Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) Toolbox

Mangrove Ecosystem Restoration and Management

This module provides guidance for people interested in mangrove ecosystem conservation, restoration and management. It takes a holistic view, balancing the roles of the wide variety of goods and services provided by mangrove forests – from shellfish and charcoal to sediment trapping and the attenuation of storm surges. Mangroves occur on coastlines, but their influence often extends both inland and far out to sea. 

Ajonina, G., Kairo, G.J, Grimsditch, G., Sembres, T., Chuyong, G., Mibog, D.E., Nyambane, A. & FitzGerald, C. 2014. Carbon pools and multiple benefits of mangroves in Central Africa: assessment for REDD+.

Ajonina, G. Abdoulaye Ndiamé, A. & Kairo, J. 2008. Current status and conservation of mangroves in Africa: an overview. World Rainforest Movement Bulletin, 133.

Alongi, D. 2008. Mangrove forests: resilience, protection from tsunamis and responses to global climate change. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 76: 1–13.

Blankespoor, B., Dasgupta, S. & Lange, G-M. 2016. Mangroves as protection from storm surges in a changing climate. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 7596.

Bosire, J.O., Dahdough-Guebas, F., Walton, M., Crona, B.I., Lewis III, R.R., Field, C., Kairo, J.G. & Koedam, N. 2008. Functionality of restored mangroves: a review. Aquatic Botany, 89: 251–259.

Ellison, A.M. 2000. Mangrove restoration: do we know enough? Restoration Ecology, 8: 219–229.

Ellison, A.M. 2008. Managing mangroves with benthic biodiversity in mind: moving beyond roving banditry. Journal of Sea Research, 59: 2–15.

FAO. 2014. The youth guide to the ocean, edited by C. Hattam, T. Hooper, A. Gordes & R. Sessa. First edition. Rome.

Faridah-Hanum, I., Latiff, A., Hakeem, K.R. & Ȫzturk, M., eds. 2014. Mangrove ecosystems of Asia: status, challenges and management strategies. New York, Springer-Verlag.

Field, C.D. 1998. Rehabilitation of mangrove ecosystems: an overview. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 37: 383–392.

Forbes, K. & Broadhead, J. 2006. The role of coastal forests in the mitigation of tsunami impacts. RAP Publication 2007/1. Bangkok, FAO.

Giesen, W., Wulffraat, S., Zieren, M. & Scholten, L. 2006. Mangrove guidebook for Southeast Asia. RAP Publication 2006/07.

Gilman, E. & Ellison, J. 2007. Efficacy of alternative low-cost approaches to mangrove restoration, American Samoa. Estuaries and Coasts, 33(4): 641–651.

Kauffman, J.B. & Donato, D.C. 2012. Protocols for the measurement, monitoring and reporting of structure, biomass and carbon stocks in mangrove forests. Working Paper No. 86. Bogor, Indonesia, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).

Lewis, R.R. 2009. Methods and criteria for successful mangrove forest restoration. In M. Gerardo, E. Perillo, E. Wolanski, D.R. Cahoon & M.M. Brinson, eds. Coastal wetlands: an integrated ecosystem approach. Elsevier.

McGranahan, G., Balk, D. & Anderson, B. 2007. The rising tide: assessing the risks of climate change to human settlements in low elevation coastal zones. Environment and Urbanization, 19: 17–37.

Narayan, S., Beck, S.M.W., Reguero, B.G., Losada, I.J., van Wesenbeeck, B., Pontee, N., Sanchirico, J.N., Ingram, J.C., Lange, G.M. & Burks-Copes, K.A. 2016. The effectiveness, costs and coastal protection benefits of natural and nature-based defences. PLoS One, 11: e0154735. 

Pendleton, L., Donato, D.C., Murray, B.C., Crooks, S., Jenkins, W.A., Sifleet, S., Craft, C., Fourqurean, J.W., Kauffman, J.B., Marbà, N., Megonigal, P., Pidgeon, E., Herr, D., Gordon, D. & Baldera, A. 2012. Estimating global “blue carbon” emissions from conversion and degradation of vegetated coastal ecosystems. PLoS One, 7(9): e43542. 

Saenger, P. 2002. Mangrove ecology, silviculture and conservation. Dordrecht, the Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Spalding, M., Kainuma, M., & Collins, L. 2010. World atlas of mangroves. London, Earthscan.

Van Lavieren, H., Spalding, M., Alongi, D.M., Kainuma, M., Clüsener-Godt, M. & Adeel, Z. 2012. Securing the future of mangroves. Policy brief. United Nations University.

Walters, B.B., Ronnback, P., Kovacs, J.M., Crona, B., Hussain, S.A., Badola, R., Primavera, J.H., Barbier, E. & Dahdouh-Guebas, F. 2008. Ethnobiology, socio-economics and management of mangrove forests: a review. Aquatic Botany, 89: 220–236.