Contributions to the Discussion

Contributions AUGUST 25 - September 01, 2000

From: "Alejandro R. Socorro Castro" asocorro@ucf.edu.cu
Sent: 25 August 2000 03:20
To: Urban-Food-L@mailserv.fao.org
Cc: marid@pgu.ecuanex.net.ec
Subject: Sesión 1 / Session 1.

Agricultura Urbana y Periurbana / Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición Doméstica Sesión 1. (English version below).

Mi nombre es Alejandro R. Socorro Castro, actualmente soy profesor en el Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias de la Universidad de Cienfuegos, Cuba. Desde 1994 he estado participando en el proyecto de apoyo al desarrollo de la agricultura urbana en la provincia de Cienfuegos y muy particularmente en la ciudad cabecera del mismo nombre. He conducido varias investigaciones agronómicas y también de corte socio - cultural asociadas a lo que hemos llamado aquí el movimiento de agricultura urbana. En mi Departamento se conducen varios proyectos que están ligados a la agricultura urbana y periurbana. Además, recientemente he conducido una investigación en el tema de los sistemas de cultivo vertical como alternativa para un mejor uso del espacio urbano, la cual fue financiada por el programa AGROPOLIS / CIID Actualmente he comenzado a trabajar en un proyecto que considera un sistema de indicadores como la base de la gestión agraria sostenible.

Sobre la base de nuestras vivencias las respuestas a las cuestiones presentadas son:

¿Quién se ocupa de la AUP, por qué y cuando (estacional, de emergencia, de jornada completa o parcial)?
El movimiento de Agricultura Urbana en Cuba se ha desarrollado sobre la base de la decisión del gobierno de fomentar la producción de alimentos en las ciudades y sus perímetros atendiendo a la necesidad generada por los acontecimientos en torno al derrumbamiento del bloque socialista de Europa. Así surgen los organopónicos, los huertos intensivos y otras modalidades de AUP, cuyas inversiones corrieron a cargo de los gobiernos locales y fueron entregados en usufructo a personas solicitantes. Paralelamente bajo las necesidades de la población, crecieron otras producciones por iniciativa propia de los habitantes y otras incentivadas y asistidas por el gobierno. También existen los agricultores que por su propia cuenta producen para el consumo del hogar en pequeños espacios.

¿Quién consume la producción de la AUP y cómo afecta su condición nutricional?
En Cuba la producción de la AUP básicamente la consume la población urbana (aproximadamente el 80 % de la población cubana vive en las ciudades) y de acuerdo a los percápitas de consumo de vegetales frescos, varias localidades se acercan o sobrepasan los 300 g/día que plantea la FAO.

¿Cuáles son los productos agrícolas que ofrecen el mejor potencial para una producción urbana eficiente?
Atendiendo a las particularidades de las costumbres, cultura alimentaria y en definitiva la demanda y eficiencia productiva de las intalaciones de AUP que se explotan para generar ingresos, el mejor potencial está en los vegetales frescos que se venden en el mismo lugar en que se producen o que se llevan a las calles por diferentes medios. Actualmente se ha fomentado el ciclo (bicicletas). También la producción de animales traspatio es importante, pues ha sido practicada por muchas personas.

¿Emplean los vendedores ambulantes ingredientes de la AUP?
Los vendedores ambulantes básicamente venden los productos de la AUP, es decir los vegetales frescos producidos en los organopónicos y huertos intensivos. Otros productos del agro traídos del campo son vendidos en otro tipo de mercado. También existen vendedores ambulantes que burlando impuestos venden o revenden productos en la calle, pero básicamente de la periferia.

En otro orden de cosas:
me parecen MUY INTERESANTES las preguntas de Marielle sobre los indicadores y en definitiva el tema. Precisamente he estado presentando un proyecto sobre eso, del cual he repartido algunas copias buscando apoyo para el mismo. En la II Asamblea de AGUILA dicho proyecto se entregó a Marielle y a otros colegas de AGUILA.

En Cuba existe un programa nacional de AUP, que es conducido por el Ministerio de la Agricultura y asesorado por el INIFAT (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones de Agricultura Tropical). Bajo la conducción del grupo nacional, existen grupos en cada provincia que no solo monitorean diferentes indicadores de la contribución de la AUP, sino también proyectan, planifican y controlan su desarrollo. La información estadística se recoge en cada lugar, se lleva por las granjas urbanas y son la base del análisis de un grupo de indicadores base de evaluación y toma de decisiones de las organizaciones y los gobiernos en los municipios. Actualmente al nivel de cada Consejo Popular (órgano de gobierno de base que abarca un territorio dentro del municipio) se tiene un inventario de tierras, animales e instalaciones en explotación para cada uno de los subprogramas (25 subprogramas) definidos por el programa nacional.

En cuanto a la producción de vegetales frescos, como uno de los subprogramas de mayor importancia y desarrollo, se registran varios indicadores en las modalidades:
1) Organopónicos,
2) Huertos Intensivos y
3) Parcelas y Patios.

Entre las diferentes variables de evaluación para los lineamientos (metas) definidos cada año nacionalmente, los indicadores fundamentales son:
1) percápita de producción, expresado en g/habitante urbano/día;
2) Superficie de cultivo neta total, construída, contratada y percápita (por habitante urbano);
3) Volumen de producción de un territorio y su crecimiento y
4) Rendimiento de las cosechas totales producidas en el año, expresado en kg/m2/año.

Ahora bien, nuestro proyecto persigue desarrollar un sistema de indicadores de sostenibilidad que considere las dimensiones económica, social y ambiental; teniendo en cuenta las propiedades fundamentales de un agroecosistema.

English version (Pardon for mistakes)

UPA / Food Security / Session 1.

My name is Alejandro R. Socorro Castro; currently I am a professor in the Department of Agrarian Sciences at the University of Cienfuegos, Cuba. Since 1994 I have been participating in the support project to the UA development in Cienfuegos province and particularly in the main City. I carried out several agronomic researches an some others in social and cultural subjects, those linked to the called "movement of Urban Agriculture". In my Department, some projects linked to UPA are conducted. Furthermore, recently, I have conducted a research in the subject of "vertical gardening", which was supported by AGROPOLIS/IDRC. I have begun to work in a project that is considering a system of indicators as the basis of the sustainable agrarian management.

On the basis of our experiences the answers to the presented questions are:

Who is engaging in UPA, why and when (seasonal, emergency, full-time or part-time)?
The movement of UA in Cuba has been developed on the basis of government decisions in order to increase the food production in the cities and its perimeters, as an alternative to face the needs generated by the socialist block collapse in Europe. In that way the organopónicos, Intensive gardens and some other kinds of UPA were developed. Such investments were done by the local governments and were delivered to the people following the "usufruct" way. At the same time, under the people needs, some other productions grew as their own initiatives and other supported by the government. Also home agriculturists who produce in small spaces exists.

Who consumes the output of UPA and how does it affect their nutritional status?
In Cuba, basically, the UPA production is consumed by the urban population (80 % of Cuban people live in the cities) and according to the fresh vegetable consumption per day, some places are close or over the 300 g / inhabitant / day as the FAO indicator.

What agricultural products offer the best potential for efficient urban production?
According to the customs, diet culture and to the demand and productive efficiency of UPA installations, which are used to generate incomes, the best potential is in fresh vegetables which are sealed in the same place of production or in the streets by using different media. Currently the bicycles have been increased. The backyard animal production is important too. It has been practiced for many people.

