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Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) Toolbox

Forest Protected Areas

Welcome to the Forest Protected Areas Module, which is intended for forest managers and others who want to know more about the planning and management of forest protected areas and their purposes, benefits, governance, challenges, limitations and potential.

The module provides both basic and more detailed information on the planning and management of forest protected areas, links to tools to assist in addressing various facets of forest protected-area management, and case studies on the sustainable management of forest protected areas.

Amend, S., Giraldo, A., Oltermari, J., Sánchez, R., Valarezo, V. & Yerena, E. 2000. Management plans: concepts and proposals. San José and Quito, IUCN.

Anon. 2000. Forest resources of Europe, CIS, North America, Australia, Japan and New Zealand: UNECE-FAO contribution to the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000: main report. UNECE and FAO, United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland and New York, USA.

Anon. 2001. MCPFE classification of protected and protective forest areas in Europe: as agreed at the third expert-level meeting on the Follow up of the Lisbon Conference 25–26 September 2000, Vienna. MCPFE, Vienna, Austria.

Ashley, R., Russell, D. & Swallow, R. 2006. The policy terrain in protected area landscapes: challenges for agroforestry in integrated landscape conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15: 663–689.

Bennett, F.A. 2003. Linkages in the landscape: the role of corridors and connectivity in wildlife conservation. In: Conserving forest ecosystems series No. 1. Australia, IUCN Forest Conservation Programme.

Borrini-Feyerabend, G., Johnston, J. & Pansky, D. 2006. Governance of protected areas. In: Lockwood, Worboys and Kothari, eds. Managing protected areas: a global guide, pp. 116–145. London, Earthscan.

Bruner, A.G., Gullison, R.E., Rice, R.E. & da Fonseca, G.A.B. 2001. Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity. Science, 291: 125–127.

Büttikofer, J. 1947. International Conference for the Protection of Nature: proceedings, resolutions and reports. International Conference for the Protection of Nature.

Caldwell, K. 1934. The International Conference for the Protection of Fauna and Flora of Africa. Journal of the Society for Preservation of Fauna in the Empire, 22: 45–52.

Chhatre, A. & Saberwal, V. 2005. Political incentives for biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology, 19: 310–317.

Coad, L., Campbell, A., Miles, L. & Humphries, K. 2008. The costs and benefits of forest protected areas for local livelihoods: a review of the current literature. UNEP-WCMC.

Dudley, N. & Parrish, J. 2006. Closing the gap: creating ecologically representative protected area systems. Technical Series No. 24. Montreal, Canada, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Dalle, S.P., de Blois, S., Caballero, J. & Johns, T. 2006. Integrating analyses of local landuse regulations, cultural perceptions and land-use/land cover data for assessing the success of community-based conservation. Forest Ecology and Management, 222: 370–383.

Davey, A.G. 1998. National system planning for protected areas. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No. 1. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, IUCN.

DeFries, R., Hansen, A., Turner, B.L., Reid, R. & Liu, J. 2007. Land use change around protected areas: management to balance human needs and ecological function. Ecological Applications, 17: 1031–1038.

Dickinson, M.B., Dickinson, J.C. & Putz, F.E. 1996. Natural forest management as a conservation tool in the tropics: divergent views on possibilities and alternatives. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 75: 309–315.

Ellis, E.A. & Porter-Bolland, L. 2008. Is community-based forest management more effective than protected areas? A comparison of land use/land cover change in two neighboring study areas of the Central Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management, 256: 1971–1983.

FAO. 1988. National parks planning: a manual with annotated examples. FAO, Rome.

Kies, C.H.M.H. 1936. Nature protection in the East Indies. American Committee for International Wildlife Protection, Special Publication 8: 11–23.

Redford, K.H., Brandon, K., & Sanderson, S.E. 1998. Parks in peril: people, politics and protected areas. Washington D.C., Island Press.

Reed, M.S. 2008. Stakeholder participation for environmental management: a literature review. Biological Conservation, 141, Heft 10: 2417–2413.

Stolton, A., Dudley, N., Belokurov, S., Krueger, L., Lopoukhine, N., MacKinnon, K., Sandwith, T. & Sekhran, N. (eds). 2010. Natural solutions: protected areas helping people cope with climate change. Gland, Switzerland, IUCN.

Velazquez, A., Bray, D.B., Duran, E., Romas, V.H., Mas, J.-F., McNab, R., Barry, B.D. & Radachowsky, J. 2008. Tropical deforestation, community forests, and protected areas in the Maya Forest. Ecology and Society, 13: 56.