DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF COMMODITIES

(Draft)

CEREALS AND CEREAL PRODUCTS



1. CEREALS AND CEREAL PRODUCTS


CEREALS are generally of the gramineous family and, in the FAO concept, refer tocrops harvested for dry grain only. Crops harvested green for forage, silage or grazingare classified as fodder crops. Also excluded are industrial crops, e.g. broom sorghum (Crude organic materials nes) and sweet sorghum when grown for syrup (Sugar crops nes). For international trade classifications, fresh cereals (other than sweet corn), whether or not suitable for use as fresh vegetables, are classified as cereals.

Cereals are identified according to their genus. However, when two or more genera are sown and harvested as a mixture they should be classified and reported as "mixed grains".

Production data are reported in terms of clean, dry weight of grains (12-14 percent moisture) in the form usually marketed. Rice, however, is reported in terms of paddy.

Apart from moisture content and inedible substances such as cellulose, cereal grains contain, along with traces of minerals and vitamins, carbohydrates - mainly starches - (comprising 65-75 percent of their total weight), as well as proteins (6-12 percent) and fat (1-5 percent).

The FAO definitions cover 17 primary cereals, of which one - white maize - is a component of maize. Each definition is listed along with its code, botanical name or names, and a short description.

Cereal products derive either from the processing of grain through one or more mechanical or chemical operations, or from the processing of flour, meal or starch. Each cereal product is listed after the cereal from which it is derived.


Cereals and Products

Wheat

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0015WHEAT
Triticum spp.:
common (T. aestivum)
durum (T. durum)
spelt (T. spelta)
Common and durum wheat are the main types. Among common wheat, the main varieties are spring and winter, hard and soft, and red and white. At the national level, different varieties should be reported separately, reflecting their different uses. Used mainly for human food.
0016Flour of Wheat Defined broadly to include meal, groats and pellets. Strong flours from hard wheat are used for bread, while durum wheat flour is used primarily for pasta. Weaker flours from soft wheat are mainly used in cakes, pastries, biscuits and certain noodles.
0017Bran of Wheat See Chapter 11.
0018Macaroni Pasta made from semolina, or flour, that is mixed with water and kneaded into a dough. Other ingredients may be included as well. The dough is then shaped into various forms. This heading is limited to macaroni that is not cooked, stuffed or otherwise prepared.
0019Germ of Wheat The seed embryo. Whole or rolled germ is used for oil extraction by solvents. Flaked or ground germ is used in bakers' wares, dietetic preparations, feed supplements and in pharmaceutical preparations.
0020Bread A baked product of flour or meal of cereals, especially wheat. Includes ordinary, unleavened, crackers, rusks, etc.
0021Bulgur Whole wheat grains that are boiled, dried and cracked, either between stones or in a hand mill. Very popular in the Near East.
0022Pastry All baked products excluding those listed under bread. Pastry products may contain ingredients other than wheat flour, such as milk, eggs, sugar, honey, starch, fats, fruit, seeds, etc.
0023Starch of Wheat Starch is the carbohydrate component in many plant cells. A white, odourless powder that is insoluble in cold water, it forms a paste in hot water. Wheat starch is used for human consumption and animal feed, and is processed into glucose and dextrine for industrial use. It is usually obtained from low-quality flour.
0024Wheat Gluten A by-product of the industrial production of starch, wheat gluten is the preferred cereal gluten for food purposes. Uses include enriching protein in flours for bread, pasta, etc.
0026Wheat-Fermented Beverages See Chapter 15.

Cereals and Products

Rice

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0027RICE PADDY Oryza spp., mainly oryza sativa Rice grain after threshing and winnowing.Also known as rice in the husk and rough rice. Used mainly for human food.
0028Rice, Husked Rice grain without hulls or husks. Also known as brown or cargo rice.
0029Rice, Milled (Husked) White rice milled from imported husked rice. Includes semi-milled, whole-milled and parboiled rice.
0031Rice, Milled White rice milled from locally grown paddy. Includes semi-milled, whole-milled and parboiled rice.
0032Rice, Broken Residues from the selection of whole-grain, milled rice.
0033Rice, Gluten A by-product of the industrial production of starch. Not suitable for food use.
0034Starch of Rice See 0023 Rice starch is usually obtained from broken rice. Use primarily in the photographic industry to prepare "matt" paper.
0035Bran of Rice See Chapter 11.
0036Oil of Rice See Chapter 6.
0037Cake of Rice Bran See Chapter 11.
0038Flour of Rice Produced by milling broken or milled rice. Finely ground rice flour is widely used in infant foods and in noodles. It is not used in bread because it lacks the necessary gluten-forming protein.
0039Rice-Fermented Beverages See Chapter 15.