Do street food vendors use ingredients from UPA?
The street food vendors basically sell the products from UPA (fresh vegetable which are produced in urban gardens). Other products from the countryside go to another kind of markets. Also some vendors who sell in the streets some products without tax payments exists, but those products basically are from the periurban places.

Considering another things:
It looks like to me as VERY INTERESTING the questions formulated by Marielle about the indicators. I have been presenting a project about the subject of UA indicators. I delivered some copies looking for financial support. In the II Assembly of AGUILA it was given to Marielle and some other AGUILA partners.

In Cuba exists a national program of UPA that is conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture and assisted by INIFAT (National Institute of Researches on Tropical Agriculture). Under the conduction of a national group, some groups in each province exists. Those groups not only monitor different indicators of the UPA contributions, else they project, planify and control its performance. The statistical information is taken at every place, It is stored by the urban enterprises and are the basis of the analysis of a group of indicators. Those indicators are the basis of decisions taken by the organizations and the municipalities. Currently at every Popular Council (basic government cell that covers a territory in the municipality) exists an inventory of lands, animal husbandry and installations used by each one of the sub - programs (25 sub - programs), which are defined by the national program.

According to the fresh vegetable production, as one of the most important, are registered some indicators in the systems:
1) organopónicos,
2) Intensive Gardens and
3) Parcels and Backyards.

Between the different variables of evaluation for the goals that are defined every year nationwide, the main indicators are:
1) production as g / inhabitant / day;
2) Net crop surface (total, built surface, contracted, and per urban inhabitant);
3) Amount of production for a territory and the growth rates and
4) Yields of total harvests during a year, as kg / m2 / year.

Our project aims to develop a system of sustainability indicators that considers the economic, social and environmental dimensions; considering at the same time, the agroecosystems main properties.

Atentamente, Sincerely yours

A.R. Socorro
Ciencias Agrarias Universidad de Cienfuegos
Cuatro Caminos, Cienfuegos, CP 59430, CUBA
Teléfono y Fax: (53)432 22912
asocorro@ucfinfo.ucf.edu.cu

From: "Oleg Moldakov" moldakov@mailbox.alkor.ru
Sent: 28 August 2000 09:39
To: Urban-Food-L@mailserv.fao.org
Subject: Contribution from Oleg Moldakov 

Urban-Food / Session 1 / Contribution from Oleg Moldakov

My name is Oleg Moldakov. I'm a Researcher on Urban Agriculture (soil science and agro chemistry are my background)

I'd like to add my contribution related to research I've been developing in Russia in a frame of "Soil and Water management in agricultural Production in Urban Areas in CEE and NIS countries" project

Who is engaging in UPA, why and when (seasonal, emergency, full-time or part-time)?

The remark
First of all the term "farming" has commercial sense in Russia, it apply to the persons, for which an agriculture is the basic source of their incomes, such people employ the workers during harvesting , they try to take the credits from the state on seeds, fertilizers, equipment and other. The part of the townspeople has small agricultural plots near to the house (backyard), sometimes they have the significant family income, when they were engaged cultivation of flower culture or early vegetables and greens on sale, but they will use only work of the members of family, not employing the hired workers. They are real family household. All other townspeople, which are engaged in agricultural activity on day-off from the basic work time or if they are on pension, it is possible to consider as the subsistence "farmers"(in Maria Madaleno' terminology) in common sense.

In the Soviet period (1950-1970) the townspeople had desire to have the house for countryside rest about the river, lake or forest. Then there was a problem of shortage freshen of production (1970-1990) Authorities have permitted to organize plots in a suburban and village zone. Even up to 100 kilometers from cities (compare less then 50 km of Paule Munster' contribution, big country, you agree?). Now townspeople has 5 on 6 meter summer house with sheds or shed -like a temporary escape from a rain inside or more often outside cities and plot from 0,02 up to 0,15 hectares. The construction of roads and electricity was organized in the majority of such settlements. In the vegetation/ growing period some of the citizens (some 500 000 in Petersburg, 5-7%) are in such urban apartments for 3-4 months.

Other townspeople work and / or have a rest on these plots in days off or during holidays / vacation. In detail Types of the urban farmers are more detailed described in my article "Urban farming in St.-Petersburg " Urban Agriculture Magazine volume 1, number 1, June 2000, http://www.ruaf.org <http://www.ruaf.org/>

Half of population of cities directly or are obliquely involved up to such agricultural activity (quantity of the registered owners of plots multiply on 3 and receive figure, for example for St.-Petersburg 2, 5 million "farmers" and total population 4, 3 million) However, main working persons older people and less often middle age generation (about 900 000). Children till 18 years are limited collateral time spending on plots and they participate in agricultural work only under pressure of adults. The women are more engaged in cultivation of ag production, the men are engaged in construction of houses, sheds, bath-houses, wooden fences, digging of wells. Such work proceeds from middle of April up to the end of October. The townspeople harvest a crop, preserve production for winter use and are forgiven with a plots till the next spring. The peak of agricultural activity of the townspeople was per 1991-1992 years, when the danger of hungry winter was considered substantial. Some stabilization of food supply and self-supply now takes place. About 30 000 sites outside cities now will not be utilized on next reasons:

Long distance from a plot up to a urban apartment (long time travel), high travel costs up to a plots. In some cases it is not increased of family income (attn. Arine Valsar) but diminished, especially if person has no travel subsidy / ticket for free from City administration as pensioners has.

Recently there is no necessity to reserve products for winter, the living conditions were improved (forever? It's a question.)

The new generation of the owners does not wish to be engaged in an agriculture , preferring other kinds of activity

Who consumes the output of UPA and how does it affect their nutritional status?

The consumers is practically all townspeople, except for a small part of well-beings and rich townspeople (5-10 %), they prefer purchase of production in supermarkets

What agricultural products offer the best potential for efficient urban production?

Early vegetables, greens.

Do street food vendors use ingredients from UPA?

Usually such street vendors are older woman (babushka). In cities of Russia the urban "farmers" sell vegetables, greens, berries, fruits and she-goat milk in the places, specially allocated on them in the urban food markets (about 5 % from all trade places). Also in those places, where they would like, but in these cases they are pursued by militia (police) there and police does not permit trade because overcrowded situation in narrow place, dust, bad view, etc.

Oleg Moldakov
Researcher on Urban Agriculture
St-Petersburg Downtown Gardening Club, Russia
moldakov@mailbox.alkor.ru

From: "Malongo Mlozi" via: Foeken@fsw.LeidenUniv.nl
Sent: 28 August 2000 11:57
To: Urban-Food-L@mailserv.fao.org
Subject: UPA 1 

Urban-Food-L / Session 1 / Contribution from Malongo Mlozi

Dear Participants of UA / PUA / RUA,

These contributions will pertain question No. 1 and 2 of UPA. I have read the background papers by Rachel Nugent and Henk de Zeeuw and find them interesting and informative. My contributions to the two questions based on the experience of Tanzania are as follows:

For question No. 1. Like most studies carried out in developing countries, coming up with an exact figure is a problem. Given this, therefore, it has been difficult to estimate with accuracy the contribution that urban and peri-urban agriculture contributes to the overall urban food supply needs in Tanzanian towns. However, specific figures are there for single vegetables such as Amaranthus sp. (mchicha) where its urban contribution in the city of Dar es Salaam has been put at 90%. Although this is not a forum to point out some limitations for getting these data, empirical evidence show that perhaps urban and peri-urban food sources contribute about 20% of the food consumed in the urban areas. However, this figure could differ with towns, and the commodity being discussed. For example, the supply of broiler meat in the city of Dar es Salaam is 100% supplied by peri-urban and urban farmers. Perhaps the city produces about 70% of the milk and eggs consumed.

For question No. 2. This question requires that we understand the food habits of urban dwellers and the economic imperatives within a given location. For example, it would be erroneous to say that urban farmers should grow cabbage instead of Amaranthus-mchicha. Mchicha in the city of Dar es alaam is preferred because its short period of growth (only three weeks), and the low inputs that it requires-leaving alone the water. Also, raising dairy cattle in and around the city of Dar es Salaam offers better comparative advantage than in other places because of the demand (price) of milk in the city. This is therefore, to say that for one to say about the potential agricultural product to undertake in a town other factors have be looked into. In Tanzania, research shows that certain products can be produced in certain towns, and because of this, a blanket recommendation cannot be made for all towns in the country. However, we see that most people mimick others by raising improved dairy cattle even in areas where milk is not a problem--such as in Mwanza and Shinyanga. These towns have ample supply of milk coming from rural farmers some of whom are a few kilometres from the towns. Research results from Tanzania show that environmental factors, economic imperatives, and the availability of consumers (demand) dictate the type of agricultural product that urban farmers can produce. For example, most university lecturers who used to raise improved dairy cattle at Sokoine University of Agriculture in Morogoro are opting out because there other sources of milk from which consumers can get (university farm, Maasai livestock keepers, commercial small dairy cattle keepers).

I hope these add thoughts to deeper thinking about urban and peri-urban agriculture in the world, and especially in Third world countries.

Best regards.

Malongo R.S. Mlozi
Based at Sokoine
University of Agriculture,
Morogoro, Tanzania.

Currently at African Studies Centre in Leiden, The Netherlands (for 7 days).

From: "Malongo R.S. Mlozi" via Foeken@fsw.leidenuniv.nl
Sent: 28 August 2000 13:13
To: Urban-Food-L@mailserv.fao.org
Subject: UPA 1

Dear Participants for the Food Security and Nutrition Discussion on UPA.

I want to respond to item No. 3 of the Conference Theme: Who is engaging in UPA, why and when. What is being grown / raised?

My experience is from Tanzania, East Africa.

1. Who is engaged?
My experience and research carried out in the country indicate that UPA is engaged first by the poor urban farmers who moved to towns sometime 5 to 10 years back and their main intention was to look for jobs. The reason that they undertake UPA is first to provide food for their families, and second to sell the surplus and earn some money to buy other consumables i.e., clothes, medications, school fees. These people undertake UPA on a part time basis and it is seasonal. Production of mainly food crops such as maize, paddy sweet potatoes is a seasonal activity because most farmers depend on rains to raise their crops.

Second, are middle class urban farmers who raise mainly maize and paddy in Morogoro peri-urban areas mainly to sell the products. The later group of farmers are employees mainly in the government institutions in Morogoro and sometimes in Dar es Salaam. And, the later group employees labour to work in their peri-urban food production activities. Also, they hire tractors to plough the land and transport the products.

Within the urban areas middle class urban dwellers raise mainly dairy cattle, improved chickens for eggs and broiler meat. Also, the poor urban dwellers in the high density and squatter areas grow a variety of crops (maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, plantain, vegetables) on small plots ranging from 0.4 to 0.5 of an acre. Most urban dwellers undertake urban agriculture using little technology and inputs. A growing trend in most urban areas in Tanzania is the increase of local chickens in the urban areas--testifying to the notion of "ruralization of urban areas."

These are some of comments for to-day.

Note: Dr. Rachel Nugent at FAO and Florence Egal at FAO note that I Prof. Malongo R.S. Mlozi is sending this message from The Netherlands at the above address and not from Tanzania where I registered for conference (Daee@suanet.ac.tz). I will be here for a week and will participating in the conference from this e-mail address.

Thank you all.

Malongo R.S. Mlozi

From: "IBSRAM - Africa Office" ibsram@africaonline.com.gh
Sent: 28 August 2000 13:20
To: KMathey@aol.com
Cc: Urban-Food-L@mailserv.fao.org
Subject: Re: Urban-Food / Session 1 / marielle + paule

Dear Kosta, thanks for your question. However, data and calculation look OK. You might have to consider that we are in the tuber belt of West Africa and the society here loves to eat related dishes, not "light" vegetables.

If you take only cassava / plantain / meat and fish (to address the major dish: fufu) plus garden eggs (for the soup), you get in average already 1 kg / pers / day. Imagine your family likes to eat (if possible every day in the evening) potatoes and bananas, that would be quite "heavy" in terms of kg. Take in addition other crops, such as yams and potatoes (again quite "heavy") and add rice and millet, and you get additional 0.44 kg / pers / day. Now add some "heavy" fruits, such as pineapple. And then add the other food items which contribute little by little (in total, we covered 24 different food items). The data base on a home consumption survey over 14 days covering about 440 people in 45 christian families and 46 moslem families in Kumasi plus a street-food consumption survey of 215 people. Household members were stratified into 3 age groups. The calculation considered the actual religious ratio. The error margin was estimated as 20%.

Best regards

Pay
Dr. Pay Drechsel
International Board for Soil Research and Management (IBSRAM)
Africa Office c/o KN-UST, Kumasi, Ghana
Tel / Fax: +233-(0)51-60206,
email: ibsram@africaonline.com.gh

Original Message

From:KMathey@aol.com
To:ibsram@africaonline.com.gh
Cc: Urban-Food-L@mailserv.fao.org
Sent: Sunday, August 27, 2000 9:16 PM
Subject: Re: Urban-Food / Session 1 / marielle + paule

> Dear Dr. Pay Drechsel >

> You write: > >
<< We found that the "average" person in Kumasi consumes annually 766 kg of > food. >> > > > If I am calcualting correctly, that means over 2 kg per person and day - > inlcuding babies, the old and the sick. Is that correct? Even for the rich > countries that seems an enormous amount of food. Maybe the figures refer to > families? >

> Kind regards, >

> Kosta Mathey,
Berlin, Germany >>

From: Laura Saldivar-Tanaka <Ls85@cornell.edu> 
Date: 29 August 2000 08:39
To: urban-food-l@mailserv.fao.org
Subject: Contribution from Laura Saldivar-Tanaka

Urban-Food-L / Session 1 / Contribution from Laura Saldivar-Tanaka

Hi everybody, it's a little bit late, but I want to jump in this interesting discussion. My name is Laura Saldivar-Tanaka, I am from Mexico, and currently I am doing my Master in Science at Cornell University, NY, USA.

In the last years I became very interested in urban / periurban environmental issues, and currently I am doing my thesis research on Community gardens in New York City. Even though I am yet in my initial stage I will try to share some of the things I have observed. I wish somebody from NYC, with more knowledge on this area, were jumping in the discussion as well. As a note I have to mention that my research is focusing in Community Gardens in the Latino community, which means that what I might be sharing will not apply for the rest of the cases.

Hola, un poco tarde, pero quiero brincar a esta interesante discusion. Mi nombre es Laura Saldivar Tanaka, Soy de Mexico y actualmente estoy haciendo mi maestria en ciencias en la Universidad de Cornel, NY, EU.

En los ultimos años me he ido interesando mucho en cuestiones ambientales urbanas y periurbanas, y actualmente estoy haciendo mi investigacion de tesis sobre Jardines Communitarios en la Ciudad de NY. Y aunque apenas estoy comenzando voy a intentar compartir algunas de las cosas que he observado. Me encantaria que alguien de NY, con mas conocimiento en el tema, tambien brincara a la discusion. Como nota tengo que mencionar que mi investigacion se enfoco en Jardines comunitarios dentro de la comunidad latina, lo que significa que lo que yo valla a compartir talvez no refleje el resto de los casos.

Also, I will give some information that might be not the most updated, but if you became more interested you can contact Greenthumb, Green Guerillas, Just Food, and other organization in NYC that support and work with the Community Garden. You can go through cityfarmer.org

Ademas voy a dar informacion que talvez no sea la mas actualizada, pero si ustedes tiene mas interes pueden contactar a Greenthum, Green Guerillas, Just Food, y otras organizaciones en NY que trabajan con los Jardines Comunitarios (JC).

In NYC there are about 850 Community Gardens (CG), with about 25,000 members. The lots where these gardens are located are not very big, but normally they will be bigger as we go to the outer part of the city, where the demands for land are lower. Beside 120 lots that were bought by advocate groups last year, many of the gardens are in public land. From last year the city authorities had been planing to tear down most of these community gardens in order to build "low-income" housing. If you want to see more of this issue you can go to the link that Cityfarmer.org has on NYC. (Beatriz creo que esto te puede interesar).

En la Ciudad de NY hay alrededor de 850 JC, con alrededor 25 mil miembros. El tamaño de los lotes donde normalmente se localizan no son muy grandes, pero normalmente se agrandan conforme se alejan del centro de la ciudad, donde las demandas por terrenos son menores. A escepcion de 120 terrenos que fueron comprados en una subasta el año pasado por grupos simpatisantes, la mayoria de los jardines estan en terrenos publicos. Desde el año pasado las autoridades de la ciudad han planeado en destruir muchos de estos jardines para contruir vivienda de "bajo costo". Para mas informacion en esto ir a la pagina de cityfarmer.org

I will start answering the questions, and then I will like to reflect on some of the comments that have been said. Voy a comenzar contestando las respuestas, y despues me gustaria reflecionar un poco en lo que se ha dicho. Y disculpen si ya no traduzco.

1. How much does urban and peri-urban agriculture contributes to overall urban food supply needs?
Unfortunately, there is not enough data on this area, but currently people from Cornell Cooperative Extension and Just Food are working in this issue. In general I have noticed that they can be a important seasonal source of fresh and ethnic vegetables, herbs, fruits, etc for the gardeners / city farmers and the soup kitchens, food banks, or community centers that some time get donations from them. The interesting thing is that they are doing this more as a pressure to get more information and indicators of the importance of the gardens.

3. In the areas you are familiar with, who is engaging in UPA, why UA?
In NYC most of the users of CG are low-income people, I found that many of them are retired or unemployed. Normally, in the gardens you will see a wide range of nationalities represented, especially from developing countries. CG have proved to be places that attract immigrants who see them as places where they can continue practicing part of their cultural practices and values. So far, in the Latino CG that I visited I saw more men involved, but I think this has to do with the issue that this people are doing this not as survival thing and women have to do much work in their houses.

and when (seasonal, emergency, full-time or part-time)?
They start when the weather starts to warm up, very few CG will have a green house.

What is being grown / raised?
They grow all type of vegetables (beans, pepper, tomato, collar greens, carrots, lettuce, maize, beets, hot cabbage, pumpkin, squash pepper, herbs (cilantro, basil) flowers (sun flower, marigolds), threes (apple, peach, pear) vines (grape), shrubs (blueberries, raspberries). But, in fact it all depends on where the people are from. For example in some of the sites I visited, where they are a lot of Mexicans, they grow certain herbs and vegetables from Mexico, that I have to said I didn't even knew about. Or in some of the predominantly Puerto Rican CG, they will grow Gandule, ñame, and other plants that will not mature, but they do it as a way to teach kids and to remember.

4. Regarding the different foods produced, who are the consumers?
The gardeners themselves, the neighbors, people form the community, homeless, visitors...

Do they contribute to the diet of households engaged in UPA?
In some extent I believe so, it depends but for instance I think among the Mexicans I met, it does. And there have been some recent studies showing that the people involved in CG have better diets. I guess in the case of NYC, where UA is not a "need" those who are engage in CG are doing it because they enjoy this activity, they like, and are used, to eat more vegetables and fresh food, and because it is a hobby-therapy.

Is this contribution occasional, seasonal?
Unfortunately yes.

5. How is the money generated through the sale of UPA used?
Very few CG will have food stands were they will sell their produced, and normally this money is used within the garden or for common events. Actually, I am not so sure these gardens are self sustainable because right now they get either some sort of support for official or no-official organizations and many times the gardeners spend a lot of money from their pockets.

6. Do street food vendors use ingredients from UPA?
No, but there are plans to start connecting local restaurant with some of the most productive gardens, to create a type of entrepreneurial business.

Reflection:

Diana wrote: "It is true that planners do not normally consider UA as a land use "
Well, NYC is the perfect example. In the city maps (plans) the lots where the CG are located are consider as vacant lots. For them it is the same whether it is a lot full of trash and dump or a garden 25 years old.

Marielle wrote: "Is it food security? Is it income generation? Is it for physiological or cultural reasons (hobby, leisure, growing your own cultural food, growing organic food)?"
I like to think it is all this, and that is what makes UPA so fascinating, it is a way to show the "big ones" that we can accomplish things in a local, lower scale, using our resources, recycling, being creative, growing our own food, working in something that we like, healing the earth, beautifying our community, creating jobs, and over all, being self-sufficient.

Beatriz escribio: " El hambre no se soluciona con AUP sino con reglas de juego más equitativas entre los países más desarrollados y los países pobres".
Estoy muy deacuerdo contigo, pero creo que este es uno de los elementos, sobre todo a escala local, que pueden contribuir a crear cambios. Tenemos que seguir documentando y promoverlos para que los que escriben las reglas vean que tiene que considerar este tipo de opciones. Yo creo que este es un buena forma de que la gente se haga conciente de lo que esta pasando en otros niveles y ademas yo creo que si vamos logrando autosuficiencia alimenticia vamos a conseguir romper muchos lazos. Es por eso que lo que esta pasando en NY, por mas pequeño que parezca, es algo muy importante, es una batalla que se esta jugando entre la comunidad y los inversionista.

Beatriz escribio: "el avance de las corporaciones internacionales agro-químicas-alimentarias con su estrategia de generación de mayor dependencia en el uso de semillas transgénicas y de agroquímicos"
Otra vez concuerdo contigo, y por eso creo que en la medida en que consumidores como los americanos se den cuenta de lo grave que esto es, se va ha dar un cambio (forzado por cuestiones economicas). Y claro que tenemos que hacer lo mismo en nuestros paises. Por ejemplo en Mexico hemos estado importando y comiendo maiz trangenico por años sin saberlo. Y para colmo de males, Televisa (la cadena televisiva mas importante) tiene toda una campaña publicitaria en favor de la ingenieria genetica.

Beatriz escribio: "Creo que la seguridad alimentaria del mundo peligra (y no solo de los países pobres), si no se definen leyes y regulaciones transnacionales para estas estrategias de las corporaciones. Son las universidades, las ONGs y los organismos internacionales, con capacidad de investigaciones independientes, quienes tienen más posibilidad de producir evidencias que sirvan para legislación internacional sobre los impactos de estas estrategias (agroquímicos, transgénicos) en la salud y en la seguridad alimentaria del mundo."
De acuerdo, por desgracia muchas veces en estas mismas intituciones hay dinero e intereses de por medio, lo cual no les permite permanecer en un campo neutro. Ejemplo claro de esto es el mismo Cornell.

Beatriz escribio: "una posible estrategia de involucrar a población desocupada urbana -cuyo origen sea de áreas rurales, o sea que tenga cultura campesina- en programas de escala intermedia de tipo granjas ecológicas ..."
En el estado de NY, hay un grupo que se llama Greenmarket, que promueve lo de los mercados ("Farmers Marquets"), Agricultura apoyada por la comunidad (Community Support Agriculture) y un poco lo de la produccion local en Jardines comunitatios para abasto local. Bueno, justamente ellos han comenzado un programa en que estan convocando a migrantes de origen rural, con experiencia en agricultura, para que se valla a trabajar a las granjas que estan cerca de la Ciudad de NY. Todo esto tiene que ver con planes recientes relacionados con el manejo de la cuenca hidrologica y el tratar de impedir que las tierras que antes eran agricolas sean abandonadas y vendidad por sus dueños originales quienes quieren retirarse de la produccion agricola. Creo que la idea es que a la gente que acepte mudarse a las granjas, se les ofrecen mejores salarios, etc. que a un jornalero (trabajador por dia) con la posibilidad de volverse los administradore! s de las granjas.

I hope, those who are dealing with UPA, in areas where it is certainly an important source of food and nutrition supplement, would not diminish the role these CG play in NYC. I think that even though they might not seem to play an important role in the diet, this Community Gardens are key element for people in urban settings to understand the complex and food production and distribution system, and the importance of eating fresh and healthy food. CG are also important places for people to became more aware of the environmental situation and in some case of social and economical injustice. As a supporter organization says Community Gardens are Community Centers.

Lastly, I will like to ask people to spell out the abbreviation that are used for the first time (ig. CIRAD). Sorry but I am not very familiar with many of the institutions out there.

Sorry if I did not translate everything, but if anybody wants me to do it, please let me know.

Hope these words will be a good food for your thoughts.

Espero que estas palabras sean buen alimento para sus pensamientos.

Laura Saldivar-Tanaka
Dep. Natural Resources Fernow Hall
Cornell University Ithaca NY. 14850
Ls85@cornell.edu (607) 272 1651

From: "Tanya Bowyer-Bower" tb5@soas.ac.uk
Sent:29 August 2000 22:23
To: Urban-Food-L@mailserv.fao.org
Subject: UA in Harare, Zimbabwe

Urban-Food-L / Session 1 / Contribution from Tanya Bowyer-Bower

My name is Tanya Bowyer-Bower, I am a lecturer, researcher and consultant in the Geography Department at SOAS (the School of Oriental and African Studies) of the University of London. 1992-95 I undertook a research project collaboratively with the University of Zimbabwe looking at 'the social, economic and environmental implications of UA in Harare'. The project looked at the widespread but illegal practice of cultivating public land - road- side verges, land bordering railway tracks, on golf courses, undeveloped open spaces in Harare which are vlei land and yet undeveloped because they are seasonally waterlogged and which would otherwise be considered parkland, etc. This is termed 'off- plot' cultivation to distinguish it from 'on-plot' cultivation which is on privately owned land, and which was not a part of this study. The study was funded by the ODA (now DfID).

I have the following contributions to make to the questions set for the first part of our discussion:

What is being produced?:
Approximately 75% of the land area cultivated was to produce Maize - the main subsistence crop. Sweet potato was the second most common crop (approx 25%). The remainder included groundnuts, green beans, tomatoes, rape and rice.

Who are the consumers / how much of what is sold?:
Maize: 65% of families consumed 80% or more of what they produced. 30% sold at least half of what they produced, and 30% gave at least 20% of their produce away - to extended family, dependents - sometimes to dependents in rural areas in time of drought, and for barter, etc.
Sweet Potatoes: 21% of families sold at least 80%. 20% sold more than half their produce. 50% gave much of it away.
Groundnuts: Not for significant self-consumption. 30% of families sold more than half the harvest. 60% gave a significant proportion away.
Beans, rape and tomatoes: equally either sold or self consumed (not given away). i.e. the social purpose / function of the produce varied with crop type. The choice of what the family grew was accorded to the families needs in terms of what function they intended for the harvest.

How does the consumption affect their nutritional status / how is the income used?:
In Harare what was sold was to provide an income to pay other costs such as transport, housing costs, school fees, social activities, other foods such as cooking oil, etc. What was given away was fulfilling family expectations and social functions. What was consumed meant less had to be purchased releasing income for other purposes. It augmented the quantity of food available to a household, rather than improving the quality of nutritional intake. This UA was using urban storm runoff for its water supply, and sometimes (illegally) municipal water. In times of drought (e.g.1992), at an individual family level, this urban produce was an invaluable addition (and in some instances almost the only supply) to the food intake of members of the family living in rural areas. This illustrates the need to also see UA (and PUA) as an important element of rural- urban linkages.

Is this contribution occasional / seasonal?:
The cultivation in Harare was entirely dependent upon the highly seasonal and unpredictable rainfall input (only augmented by opportunistic illegal use of municipal water - not enough to be dependent on it) - thus seasonal (rains are approx Oct - March). Land cultivated in wet season is left abandoned in dry season, and during such times cultivators undertake other informal-economy activities.

How is the produce marketed?:
Maize: 15% main vegetable market in Harare 5% small markets close to cultivators 10% street stalls 12% at local shops 15% to family and friends 40% from the cultivator's house / at the cultivator's plot 5% other

Of the maize that reaches the formal marketing system, what is it's destination?:
50% the Grain Marketing Board 13% wholesalers 13% hawkers 11% shops 9% tuckshops 3% other

Who is engaged in UA and why?:
As this UA is illegal, all cultivation was opportunistic (dependent upon families decisions based on perceived risk compared with perceived gains in the context of available opportunity - individual to each family in terms of where they live, who they know, what they know, etc.) In the mid 1990's most families involved in cultivation had at least one member of the family involved in formal employment. With the worsening economic climate in Zimbabwe since, this is probably increasingly no longer so. Women (and in some instances older retired men) do most of the main work during most of the week. Men and children are seen joining women to work on plots at the weekend. Families who have a member of the family in formal employment may be more successful in gaining access to a plot through their contacts. The research found that the poorer families involved in cultivation sold more of their produce than the richer families. The richer families involved in cultivation consumed more of their produce that the poorer families, illustrating the importance of income from selling produce to the poorer families. Richer families used significantly more high cost inputs (fertilisers, pesticides, and mechanisation) than the poor families (50% of families compared with 5% of families). As a result the plots of richer families had significantly higher yields and healthier crops, which yielded higher unit incomes. The research found that poor families had been engaged in UA for more years than rich families. Poorer families had a lower proportion of total household income (about 10%) contributed from retailing self produced crops than richer families (about 20-30%). i.e. The findings are similar to those found in Ghana by Pay Drechsel, by Dick Foeken in Kenya, and by Lee-Smith in Tanzania..

