTER programme and Chairman of the U.S. LTER network felt that U.S. LTER/ILTER might be able to obtain the resources, including necessary computer support, to provide a GOS-Net Secretariat by co-locating it with the LTER/ILTER office in New Mexico. The GOS-Net Secretariat would report directly to the GTOS Secretariat. Since no other similar alternatives have been identified the participants recommended that the GTSC and the JSTC request Dr Gosz to vigorously pursue this possibility.
It was recognised that not all networks were present at this meeting, and that national networks as well as individual sites are likely to have essential contributions to make to the GOS-Net. The participants felt that while those present at the meeting should be invited initially a provision should be made which will facilitate the incorporation of other networks or individual sites in the network. To this end, a two-stage procedure was suggested. First, a fact sheet should be requested from a prospective new member concerning its site(s), data and practices. Second, a letter of invitation will be sent by the GTOS Steering Committee to join the network after recommendation by the Network Panel. As a minimum the following information should be obtained from each network prior to issuing consideration of an applicant:
The participants also developed a list of tasks and a proposed timetable for the establishment of an initial GOS-Net.
A Global Observing System Network of existing networks and sites that are making in situ land and freshwater measurements that are relevant to GTOS and GCOS should be formed. The network should be administered by GTOS but clearly be designed to meet the needs for terrestrial and freshwater observations of all three global observing systems.
The GTSC should:
The JSTC should:
Prof. Antonio CENDRERO
Facultad de Ciencias
Universidad de Cantabria
Av. de los Castros s/n
39005 SANTANDER, Spain
Tel: +34 42 201503
Fax: +34 42 201402
Dr Josef CIHLAR
Canada Centre for Remote Sensing
588 Booth Street
OTTAWA, Ontario, Canada K1A OY7
Tel: +1 613 9471265
Fax: +1 613 9471406
Dr Martin FORSIUS
Finnish Environment Institute
ICP IM Programme Centre
P.O. Box 140
FIN-00251 HELSINKI, Finland
Tel: +358 9 40300308
Fax: +358 9 40300390
Prof. James GOSZ
University of New Mexico
ALBUQUERQUE, NM 87131, USA
Tel: +1 505 2772265
Fax: +1 505 2775355
Dr Michael D. GWYNNE
P.O. Box 24529
Tel: +254 2 882370
Fax: +254 2 882370
Mr Qunli HAN
Division of Ecological Sciences
Man and the Biosphere Programme
1, rue Miollis
75015 PARIS, France
Tel: +33 1 45684142
Fax: +33 1 45685804
Dr Peter JONES
Tel: +57 2 4450000
Fax: +57 2 4450073
Dr Jean KHOURI
The Arab Centre for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands
P.O. Box 2440
Tel: +963 11 5323087
Fax: +963 11 5323063
Prof. Vitaly KIMSTACH
P.O. Box 8100 Dep.
N-0032 OSLO, Norway
Tel: +47 22573634
Fax: +47 22676706
Email: vitaly-a.kimstach@ sftospost.md.dep.telemax.no
Prof. Hamid NARJISSE
Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II
Tel: +212 7 777018
Fax: +212 7 680397
Prof. David NORSE
Department of Geography
University College London
26 Bedford Way
LONDON WC1H 0AP, United Kingdom
Tel: +44 171 3877050 (Ext. 5542)
Fax: +44 171 3807565
Dr Terry PARR
Institute of Terrestrial Ecology
Merlewood Research Station
Cumbria LA11 6JU, United Kingdom
Tel: +44 15395 32264
Fax: +44 15395 34705
Dr Steven RUNNING
School of Forestry/NTSG
The University of Montana
MISSOULA, MT 59812, USA
Tel: +1 406 2436311
Fax: +1 406 2434510
Dr Robert SCHOLES
Division of Water, Environment and Forest Technology
P.O. Box 395
PRETORIA 0001, South Africa
Tel: +27 12 8412045
Fax: +27 12 8412689
Prof. John TOWNSHEND
Department of Geography
University of Maryland
1113 Lefrak Hall
COLLEGE PARK, MD 20742-8225, USA
Tel: +1 301 4054558
Fax: +1 301 3149299
Dr Riccardo VALENTINI
Department of Forest Science and Resources
University of Tuscia
Via S. Camillo de Lellis
01100 VITERBO, Italy
Tel: +39 761 357394
Fax: +39 761 357389
Dr F. Javier ZAPATA
O.A. Parques Nacionales
Gran Via de S. Francisco, 4
F-28005 MADRID, Spain
Tel: +34 1 3476174
Fax: +34 1 3476301
Prof. Shidong ZHAO
Commission for Integrated Survey of Natural Resources
Chinese Academy of Sciences
3, Datun Road, P.O. Box 9717
BEIJING 100101, China
Tel: +86 10 64931980
Fax: +86 10 64931970
Mr Jeff TSCHIRLEY
Via delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 ROME, Italy
Tel: +39 6 52253450
Fax: +39 6 52253369