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Programme 2.5.1 - Technology Development and Transfer

Programme Outcome

Regular Programme   US$ `000  
  Appropriation 11 118  
  Expenditure 10 042  
  Over/(Under) Spending, US$ `000 (1 075)  
  Over/(Under) Spending, % (10%)  
Field Programme   US$ `000  
  Extra-Budgetary TF and UNDP Delivery 16 367  
  Extra-Budgetary Emergency Project Delivery 0  
  TCP and SPFS Delivery 2 372  
  Total Field Programme Delivery 18 739  
  Ratio of Field to Regular Programme 1.9  
  Technical Support Services, Prof. Staff Cost 1 188  
  Technical Support Services, % of delivery 6%  
Programme Outputs
  Approved in PWB Cancelled/Postponed Unplanned Delivered Total Delivered


Percent Delivered
Unmodified Modified
Methodologies and Guidelines 7 (3)   4 2 2 57%
Information Systems 5 (2) 3 6 5 1 120%
Meetings 26 (8)   18 13 5 69%
Publications 25 (8) 3 20 19 1 80%
Direct Services to Countries 16 (1)   15 13 2 94%
Training 9 (2) 2 9 7 2 100%
Total 88 (24) 8 72 59 13 82%


223. Through generation and dissemination of information, knowledge and skills the Programme seeks to operationalize the concept of sustainable development. It takes a holistic approach to research, extension, education, training and communications to address concerns in the areas of food security, rural development, the appropriate use of natural resources and income generation. Emphasis is also placed on participatory approaches and development of innovative methodologies

224. Research and Technology Development. Advice to countries on research policy formulation and strategic planning included preparation of strategic and medium term plans for the organization of their national research systems in terms of personnel management, manpower development, sustainable funding mechanisms, etc., as well as plans for investment in agricultural research in the medium and long term.

225. In partnership with the International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), the Association of Agricultural Research Institutions in the Near East and North Africa (AARINENA) and the International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Studies (CIHEAM), a comparative study of NARS in the Near East Region was initiated. Case studies on strengthening of the role of universities within NARS were prepared and a regional workshop was organized in the Near East on the role of universities in NARS. Studies on the Impact of Foreign Assistance on the Institutional Development of NARS in Developing Countries and the History of Agricultural Research Development in Africa were undertaken in partnership with the Special Programme for Agricultural Research in Africa (SPAAR).

226. Assistance was provided to national institutions to carry out case studies on technology assessment and transfer using methodologies developed by FAO and the results were presented for validation at national workshops, attended by more than 50 participants. Feedback from the national workshops was used to improve the methodology. A paper on gender consideration in technology assessment and transfer was also prepared and an Agricultural Research Management Manual was completed. Studies on the State of the Art on biotechnology were made for fifteen Eastern European countries.

227. Cooperation on agricultural research at sub-regional and regional levels continued to be expanded in collaboration with the Regional Offices. Support was provided to the Asia Pacific Association of Agricultural Research Institutions and the Association of Agricultural Research Institutions of the Near East and North Africa for establishment of the Forum of Agricultural Research in Africa. The European System of Cooperative Research Networks in Agriculture (ESCORENA) continued to operate in the European region, in partnership with CIHEAM for the Mediterranean countries. At the global level, support was provided for the establishment of the Global Forum for Agricultural Research and agreement was reached for one of its major components, the NARS Steering Committee, to be hosted by FAO.

Revival of NARS in Cameroon

Following a serious deterioration in its agriculture research system, the Government requested the assistance of FAO in restructuring its NARS. Through TCP project TCP/CMR/2354, a strategic framework and a medium-term plan were prepared, with recommendations on the size of the system, its organizational structure and regional development and funding mechanisms. In response to this, the Government merged two existing research institutes into an Institute of Agricultural Research and Development and put in place all other recommended reforms. Based upon these developments, the World Bank, the African Development Bank and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) formed a consortium to provide about $20 million to the above Institute to restart its research activities at a viable level.