How much does UA contribute to overall urban food supply needs?:
-depends upon how good the rains are that year vis a vis how good the harvest will be.
-Also depends upon how widely the authorities slash cops in any one year (as stated above, all the UA is illegal). Even in 1994 33.5% of all open space areas in Harare were cultivated despite authorities being highly active in attempting to prevent the cultivation. Since then the authorities have relaxed their position, and so cultivation is now even more widespread.
-Note UA's contribution to rural food supply needs as stated above.

Re Mariella Dubbeling's question: how do we measure contribution of UPA to household and urban food security:
interview those undertaking UPA, ascertain from them how much they are producing of what and what are they are doing with it. That is how the above was ascertained.

Re the Gender issue:
In Zimbabwe, UA is very much a household activity. Whoever is available does the work, no matter what their gender. Where available men will do the more mechanical things. Women the more day to day care. Children help when available. Hired labour very rarely used except amongst the wealthier cultivators (notable by their . I also looked into undertaking a similar study of UA in Kano in northern Nigeria for an organisation interested to know whether increasing the profile of UA there could help women in particular. A simple answer was no - not in such a strict Muslim society where the majority of women were rarely to be seen out of doors and were certainly not involved in labour-intensive activities.

Re Diana Lee-Smith's comments on gender / affluence of cultivator:
What she reports as having occurred in Dar-es-Salaam: the encouragement of UA as a formal urban land use has squeezed out the poor women subsistence farmers and encouraged larger commercial production - there is every sign that this is what would happen / is happening in Harare. Production would become / is becoming the preserve of increasingly affluent and entrepreneurial middle-men. In future the poor may only get a look in as paid labour. The need for careful management of the 'legalisation' of UA is very important if this is to be avoided. Whether to prioritise UA as a self- help strategy for the urban poor is a decision that would have to be made at the regional level, and then would have to be managed accordingly. NOTE: It cannot be assumed that the poor will automatically be the ones to benefit from UA. This used to be the case but now middle-men are moving in. I agree that a definite stand should be made on UA alleviating urban poverty through better food security for the urban poor.

Main references for the above project:

Bowyer-Bower T A S and Drakakis-Smith D (1996) The needs of the urban poor versus environmental conservation: conflict in urban agriculture. Final report of Project R5946 of the Overseas Development Administration (ODA) now Department for International Development (DfID), UK.

Bowyer-Bower T A S (1996) Criticism of environmental policy for land management in Zimbabwe. Global ecology and biogeography letters, 5, 7-17.

Geographical Journal of Zimbabwe Number 28, December 1997: includes a number of papers on UA in Harare.

Dr T A S Bowyer-Bower
Department of Geography,
School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS),
University of London,
Thornhaugh Street, London, WC1H OXG, UK.
tb5@soas.ac.uk

From: Francisco Arroyo
Sent: 31 August 2000 08:49
To: urban-food-l@mailserv.fao.org
Subject: FW: From Francisco Arroyo, Mexico City 

Urban-Food / Session 1 / Contribution from Francisco Arroyo, Mexico City

Escribe Francisco Arroyo G.D. desde la ciudad de México. Ingeniero Agrónomo y Maestro en Desarrollo Rural. Coordinador de programas de la ONG: Centro de Investigación y Capacitación Rural A.C. (CEDICAR) y Coordinador general de la sección México de la Red AGUILA de Agricultura Urbana "Aguila-mexicana".

Antes de responder a los cuestionamientos del documento de Rachel Nugent y Florence Egal, quisiera aclarar que entendemos por agricultura periurbana (AUP) a la que se realiza en la periferia de las ciudades y que muchas veces está luchando con el crecimiento urbano para sobrevivir como actividad productiva. Respecto a ella ahora no escribiré. Está también la esfera de la agricultura propiamente urbana o "intraurbana", la cual se realiza dentro de las ciudades en los espacios que pueden aprovecharse para ello, lo cual puede ser muy variable de una ciudad a otra. CEDICAR A.C. viene desarrollando desde 1994 un programa de agricultura urbana en la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de México. Se refiere a pequeños huertos familiares de autoconsumo, de 3 a 10 metros cuadrados. Se utiliza un sistema de producción al que denominamos "organoponia", el cual se realiza en contenedores tales como botes de 19 litros, llantas descartadas cortadas y volteadas, cajones de madera, tinas de plástico o lámina, etc. El 85% de los recipientes se llena con materia orgánica, la cual se activa con líquidos fermentados (composta, estiércol y/o orina humana). En la parte superior se coloca un 15% de tierra y ahí se siembra o transplante de inmediato. La técnica permite producir hortalizas, medicinales y/o aromáticas al mismo tiempo que en el contenedor de produce tierra de hoja. Después de 10 meses cada contenedor produce, además de los vegetales cultivados en ese tiempo, tierra a partir de materiales orgánicos, lo cual es importante para lugares donde no hay tierra o ésta es de mala calidad.

Paso entonces a responder los cuestionamientos.

1. ¿Quién se ocupa de la AUP, por qué y cuando (estacional, de emergencia, de jornada completa o parcial)?
Son principalmente las mujeres, las personas mayores y menores, sobre todo entre 7 y 15 años. Los motivos que animan a tener un pequeño huerto son:
- La satisfacción de producir alimentos sanos y poder consumirlos frescos y, por tanto, con todo su sabor y valor nutritivo. Con 10 metros cuadrados, una familia promedio de 5 integrantes puede producir un 30 a 40% de las hortalizas que consume durante el año. No se logra autoabasto total pero sí un porcentaje significativo de seguridad alimentaria.
- Lograr un ahorro económico.
- Contribuir al saneamiento ambiental a través del reciclaje implícito en la técnica de la organoponia, es decir elaboración de composta, fabricación de tierra de hoja en los contenedores y aprovechamiento de la orina, lo cual se traduce en ahorro de agua y/o adopción de sistemas sanitarios secos. Educación ambiental puesta en práctica.
- Integración familiar y aumento de la autoestima. En cuanto al tiempo, estos huertos pueden producir todo el año gracias al clima de la ciudad de México y hay que dedicarles, en promedio, 15 minutos por día.

2. ¿Quién consume la producción de la AUP y cómo afecta su condición nutricional?
La producción es de autoconsumo familiar. No se han realizado estudios cuantitativos para evaluar la condición nutricional, sin embargo, lo que queda claro es que con la producción familiar aparecen disponibles verduras sanas (sin pesticidas), frescas y que dan variedad y micronutrientes a la dieta. De otra manera no existía esta disponibilidad.

3. ¿Cuáles son los productos agrícolas que ofrecen el mejor potencial para una producción urbana eficiente?
Indudablemente las hortalizas en primer lugar. Medicinales y aromáticas o condimentos en segundo término.

4. ¿Emplean los vendedores ambulantes ingredientes de la AUP?
Para el caso de nuestro programa no. Sin embargo e inicia la comercialización de insumos que facilitan a las familias mantener y conservar sus huertos en producción.

