Irrigation and watershed management programme

The FAO “Irrigation and watershed management” programme in Madagascar seeks to increase productivity in a conservative approach that enables an improved management of natural resources, which consequently enhance the environment and living conditions. The project should allow for the adoption of sustainable practices in annual crops, i.e. water management, no tillage/residue management, to lay sustainable intensification and diversification of irrigated and rainfed agricultural systems in watersheds, as well as reducing deforestation and developing forested areas.

At full implementation, the project is expected to be beneficial for 30,000 households in four rural ‘growth poles’ (Andapa [Sava Region], Marovoay [Boina Region], Itasy Region and Lac Aloatra Region) in Madagascar. It especially aimed at increasing productivity in high potential production zones benefiting from public irrigation systems.

This case study reflects how a watershed investment programme can achieve the dual objective of increasing productivity whilst reducing soil degradation and erosion, hence establishing the basis for viable irrigated agriculture and natural resources management.

Main outputs


Project scenario
(in t eq-CO2)

Simulated scenario(in t eq-CO2)

Total carbon balance



Carbon balance/ha



Carbon balance/year



Carbon balance/smallholder




Project to Support Development in the Menabe and Melaky Regions

The IFAD/AD2M project to support development in the Menabe and Malaky regions was designed to make poor rural people’s access to land and water secure through the productive development of arable land and the sustainable management of valley bottoms and microcatchment areas.

That should allow for sustainably improving and securing farmers incomes as well as integrating people who have recently immigrated into the zone . 

This case study reflects how project of development can contribute to climate change mitigation. It also proposes different project simulations that could improve or degrade the initial carbon appraisal.


Rural Income Promotion Programme (PPRR)

The PPRR has the aim, through partnership poles between producers/transporters/processors and traders, of increasing the income and food security of the rural inhabitants of Toamasina Province, 87.9 per cent of whom are poor, and enhancing the ability of communities to take charge of their own development.

The target region has significant natural advantages given its exposure to rains, which in particular allows the development of a wide range of high-value export crops. This potential gives producers the possibility of increasing their income and provides excellent opportunities for developing strategic and technical partnerships within the framework of implementation of the regional development programme.

Over recent years, the major exacerbation of rural poverty in these regions has had both short-term and structural causes. As a result, the situation is only getting worse, especially for the poorest producers: abandonment, shrinkage of the local market, increased dependency on the informal financial sector and the tendency of exporters to have a passive attitude to the market are some of the observed phenomena that are associated with the break-down of agricultural commodity chains.

The programme has two specific objectives. The first is to improve small producers’ market access by building up commodity chains and helping them to optimize their produce, the second objective is to intensify and diversify agricultural production in order to improve yields and develop export crops, for which the region has great potential. 

This case study presents the mitigation potential of the PPRR under three different scenarios.


Upper Mandrare Basin Development Project (PHBM II)

The Upper Mandrare Basin Development Project in Madagascar is rehabilitating public and community irrigation systems and turning the public systems over to management by their users.

The project aims at contributing to reduce rural poverty through diversification and sustainable increase in rural incomes, improvements in food security and contribution to a sustainable management of natural resources.  

This case study presents the mitigation potential of the PHBM II under three different scenarios.


Irrigation and watershed  management programme

Support development in Menabe and Malaky:

Rural Income Promotion Programme:

Upper Mandrare Basin Development Project: