Extension services are important for diffusing technology and good practices, but reaching female farmers requires careful consideration. In some contexts, it is culturally more acceptable for female farmers to interact with female extension agents, and hiring female extension agents can be an effective means of reaching female farmers. This preference is not universal, however, so in many cases properly trained male extension agents may be able to provide equally effective services. Whether male or female, extension agents must be sensitive to the realities, needs and constraints of rural women. Extension services for women must consider all the roles of women; women’s needs as farmers are often neglected in favour of programmes aimed at household responsibilities. Extension systems will also have to be more innovative and flexible to account for social and cultural obstacles and for time and mobility constraints.