Cereals and Products

Barley

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0044BARLEY Hordeum spp.:
two-row barley (H. disticum)
six-row barley (H. hexasticum)
four-row barley (H. vulgare)
Tolerates poorer soils and lower temperatures better than does wheat. Varieties include with husk and without (naked). Used as a livestock feed, for malt and for preparing foods. The roasted grains are a coffee substitute.
0045Pot Barley Whole-seed barley with the husks, hulls and bran removed.
0046Barley, Pearled Small, round pellets obtained by the further milling of pot barley. This definition also includes kibbled, rolled or flaked grains.
0047Bran of Barley See Chapter 11.
0048Barley Flour and Grits Fine flour and course meal obtained as milling by-products of pearled barley.
0049Malt A grain - usually barley - that has been germinated through a soaking process and then dried. Malt is used in brewing and distilling, and as a nutrient additive. Includes whole, ground, flour, and roasted malt, but excludes extracts and preparations.
0050 Malt Extract A concentrated solution from water-macerated malt, which is used in infant and dietetic foods and in bread baking.
0051 Beer of Barley See Chapter 15.

Cereals and Products

Maize

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0056MAIZE Zea mays Corn, Indian corn, mealies A grain with a high germ content. At the national level, hybrid and ordinary maize should be reported separately owing to widely different yields and uses. Used largely for animal feed and commercial starch production.
0057 Germ of Maize The seed embryo that is separated during processing and is valued mainly for its oil.
0058 Flour of Maize Broadly defined to include meal, groats and pellets.
0059 Bran of Maize See Chapter 11.
0060Oil of Maize See Chapter 6.
0061 Cake of Maize See Chapter 11.
0063Maize Gluten Maize protein is often called gluten, although it lacks the quality characteristics of wheat gluten. It is separated from maize during commercial wet milling and used to enrich animal feeds.
0064Starch of Maize See 0023. The primary product of the large- scale industrial wet-milling process. Used mainly for the production of glucose, dextrin and alcohol.
0066Beer of Maize See Chapter 15.
0067WHITE MAIZE Although separate data are reported for white maize production owing to its regional importance, its production is also included in 0056.

Cereals and Products

PopCorn

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0068POPCORN Zea mays var. everta A variety of maize that is eaten after the kernels have been heated and have "popped".

Cereals and Products

Rye

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0071RYE Secale cereale A grain that is tolerant of poor soils, high latitudes and altitudes. Mainly used in making bread, whisky and beer. When fed to livestock, it is generally mixed with other grains.
0072Flour of Rye Broadly defined to include meal, groats and pellets. In northern countries, rye flour is used primarily in bread.
0073 Bran of Rye See Chapter 11.

Cereals and Products

Oats

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0075 OATS Avena spp., mainly Avena sativa A plant with open, spreading panicle-bearing large spikelets. Used primarily in breakfast foods. Makes excellent fodder for horses.
0076 Oats, Rolled Obtained by crushing or rolling the whole or broken grain; includes grains flaked, hulled or otherwise worked for human consumption.
0077 Bran of Oats See Chapter 11.

Cereals and Products

Millets

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0079 MILLETS Including inter alia:
barnyard or Japanese millet (Echinocloa frumentacea); ragi, finger or African millet (Eleusine coracana); teff (Eragrostis abyssinica); common, golden or proso millet (Panicum miliaceum); koda or ditch millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum); pearl or cattail millet (Pennisetum glaucum); foxtail millet (Setaria italica)
Small-grained cereals that include a large number of different botanical species. Originated by the domestication of wild African grasses in the Nile valley and the Sahel zone, millets were subsequently taken to China and India. These cereals tolerate arid conditions and possess a small, highly nutritious grain that stores well. Used locally, both as a food and as a livestock feed. In all areas where they are cultivated, millets are used in traditional beer brewing. Also used as a feed for birds.
0080 Flour of Millet Broadly defined to include meal, groats and pellets.
0081 Bran of Millet See Chapter 11.
0082 Beer of Millet See Chapter 15.