From: Jovita Abensur Rios imagen@ec_red.com.pe
Sent:31 August 2000 08:52
To: urban-food-l@mailserv.fao.org
Subject: FW: UPA 1 - Seguridad Alimentaria

Urban-Food-L / Session 1 / Contribution from Jovita Abensur Rios, Lima, Peru

Estimados participantes:

Quiero compartir mi experiencia respecto al tema AUP y Seguridad Alimentaria. La ONG que dirijo "IMAGEN Educativa" en el Peru, viene ejecutando proyectos sobre el tema en referencia, empleando tecnologia hidropónica, por ajustarse esta a las condiciones propias de las urbes, caracterizadas por la casi total desaparicion de terrenos agricolas tanto en la zona intra urbana como peri urbana, sustituyendose en el primer caso por la utilización de jardines, patios y azoteas, y en el segundo caso, la compensacion de unidades agricolas por la alta productividad a traves de esta tecnologia.

Voy a exponer brevemente dos proyectos ejecutados en las zonas urbano marginales o peri urbana y uno en zona intra urbana de Lima Metropolitana:

El primer caso, esta referido a Huertos Familiares, caracterizado por desarrollarse al interior de las viviendas principalmente en los techos de las mismas, en areas de aproximadamente 12 metros cuadrados, suficiente como para producir una variedad de hortalizas para mejorar la alimentacion de la familia. El segundo caso, esta referido a Parcelas Familiares, caracterizado por desarrollarse en zonas peri urbanas con disponibilidad de areas entre 300 y 1000 metros cuadrados, generalmente en laderas de cerros y arenales y cuya produccion inicial en 120 m2 se caracteriza por ser monocultivo (lechuga y tomate) orientado a su comercializacion a traves de cadenas de super mercados orientados a los segmentos A y B de la ciudad, generando asi recursos complementarios a las familias hidrocultoras por un monto aproximado de 90 a 100 dolares mensuales.

En ambos casos la produccion es de mayor calidad y de mayor rendimiento que la produccion proveniente de la agricultura de las zonas peri urbana o rural. Igualmente, en ambos casos la produccion es permanente y su manejo esta a cargo de los miembros de la familia, principalmente con la participacion protagonica de la mujer, madre o esposa; tarea que en el caso de huertos demanda jornadas parciales de no mas de una hora diaria y en el de parcelas no mas de 2 horas diarias excepto en situacion de trasplante de plantulas a los contenedores y de cosecha, en los cuales la jornada puede demandar entre media o una jornada completa dependiendo del numero de participantes de la familia en la labor.

Los casos mencionados responden a proyectos financiados por cooperacion tecnica internacional. En el caso del proyecto de huertos una de las concluciones mas relevantes es que cualquier proyecto que asuma este objetivo debe considerar elementos que garanticen su autosostenibilidad post proyecto, caso contrario los huertos en la nueva etapa iran progresivamente desapareciendo. En el caso del proyecto de parcelas es obio su auto sostenimiento a nivel post proyecto ya que genera los ingresos necesarios para ello. Al efecto, el proyecto incluye empresa de apoyo tanto para la capacitacion y asistencia tecnica como para la comercializacion de la produccion.

El tercer caso, esta tambien referido al desarrollo de huertos familiares con la sola diferencia de que su ubicación esta en zonas intra urbanas de Lima Metropolitana de segmentos A y B autofinanciados, siendo su principal motivacion tener el acceso a la mano de hortalizas frescas y sanas, asi como terapia animica. 

Jovita Abensur Rios
IMAGEN
Educativa ONG Lima Peru 
Email: imagen@ec_red.com.pe

From:"Valstar, Arine (ESNP)" < Arine.Valstar@fao.org
Sent: 31 August 2000 16:13
To: Urban-Food-L@mailserv.fao.org
Subject: nutrition related assumptions

Urban-Food-l / Session 1 / Contribution from Arine Valstar

Dear Participants,

It has been very interesting to follow the ongoing discussion in this E-conference. We have some questions on nutrition related assumptions for which we would like to ask your help:

1) It is generally assumed that the contribution of UPA increases the supply and therefore decreases the cost of(and facilitates access to) fresh products in cities, is this true in your experience?

2) We understand that there is limited information on the links between UPA and changes in nutritional status. Have any studies been done to see if UPA led to changes in food consumption patterns of urban consumers / producers?

The related assumption here is that UPA contributes to a more diversified urban diet which is richer in micro nutrients? Can you agree with that?

The contribution of Dick Foeken was enlightening in respect to this second question. We also welcomed Tanya Bowyer-Bower contribution on Harare, Zimbabwe. Tanya you said that the quantity of the diet is increased rather than the quality, which seems to be in contradiction to the assumption in the second question. Perhaps you can share with us how you collected the food consumption information and provide more details on the outcome, since there are so few data available on this important matter. Likewise it would be interesting to get more details on the positive impact on the diet that was observed by Isabel Madaleno in Brazil.

I hope to learn more in the coming days / weeks about the actual contribution of UPA to the total urban food availability and consumption (preferably in percentages of the total) in different parts of the world.

Thank you all.

Arine Valstar
Associate Professional Officer
Nutrition Programme 
Service Food and Nutrition Division 
FAO-Rome

From: "CEK - Kala Saba" kalasaba@malinet.ml
Sent:01 September 2000 12:43
To: "Urban Planning" <Urban-Planning-L@mailserv.fao.org>;
"Urban Food" < Urban-Food-L@mailserv.fao.org
Subject: Tr: e-conférence 

Urban-Food-L / Session 1 / Contribution from Madiou Gassama, Bamako, Mali

AUP et la planification :

1°) Activités agricoles et la planification

Je suis membre d'une équipe de Recherche qui travaille depuis plus d'un an sur l'AUP à Bamako en relation avec la gestion des déchets urbains.

Au cours des enquêtes préliminaires que nous avons effectuées, il est apparu que le problème de terre est le principal point de discorde entre l'AUP, le problème de terre doit être envisagé à deux niveaux différents:

* L'Agriculture urbaine : dans la répartition des terres dans nos villes en pleine expansion, il n'apparaît nul part que des zones intra-urbains ont été réservées par le planificateur pour la production agricole. Cependant on observe actuellement la création de quelques jardins publics au centre-ville (ornement) et des îlots de jardins potagers. Les agriculteurs installés en zone intra-urbaine selon notre enquête occupent :

* Des espaces encore non mis en valeur

* Des emprises des voies ferrées

* Les bordures des cours d'eau

* Des zones de recasement provisoires

Ils sont dits "propriétaires" quand l'administration reconnaît de fait leur installation sans pour autant leur reconnaître la propriété de la terre.

Certains sont en location. Ils payent la redevance chez le soit disant propriétaire.

D'autres occupent leurs terres sans autorisation. Dans ce cas on parle d'occupation anarchique.

Ici l'élevage se fait dans les concessions.

* L'Agriculture périurbaine:

Toutes les formes d'occupation de terre citées dans le cas de l'AU existent ici. En plus, il faut retenir le fait suivant sous les deux premières Républiques du Mali (1960- 1968 et 1968 - 1991), des concessions rurales ont été distribué dans la périphérie de la capitale. L'objectif visé était de favoriser la production agricole (légumes - lait -œufs frais et viande) en minimisant le temps et les frais d'approche. Cette politique n'a malheureusement pas connu un grand succès. Les zones concernées ayant rapidement été englouti par l'extension de la ville, les concessions rurales furent transformées par la plupart en magasin, garages, etc. dans certains cas elles ont été morcelées et vendues pour servir comme terrain à usage d'habitation.

Les avantages de l'AUP sont immenses.

