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border.gif (1K) Baseline survey:
Change in income and expenditure patterns

Decline in rural household and per capita income, particularly among vulnerable groups

Example from Namibia: Proportion of household income deriving from wages (5 yrs recall period)- in % nam_income.jpg (13K)
Among the households who received salaries from the formal wage sector, affected households reported to have experienced a proportional decrease in salaries compared to five years ago, while non-affected households had increased salaried work. The survey further found that affected households, as a result of illness and insufficient labour to carry out agricultural tasks, were diversifying their livelihoods to cope with the current situation. The research indicated an increase in income from crafts, beer making, selling street food and nuts, especially among women. Affected households also reported an increased dependence on remittances and and pensions.


Increase in distress sale of productive and household resources
In Zambia female-headed households caring for orphans have experienced a disproportionate loss of productive assets due to sale for meeting household expenses. These same households also suffer significantly higher animal losses due to diseases and sale to meet household needs than do households who are not fostering children.

Increase in difficulties for vulnerable groups to access loans
In Uganda, affected households reported to have increased their expenditures for medical care and burial expenses, for hired labour for tasks previously done by household members, and for food items previsouly produced on the farm. Increase in expenditures results in depletion of household savings, leaving little financial resources to invest in expanding and diversifying agro-business. In cases where affected households have sold off their assets, they cannot access rural micro-credit institutions for lack of collateral. Also, affected families reported that they faced difficulties finding loan co-signers.

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Updated September 2003

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