Sustainable Development Goals

Indicator 2.3.1 - Volume of production per labour unit by classes of farming / pastoral / forestry enterprise size

This indicator refers to the value of production per labour unit operated by small scale producers in the farming, pastoral and forestry sectors. Data will be produced by classes of enterprise size. The indicator will measure progress towards SDG Target 2.3.

Target 2.3

By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and nonfarm employment.

Agricultural output per labour day, PPP (constant 2011 international $)

  • Non-small-scale producers
  • Small-scale producers

Impact

Together with indicator 2.3.2, it offers a complete breakdown of who small-scale producers are, what they earn and how much they produce. These indicators are vital for government efforts to drive the nation’s economy, eliminate hunger and poverty and reduce inequality.

Key results

Measuring the productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers is critical for tracking progress towards SDG target 2.3, which calls for doubling both their incomes and productivity. Target 2.3 recognizes the essential role that small-scale food producers have in promoting food production across the world, while facing greater constraints in accessing land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities. Therefore, strengthening the resilience and adaptivity of small-scale food producers is critical to reversing the trend of rising hunger and reducing the share of people living in extreme poverty.

FAO estimates that there are some 570 million farms worldwide, the majority being small farms. In some countries, small-scale food producers account for up to 85 percent of all food producers. Now that an international definition of small-scale food producers has been established, FAO can calculate their average labour productivity and incomes.

Data on the labour productivity of small-scale food producers is available for only 11 countries, as many surveys do not report labour input in agriculture in a comparable form. When they do, it is limited to crop production. With these limitations in mind, in all countries, the labour productivity of small-scale producers is lower, on average, than for larger food producers.

More information is available (38 countries) on the incomes of small-scale food producers, which are also systematically lower than those of large food producers. In most countries, the incomes of small-scale food producers are less than half those of larger food producers, supporting the central call of SDG target 2.3 for doubling their incomes.

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