* L'AUP est une source d'emploi

* Elle permet la production des denrées alimentaires (légumes -œufs - viande)

* Elle contribue à la valorisation des déchets urbains par l'utilisation des déchets urbains directement, des terreaux ou du compost.

2°) Localisation des activités de l'AUP

* les concessions rurales

* les espaces non mis en valeur (voir 1°)

* bordures des cours d'eau

Source d'eau :

Essentiellement : les puits et le fleuve. La qualité de l'eau est jugé connue bonne par les utilisateurs en dehors des points voisins des débouches d'égouts vers le centre ville

La disponibilité en eau n'est pas dans l'ensemble bonne. Les petits exploitants qui occupent des zones où les puits sont tarissables, changent de zone en cas d'insuffisance d'eau (2 à 3 mois).

Les Marchés :

Dans l'agriculture urbaine les exploitants vendent leurs produits surtout dans les marchés centraux.

Dans l'agriculture périurbaine les ventes se font dans les marchés des quartiers périphériques.

Dans tous les cas, on observe aussi de plus en plus des ventes sur place (lieux de production). Nos enquêtes ont montré que les exploitations sont généralement situées entre 6 et 8 km des lieux de commercialisation en agriculture urbaine et entre 15 et 30 km en agriculture périurbaine.

3°) Impacts et compatibilités :

Les agriculteurs enquêtés pensent que leur activité n'a pas d'implication sur les activités voisines. Leurs partenaires (vendeurs de semence, engrais, pesticides, matériel) sont alors au marché.

L'agriculture urbaine est pour certains exploitants l'activité principale (majorité) ou secondaire et parfois l'unique activité. Dans les deux premiers cas, les maraîchers peuvent être des commerçants, enseignants, mécaniciens, tailleurs, etc.

Madiou Gassama
Cabinet d'Etudes Kéïta - Kala Saba "CEK - Kala Saba"
B.P. : 9014 BAMAKO (République du Mali)
BADALA SEMA GEXCO
RUE 136 PORTE 501
Tél. : +223-238412
Fax : +223-238413
E-mail : kalasaba@malinet.ml
E-mail : cek@spider.toolnet.org
Site web : http://www.cek.com.ml

From:"CEK - Kala Saba" kalasaba@malinet.ml
Sent:01 September 2000 12:37
To: "Urban Planning" <Urban-Planning-L@mailserv.fao.org>;
"Urban Food" < Urban-Food-L@mailserv.fao.org
Subject: e-conference

Dear All,

We, at CEK are working in Mali for a project that is looking into the potentials of development of Urban & Peri Urban Agriculture in Relation to Urban Waste Management in West Africa.

This project started last year and we are now setting up protocoles and pilots which aim to involve gardeners and cereal farmers in producing, testing and using compost, made out of household waste, agricultural residues, manure and waste from slaughterhouse. This is done with a participative approach, according to farmers knowledge, ideas and wills.

Before this, we looked into the UPA situation in our capitale, Bamako. We are very glad to present our first findings. We will be also glad to up-date you in the future with all the final conclusions. We would like to make a contribution about "What are the constraints on producers and how best to mitigate them regarding land"?

In Bamako, land is a very important aspect and this sows dissesion. We believe that in this case, the land problem should be tackle in two ways: At the urban agriculture level, urban planning is not yet including space for agriculture activities within the boundary of the commune. Nevertheless, small green areas such as parks or vegetable gardens are build, specially in the center of the town. Vegetable gardeners are using land that is not yet being developed, small areas along the railway path and along the banks of the Niger river. To some extend, they are recognised as "owner" of their activities by the public authority. Some time, they pay a rent to a so-called owner and sometime they are squatting.

At the peri urban agriculture level, from 1960 to 1991, agricultural spaces were allocated in the periphery of the capital. The objective was to promote the production of vegetables, milk, eggs and meat, to decrease the cost of transportation and the time. Since 1991, these areas have been swallowing up by warehouses, garage stations etc..and in some cases they became living areas.

"What are the advantages of the UPA"?
UPA is not only providing income and jobs, it contributes to provide food and also to re-use solid waste through compost production for example.

"Where UPA activities located?"
At the rural plot, along the river or the railway.

Water is collected directly from the river or through wells. Water is considered as good except when located closed to sewage discharges. There is a limitation with the water ressource, usually available only for a couple of months.

Vendors are selling at central markets and at external markets. Vendors sell also on site. Field investigations showed that vegatable gardens are located at 6 to 8 km from the market areas in the case of UA and at 15 to 30 km in case of PUA.

The other people involved in PUA & UA such as vendors of seeds, pesticides, materials etc. are working at the market. For some farmers, it it their main activity. 

Mandiou Gassama
Traduction de Nadine Dulac (WASTE)
CEK Kala Saba BP 9014 Bamako (Rép. Mali)
Tél : 223/ 23 84 12
Fax : 223/23 84 13
émail : kalasaba@malinet.ml

From: "Ivan Bazan" pazbazan@chavin.rcp.net.pe
Sent: 01 September 2000 16:54
To: <urban-food-l@mailserv.fao.org>
Cc: urban-planning-l@mailserv.fao.org
Subject: Contribution from Mirtha Paz Castro

Urban-Food-L / Session 1 / Contribution from Mirtha Paz Castro 

My name is Mirtha Paz Castro, I am Peruvian, I am agronomy engineer and I am Master in Breeding genetics of plants. A period of my professional experience I growed in Programn Green house school and family formation and to enable a promoters at south of Lima city, also experience in green house family in department of Puno at the south of Peru with altitude 4000 m. Other period was research in sweet potatoes for selecting varieties low sugar for proceeding snack products.

In relation to questions, my answers are:

1. No meet my experience negatives impacts, viability of agriculture ecologist is satisfactory, in my opinion no continues this programme is negative.

2. My experience the better impact for AUP is improve the diet feed. The AUP no would give a solution for poverty but may be an instrument for improve the nutrition and quality of food.

Thank you for your opinion.

Mirtha Paz Castro

Mi nombre es Mirtha Paz Castro, Soy peruana, soy ingeniera agronoma y magister en Mejoramiento genetico de Plantas. Una etapa de mi experiencia profesional la desarrolle en programas de Huertos escolares y familiares formando y capacitando a promotoras en el cono sur de la ciudad de Lima, como en experiencia en huertos familiares en el departamento de Puno ubicado en el sur del Peru a 4000 m.s.n.m. Otra etapa realizada es la investigacion en camote o papa dulce con la finalidad de seleccionar variedades con bajo contenido de azucares para procesarla como bocaditos.

En relacion a las preguntas estas son mis respuestas:

1. No encuentro en mi experiencia impactos negativos la viabilidad del desarrollo de una agricultura ecologica fue satisfactoria, en mi opinion la no continuidad de estos programas es lo negativo.

2. En mi experiencia el mejor impacto de la AUP es el mejorar la dieta alimentaria. La AUP no va ha solucionar el problema de pobreza pero si puede ser una herramienta para mejorara la nutricion a su vez la calidad de alimentos que se ingiera.

Gracias por su opinion.

Mirtha G. Paz Castro
Ingeniera Agronoma
M.Sc Consultora Urb.
La Calera de Monterrico
Lote 10
Maz M
Calle Alfa gemelos
Lima 34
Tel: 51-1-449-3269 51-1-449-0227
E-mail: pazbazan@chavin.rcp.net.pe