228. Research Cooperation and Coordination. As a cosponsor of the CGIAR, FAO continued to support and host the Secretariat of its Technical Advisory Committee (TAC). Interaction between TAC and FAO departments and divisions contributed to the formulation of international agricultural research priorities of the CGIAR and constituent Research Centres.

229. A document on the CGIAR priorities and strategies for resource allocation during 1998-2000 was prepared which provided the basis for TAC's recommendations on medium-term resource allocation to the 16 Centres. In collaboration with the CGIAR Secretariat, TAC conducted external programme and management reviews of centres and other important studies. Two specialist panels on biotechnology, operating under the auspices of TAC, were set up to review the conduct of biotechnology related intellectual property rights in the CGIAR.

230. Education, Extension and Training. A workshop for West African countries addressed participatory tools for planning and evaluation of extension, particularly in the application of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) surveys. Workshops on improving training of extension staff to increase the relevance and cost-effectiveness of extension were held in Africa, attended by 60 participants from 20 countries and 22 donor organizations. A regional workshop in Sub-saharan Africa on rural youth programmes in support of food security and sustainable development resulted in 16 countries forming a rural youth network. In the Near East, a workshop was held on training extension workers in developing and using environment education training modules. Improving Agricultural Extension: A Reference Manual was published.

231. A model for involving local villagers in a participatory extension approach was developed based upon experiences in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the methodology disseminated through a regional workshop. Environmental education applied to sustainable agriculture development was included in training programmes for extension services in the Near East. Support was provided to strengthen and expand extension programmes for rural youth in a number of countries.

232. The development and field testing of the publication Participatory Curriculum Development was completed and applied in curriculum development workshops where students, teaching staff and potential employers from the public and private sector come together to review and revise curriculum and courses of study. A publication entitled Teaching and Learning in Agriculture: A Guide for Agricultural Educators was also published as well as a teaching guide on Improving Extension Work with Rural Women.

233. Workshops on teaching and learning processes were organized for countries in Eastern and Central Europe, addressing the impact on the agricultural sector of the transition to more market driven economies. In collaboration with Reading University, a workshop was held on distance learning in agriculture and a set of criteria for instructional materials to be used in distance education activities were developed. Guidelines on best practices were developed on the inclusion of women in higher education and linkages with NGOs. A publication on higher education in agriculture and employment opportunities for women in development was completed. In collaboration with Regional Offices, over 30 countries were provided advice to strengthen agricultural education programmes and broaden access to agricultural education networks.

234. Communication for Development. Advice was provided to countries on national communication policies and systems. A workshop was held with participants from 21 African countries to assess the status of rural radio, identify constraints and prepare action plans for rural radio development. Assistance was provided to establishing a Centre for Communication for Development in Southern Africa (see box). Through over sixty field projects, training was provided in communication skills, methodologies and media. A training package was produced for using traditional and popular folk media for communication in the area of population. Communication support was provided to the SPFS and related FAO priority programmes, including the Pan African Rinderpest Campaign and the Caribbean Amblyoma Programme.

Communication for Development in Southern Africa

The project (GCP/RAF/297/ITA) established a critical mass of communicators in Southern Africa capable of addressing the communication needs of national and regional rural development and effectively promoted the use of communication among policy-makers, regional development agencies and institutions of higher learning. The project established the Centre of Communication for Development within the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) in Harare, Zimbabwe, as a self-financing service for providing advice and training for communication, with special emphasis on strengthening local capacities.
Major achievements of the Centre included: development of a participatory rural communication appraisal method for communication planning; assistance to 18 projects involving thousands of rural people in development of agriculture, livestock, health, nutrition, water and sanitation, the environment, literacy, and women's income generation; establishment of a model post-graduate curriculum in Communication for Development for adaptation by regional educational institutions; and surveys of 17 rural communication projects in order to document results and prepare case studies of lessons learned that can be replicated regionally.

235. Studies were conducted to identify innovative communication strategies and assess the role of new information and communication technologies in rural development. In Chile and Mexico, electronic information networks were developed to provide farmers with production and marketing information. Experiences in various regions were documented, resulting in the publication The Internet and Rural and Agricultural Development.

236. Due to staffing and financial constraints a number of activities in the Programme were cancelled or postponed including: a regional expert consultation on technology assessment and transfer, regional workshops on the integration of SARD into agricultural extension programmes, field-based workshops on agricultural education and a number of communications workshops and training events.

Programme 2.5.2 - Women in Development and People's Participation

Programme Outcome

Regular Programme   US$ `000  
  Appropriation 8 142  
  Expenditure 8 149  
  Over/(Under) Spending, US$ `000 7  
  Over/(Under) Spending, % (0%)  
Field Programme   US$ `000  
  Extra-Budgetary TF and UNDP Delivery 8 664  
  Extra-Budgetary Emergency Project Delivery 0  
  TCP and SPFS Delivery 1 118  
  Total Field Programme Delivery 9 782  
  Ratio of Field to Regular Programme 1.2  
  Technical Support Services, Prof. Staff Cost 677  
  Technical Support Services, % of delivery 7%  
Programme Outputs
  Approved in PWB Cancelled/Postponed Unplanned Delivered Total Delivered


Percent Delivered
Unmodified Modified
Methodologies and Guidelines 11 (6) 5 10 9 1 91%
Information Systems 6 (4) 3 5 5   83%
Meetings 19 (11) 4 12 12   63%
Publications 21 (8) 10 23 22 1 110%
Direct Services to Countries 15 (7) 4 12 12   80%
Training 11 (2) 6 15 13 2 136%
Total 83 (38) 32 77 73 4 93%


237. The Programme aims to integrate demographic factors, socio-economic issues, and gender-specific priorities into the overall activities of the Organization. The Programme coordinates and monitors the implementation of the FAO Plan of Action for Women in Development (1996-2001), provides the focal point for cooperation with the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), and serves as the institutional focal point for follow-up to both the Cairo Plan of Action on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action.

238. Women in Agriculture and Rural Development. Overall guidance and secretariat support was provided to the Inter-Departmental Committee on Women in Development (COWID) which, with support from assigned focal points and/or core groups covers 24 FAO technical divisions. Diagnostic and methodological tools and a training programme were developed to expand the capacity of the professional staff, as well as in member countries, to implement Women in Development (WID)/gender policies and priorities. Inter-agency collaboration continued in the development of the Socio-Economic and Gender Analysis (SEAGA) Programme, as a fully participatory approach to policy, programme and project formulation (see box).

SEAGA Programme (Global Activities)

Various tools and an international team of facilitators/trainers were used in the dissemination of SEAGA methods and tools to many regions of the world, as indicated below:
Latin America and the Caribbean: a workshop was held with 22 countries participating. The Spanish versions of the Intermediate and Field Level Handbooks and the Users Reference were tested in a two-week training of trainers workshop for agricultural extension workers.
Africa: The English version of the Field Handbook was pre-tested and the SEAGA Guide on Irrigation used in technical assistance missions. SEAGA materials were introduced in selected projects under the SPFS. The French version of the SEAGA Users Reference and the Field Level Handbook were prepared and a training session organized.
Asia and the Pacific: The SEAGA Field Handbook was used by IFAD to guide an "impact analysis" in remote villages. A test of the Sector Guide in Irrigation was undertaken and sensitization workshops in SEAGA were held. The SEAGA Handbooks and Irrigation Guide were used by a FAO/UNDP/World Bank mission investigating on-farm irrigation programmes.
Near East and North Africa: The SEAGA Programme was presented at the preparatory meeting to support the mobilization of resources for gender and food security in the Near East. SEAGA materials were pre-tested in the region, prior to wide dissemmination.

239. Broad-ranging activities were undertaken before and during the WFS to focus attention on the role of women as key agents in ensuring national and household food security. A study Reversing the Flow: Toward Gender-Oriented Policy Information Systems in Agriculture was completed. The Regional Plan of Action for Women in Agriculture in the Near East was developed in cooperation with 18 countries of the Near East region, other UN agencies, NGOs and academic institutions, and implementation begun in collaboration with RNE.

240. A method to improve collection of statistics on women in regular national agricultural censuses and sample surveys was developed and published as Guidelines for the Improvement of Statistics on Women. A sub-regional training course for technical Government staff from 10 Central American and Caribbean countries was held to introduce gender issues in the preparation of agricultural censuses using the training modules. A Workshop on Gender and Participation in Agricultural Planning: Harvesting Best Practices was held involving field staff in 12 pilot projects located in all developing regions and dealing with a range of technical areas, which identified a number of new concepts, best practices and strategies and approaches for enhancing gender sensitive and participatory planning.

World Rural Women's Day 1997

For the 1997 celebration of World Rural Women's Day, a world-wide awareness and information campaign was launched on the theme Towards Food Security - Invest in Rural Women. Over 80 countries organized special events (seminars, workshops, technical meetings, village fairs, sales of foodstuffs or handicrafts, etc.) aimed at raising the profile of rural women, bringing their crucial role to the forefront and promoting action in their support. An International Symposium entitled Invest in Rural Women through Training and Information - towards Food Security was held at FAO with over 120 participants including female and male farm leaders, specialists from developing countries, international authorities, NGOs, UN Organizations and the media. The Symposium and similar fora elsewhere in the world on the same day provided wider opportunity for the exchange views and promotion of cooperation. They highlighted the importance of training and information for the empowerment of rural women, as an essential factor towards the achievement of food security and sustainable development.

241. Population and Sustainable Development. Support to follow-up of the Programme of Action of the World Conference on Population and Development continued. An Expert Group Meeting on Food Production and Population Growth was held and focused on the integration of these issues and on policy advice for national capacity building. A technical document Food Requirements and Population Growth was prepared for the WFS and presented long term scenarios of population policy and the implications for sustainable development.

242. Technical assistance was provided to the established UNFPA Country Support Teams in various regions. Studies on population linkages to rural development were prepared and distributed to the country support teams (6 on population and socio-economic and cultural factors; 7 on population and bio-physical factors; 4 on population communication and 7 on population in general).

243. People's Participation. Field manuals were prepared on group promoters, group enterprise management and inter-group association development, and tested in people's participation projects in several countries. Other manuals were completed on cooperative membership development and on capital formation in agricultural cooperatives. A FAO/International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP) workshop on the role of farmers' organizations in policy-making processes in Asia was held as were several workshops on development of agricultural cooperatives. The African Network for Sustainable Food Security was established, with partner institutions in 9 countries in the West and Central Africa sub-regions to support civil society organizations.

244. Collaboration with NGOs and private sector organizations was consolidated through the design and implementation of joint activities of interest to farmers' organizations and groups including the initiation of outgrower schemes in several African countries. The community-based Technology Transfer Centre concept was promoted and training activities conducted to improve the technical knowledge base of small producers.

Programme 2.5.3 - Rural Development and Agrarian Reform

Programme Outcome

Regular Programme   US$ `000  
  Appropriation 7 073  
  Expenditure 5 962  
  Over/(Under) Spending, US$ `000 (1 111)  
  Over/(Under) Spending, % (16%)  
Field Programme   US$ `000  
  Extra-Budgetary TF and UNDP Delivery 9 553  
  Extra-Budgetary Emergency Project Delivery 0  
  TCP and SPFS Delivery 2 172  
  Total Field Programme Delivery 11 705  
  Ratio of Field to Regular Programme 2.0  
  Technical Support Services, Prof. Staff Cost 671  
  Technical Support Services, % of delivery 6%  
Programme Outputs
  Approved in PWB Cancelled/Postponed Unplanned Delivered Total Delivered


Percent Delivered
Unmodified Modified
Methodologies and Guidelines 3 (3) 4 4 3 1 133%
Information Systems 3 (1)   2 1 1 67%
Meetings 4 (4) 3 3 3 0 75%
Publications 13 (6) 1 8 7 1 62%
Direct Services to Countries 6 (2)   4 1 3 67%
Training 4 (4)   0   0 0%
Total 33 (20) 8 21 15 6 64%


245. The Programme focused on assisting rural people to gain access to resources and on how to institutionalize use of available resources for rural development and poverty alleviation. Special emphasis was placed on providing policy advice and strengthening national capabilities.

246. Land Tenure and Settlement. Work was initiated on rural land taxation/valuation and land lease markets. Development of Agrarian Systems diagnosis tools was continued through rural settlement projects in two countries. A network with interested countries was set up in partnership with the World Bank and IFAD to improve access to land markets for the rural poor and others wanting to enter agricultural production. Cooperation was initiated with partners in the development of a database on land tenure issues, in response to requests for assistance in the areas of land registration, cadastre, land consolidation and management of common property. The Land Reform, Land Settlement and Co-operatives Bulletin resumed publication in updated format with two issues a year. External funding was obtained to conduct diagnostic studies by national teams for policy development in the zone freed of Onchocerciasis in West Africa. Extra-budgetary funding was also obtained for the development of a methodology for use by national experts to examine the effects of rapid demographic change on land tenure institutions. A high-level technical seminar on Private and Public Sector Cooperation in National Land Tenure Development was organized.

247. Rural Development. Principles and methods for restructuring rural institutions and establishing and/or strengthening of Chambers of Agriculture were developed and refined through a series of TCP projects. A workshop on the role of municipalities in rural development in Latin America was organized. A Technical Consultation on Decentralization, jointly sponsored by the World Bank, IFAD, United Nations Capital Development Fund (UNCDF), GTZ, Swiss Development Corporation, brought together 160 specialists to discuss best practices in decentralization and the establishment of partnerships for future implementation of decentralization programmes. In follow-up to the Consultation, an electronic guidebook on decentralization was made available and preparations initiated for a technical meeting on the evolving roles of Ministries of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

248. Studies were undertaken on rural household on-farm and off-farm income generating strategies, risk aversion and food security and on poverty reduction policies and strategies in pastoral communities in Central Asia. The ACC Network on Rural Development and Food Security, supported by FAO and IFAD in cooperation with WFP, was established to replace the ACC Sub-Committee on Rural Development. The Network encompasses 20 UN organizations with Thematic Groups on Rural Development and Food Security being set up in about 70 countries.

249. Budgetary and staffing constraints resulted in cancellation or postponement of advisory assistance in the areas of land registration, cadastre, land consolidation and management of common property; development of Agrarian Systems Diagnostic tools and planned household strategy studies and training activities.

Programme 2.5.4 - Environmental Information Management

Programme Outcome

Regular Programme   US$ `000  
  Appropriation 3 312  
  Expenditure 2 805  
  Over/(Under) Spending, US$ `000 (507)  
  Over/(Under) Spending, % (16%)  
Field Programme   US$ `000  
  Extra-Budgetary TF and UNDP Delivery 6 570  
  Extra-Budgetary Emergency Project Delivery 0  
  TCP and SPFS Delivery 203  
  Total Field Programme Delivery 6 773  
  Ratio of Field to Regular Programme 2.4  
  Technical Support Services, Prof. Staff Cost 530  
  Technical Support Services, % of delivery 8%  
Programme Outputs
  Approved in PWB Cancelled/Postponed Unplanned Delivered Total Delivered


Percent Delivered
Unmodified Modified
Methodologies and Guidelines 2 (1)   1 1   50%
Information Systems 7 (1)   6 6   86%
Meetings 2     2 2   100%
Publications 3   1 4 3 1 133%
Direct Services to Countries 3     3 3   100%
Training 1     1   1 100%
Total 18 (2) 1 17 15 2 94%

Programme 2.5.5 - Coordination and Promotion of Sustainable Development

Programme Outcome

Regular Programme US$ `000  
Appropriation 3 379  
Expenditure 2 912  
Over/(Under) Spending, US$ `000 ( 467)  
Over/(Under) Spending, % (14%)  
Field Programme US$ `000  
Extra-Budgetary TF and UNDP Delivery 2 401  
Extra-Budgetary Emergency Project Delivery 0  
TCP and SPFS Delivery 152  
Total Field Programme Delivery 2 553  
Ratio of Field to Regular Programme 0.9  
Technical Support Services, Prof. Staff Cost 96  
Technical Support Services, % of delivery 4%  
Programme Outputs
  Approved in PWB Cancelled/Postponed Unplanned Delivered Total Delivered


Percent Delivered
Unmodified Modified
Methodologies and Guidelines 11 (4) 1 8 5 3 73%
Information Systems 5 (1) 1 5 3 2 100%
Meetings 15 (4)   11 8 3 73%
Publications 18 (6)   12 10 2 67%
Direct Services to Countries 10 (2)   8 6 2 80%
Training 3 (3)       0 0%
Total 62 (20) 2 44 32 12 71%


250. In the revised Programme of Work and Budget 1996-97, the units associated with these two Programmes were merged and the Programmes were effectively implemented together. Their aim was to strengthen the use of environmental based information and of integrated and harmonized methods of data collection and processing using remote sensing, agrometeorology technologies and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and to contribute to overall food security by generating new approaches to Sustainable Agricultural and Rural Development (SARD).

251. Environment Information Management. The African Satellite Environmental Monitoring System (ARTEMIS), in support of FAO's GIEWS was expanded to include Eastern Asia and Latin America in addition to Africa. It continued to provide the environmental information requirements for early warning for food security in the SADC Region. The project on Land Cover Map and Database for Africa (AFRICOVER) became operational in East Africa and the Regional Environmental Information Management Project was successfully established, in cooperation with the countries of the Congo Basin. Partnerships were formed with a number of technical institutions for the development and implementation of projects integrating GIS and remote sensing for environment analysis and development planning and included the development of an Integrated Coastal Analysis and Monitoring System to assist in coastal area management. The Secretariat of the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS) was established at FAO to coordinate global observing strategy on behalf of UNESCO, UNEP, WMO and the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU).

252. Coordination and Promotion of Sustainable Development. Support continued to be provided for environment and sustainability policy formulation and interactions at both national and international level. Substantial progress was made, in partnership with concerned international organizations and agencies, in the development of sustainability indicators and national energy policy formulation and biogas policies development. Advice was provided on national environment plans of action and on development of concept papers on sustainable development of small islands. Emphasis was given to national capacity building through guidelines, manuals, and information on sustainable decision making and agricultural development planning. Awareness of organic farming was promoted and contacts were established between FAO and other organizations active in this field. REU organized a workshop for Central and Eastern European countries on key sustainable development issues.

253. Assistance was provided to the Conventions on Climate Change, Desertification and Biodiversity to facilitate country participation and in line with FAO's international obligations. Support continued for in-house coordination and cross-sectoral activities and for interagency cooperation, particularly relating to environment and sustainable development and follow up to UNCED. Collaboration with the CBD Secretariat in Montreal included the outposting of one staff member and the Conference of Parties on Desertification was hosted by FAO. A substantive contribution was also provided to the Special Session of the General Assembly that reviewed progress five years after UNCED.

Programme 2.5.6 - Food Production in Support of Food Security in LIFDCs

Programme Outcome

Regular Programme   US$ `000
  Appropriation 10 000
  Expenditure 10 738
  Over/(Under) Spending, US$ `000 738
  Over/(Under) Spending, % 7%
Field Programme   US$ `000
  Extra-Budgetary TF and UNDP Delivery 3 848
  Emergency Project Delivery  
  TCP Delivery 2 210
  Total Field Programme Delivery 6 085
  Ratio of Field to Regular Programme 0.6
  Technical Support Services, Prof. Staff Cost 12
  Technical Support Services, % of delivery 0%


254. The SPFS continued to assist interested Low-Income Food-Deficit Countries (LIFDCs) to improve national food security through rapid increases in productivity and food production on an economically and environmentally sustainable basis, reduction in year-to-year variability in production, and improved access to food. Emphasis is given to a multi-disciplinary and participatory approach. Increasing net income of farmers, rural employment, social equity and gender sensitivity are additional core features of the SPFS.

255. SPFS projects are included as part of the Field Programme and their expenditures included in the Programme Outcome tables of the relevant technical programmes under TCP and SPFS Delivery. The TCP delivery indicated in the above table reflects TCP projects which complement and support SPFS activities in LIFDCs.

256. Implementation of the SPFS foresees a Pilot Phase and an Expansion Phase. The Pilot Phase is planned and implemented by the Governments and rural communities concerned through the mobilization and training of local personnel and farmers and through the supply of inputs, tools and equipment. The four interrelated and complementary micro-economic components of the pilot phase are:

257. The results obtained at each pilot site each season, including returns to producers, are quantified and analysed to reorient operations and provide a firm analytical basis for replication at additional sites and for preparations of the expansion phase. Within a country, the pilot phase may be extended to as many as 30 sites to cover different ecological, economic and administrative areas. The programme may also be extended by adding the different components in existing sites.

258. The Expansion Phase normally entails the assistance to Governments on macro-economic issues:

259. Since its inception in 1994, over 70 requests have been received from Governments of LIFDCs to participate in the SPFS. By the end of 1997, the SPFS was operational in 29 countries, including 17 in Africa, 5 in Asia and the Pacific, 3 in the Near East and North Africa, 3 in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 1 in Europe. In response to Government requests, projects were formulated in a further 40 LIFDCs, including 17 in Africa, 7 in Asia and the Pacific, 6 in the Near East and North Africa, 6 in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 4 in Europe. These countries are listed in Table 2.5-1

Table 2.5-1: SPFS Implementation Status, 31 December 1997

Africa Asia and the Pacific Near East and North Africa Latin America and the Caribbean Europe
Operational Stage
Angola Cambodia Egypt Bolivia Bosnia & Herzegovina
Burkina Faso China Syrian Arab Rep. Ecuador  
Eritrea Mongolia Yemen Haiti  
Ethiopia Nepal      
Ghana Papua New Guinea      
Formulation Stage
Benin Bangladesh Azerbaijan Cuba Albania
Burundi India Djibouti Dominican Rep. Armenia
Cameroon Korea, DPR Kyrgyz Republic Guatemala Georgia
Cape Verde Laos Morocco Honduras Macedonia, FYR
Central African Rep. Maldives Sudan Nicaragua  
Chad Philippines Turkmenistan Suriname  
Comoros Sri Lanka      
Côte d'Ivoire        
Equatorial Guinea        

260. Initial indications were that the pilot demonstrations of improved production technologies resulted in substantially higher yields and higher incomes for participating farmers compared to farmers using traditional practices. Although results varied widely between countries and crops, most countries reported broad readiness among farmers to adopt the new approaches. Participatory Rural Appraisals carried out in Bolivia, Niger, Papua New Guinea and Haiti and seminars and workshops in other countries, including China, Kenya and Ethiopia, identified a number of key constraints important in improving the overall approach. Selected results and achievements of the SPFS are described in the following box.

SPFS Selected Results and Achievements

Eritrea: Results during the 1996 crop season indicated that yields more than doubled compared to local varieties grown on neighbouring farms. The number of farmers participating in the programme doubled compared to the previous year.

Ethiopia: Yields of teff, sorghum and wheat on demonstration farms during the 1997 cropping season were nearly double those of the control farmers. Cost-benefit analysis indicated that the value-cost ratio ranged from 2.2 to 2.5. The experience obtained from the SPFS was incorporated into the Government's extension package for its dry land production programme covering around 10,000 farmers.

China: Grain yields were estimated to have increased over 60 percent between 1994 and 1997. Annual per capita farmer's income more than doubled since improvement work was initiated in 1994, increasing from an average of 667 Yuan during the period 1992-94 to 1,277 Yuan in 1997. Over 650 000 farmers were trained.

Nepal: The area under irrigation increased from 10 to 42 percent and cropping intensity increased by 30 to 60 percent in 19 pilot sites growing a wide range of food crops. On-farm water management techniques and strengthened water user groups introduced in both Hill and Terai districts were effective in improving farmers' knowledge and application of efficient water use. The area under perennial irrigation increased by 15 percent in one season. Yields of wheat increased on average by 70 percent, while rice yields grew by about 45 percent. The economic internal rate of return was calculated to vary from 47 to 89 percent.

Tanzania: Data for the 1996 season for SPFS pilot sites indicated yield increases for rice of 50 to 130 percent and for maize production of 118 to 165 percent in comparison to pre-SPFS yields. Livestock activities also carried out as part of the SPFS included improved chicken and goat husbandry methods and vaccination of over 14 000 chickens against Newcastle disease. Farmers' groups were strengthened.

261. A new initiative to foster South-South Cooperation was launched under the SPFS, with the support of interested donors and FAO. The objective of the scheme is to allow recipient countries to benefit from the experience and expertise of more advanced developing countries by providing experts for two to three years to work directly with farmers in rural communities in the implementation of the SPFS. Agreements concluded under the scheme included provision of 100 Vietnamese experts and field technicians to work during a two-year period in Senegal, of which over 40 were already in place in 1997. In addition, joint missions formulated South-South Cooperation programmes between Ethiopia and China, and Eritrea and India, respectively. Similar arrangements were prepared for cooperation between Niger and Morocco and Burkina Faso and Niger.

262. Expenditures from the Regular Programme for the 1996-1997 biennium slightly exceeded the appropriation of US$ 10 million. In addition, a number of bilateral and multilateral donors supported Pilot Phase activities in the countries where the SPFS was operational as well as formulating programmes in newly participating countries. The extra-budgetary resources mobilized in support of the SPFS (direct and indirect) exceeded US$ 20 million, as indicated in table 2.5-2.

Table 2.5-2: Donor Support to the SPFS, Resources Mobilized in 1996-97

Donor Recipient(s) Amount US$ `000
Japan Niger 600
Italy Angola, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Senegal 7 000
Belgium Burkina Faso 1 300
Netherlands Mali (including pledges) 2 100
France Haiti, Madagascar 1 000
Spain Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, Mauritania 2 000
Canada Ethiopia (to be channelled bilaterally) 5 500
UNDP Rwanda 700
Total   20 200

263. Collaboration with financial institutions in the context of the SPFS also expanded. Memoranda of Understanding were signed with the World Bank and with the African Development Bank for the promotion of rural development and food security, with both banks agreeing to consider providing loan funding of up to US$ 1.5 million for the pilot activities of the SPFS in Africa, subject to requests from the Governments concerned. A similar Memorandum of Understanding was signed with the Islamic Development Bank (IDB). IFAD provided funding for the water harvesting components of SPFS sites in Tanzania and Zambia. In Angola the SPFS is jointly carried out by FAO, IFAD and WFP.

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