Cereals and Products

Sorghum

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0083 SORGHUM Sorghum spp.:
guinea corn (S. guineense);
common, milo, feterita, kaffir
corn (S. vulgare);
durra, jowar, kaoliang (S. dura)
A cereal that has both food and feed uses. Sorghum is a major food grain in most of Africa, where it is also used in traditional beer brewing. It is desirable to report hybrid and other varieties separately.
0084Flour of Sorghum Broadly defined to include meal, groats and pellets.
0085Bran of Sorghum See Chapter 11.
0086Beer of Sorghum See Chapter 15.

Cereals and Products

Buckwheat

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0089BUCKWHEAT Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae) A minor cereal cultivated primarily in northern regions. Buckwheat is considered a cereal, although it does not belong to the gramineous family.
0090Flour of Buckwheat Broadly defined to include meal, groats and pellets. The flour is normally used in bread and crackers, and is also mixed with wheat flour. Meal and groats are normally used for soups.
0091Bran of Buckwheat See Chapter 11.

Cereals and Products

Quinoa

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0092QUINOA Chenopodium quinoa (Chenopodiaceae) A minor cereal, which tolerates high altitudes, quinoa is cultivated primarily in Andean countries. Used for food and to make chicha, a fermented beverage.

Cereals and Products

Fonio

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0094FONIO Digitaria spp.: fonio or findi (D. exilis); black fonio or hungry rice (D. iburua) A minor cereal of importance only in West Africa where it is eaten in place of rice during famines. The seeds are cooked by steaming the whole grain.
0095Flour of Fonio Broadly defined to include meal, groats and pellets.
0096Bran of Fonio See Chapter 11.

Cereals and Products

Triticale

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0097TRITICALE A minor cereal that is a cross between wheat and rye, combining the quality and yield of wheat with the hardiness of rye.
0098Flour of Triticale Broadly defined to include meal, groats and pellets.
0099Bran of Triticale See Chapter 11.

Cereals and Products

Canary Seed

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0101CANARY SEED Phalaris canariensis Minor cereal normally used as bird feed.

Cereals and Products

Mixed Grain

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0103MIXED GRAIN A mixture of cereal species that are sown and harvested together. The mixture wheat/rye is known as meslin, but in trade is usually classified with wheat.
0104Flour of Mixed Grain Broadly defined to include meal, groats and pellets.
0105Bran of Mixed Grain See Chapter 11.

Cereals and Products

Cereals nes

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0108CEREALS NES Including inter alia: canagua or coaihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule); quihuicha or Inca wheat (Amaranthus caudatus); adlay or Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi); wild rice (Zizania aquatica) Other cereal crops that are not identified separately because of their minor relevance at the international level. Because of their limited local importance, some countries report cereals under this commodity heading that are classified individually by FAO.
0111Flour of Cereals nes Broadly defined to include meal, groats and pellets.
0112Bran of Cereals nes See Chapter 11.
0109Infant Food Preparations for infant consumption, usually containing some non-cereal ingredients.
0110Wafers Communion wafers, empty cachets for pharmaceutical use and sealing wafers.
0041Breakfast Cereals Foods prepared by swelling and roasting cereals or cereal products, e.g. corn flakes, puffed rice; cereals o/t maize, in grain form, precooked or otherwise prepared.
0113Cereal Preparations Cereal grains, excluding barley and oats, that are either rolled, flaked, pearled, sliced or kibbled.
0114Mixes and Doughs Used in the preparation of bakers' wares.
0115 Food Preparations of Flour, Meal or Malt Extract Food preparations of flour, meal, starch or malt extracts, that either do not contain, or contain less than 50%, cocoa powder. Also, food preparations of milk that either do not contain, or contain less than 10%, cocoa powder.
0155Maltose, Chemically Pure See Chapter 3.
0166Other Fructose and Syrup See Chapter 3.
0172Glucose and Dextrose See Chapter 3.
0175Isoglucose See Chapter 3.
0635Straw and Husks See Chapter 11.
0846Gluten Feed and Meal See Chapter 11.

© FAO 1994

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