DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF COMMODITIES

(Draft)

6. OIL-BEARING CROPS AND DERIVED PRODUCTS



6. OIL-BEARING CROPS AND DERIVED PRODUCTS


OIL-BEARING CROPS OR OIL CROPS include both annual (usually called oilseeds) and perennial plants whose seeds, fruits or mesocarp and nuts are valued mainly for the edible or industrial oils that are extracted from them. Dessert and table nuts, although rich in oil, are listed under Nuts (see Chapter .). Annual oilseed plants tha are either harvested green or are used for grazing and for green manure are included with Fodder Crops (see Chapter 11.).

Some of the crops included in this chapter are also fibre crops in that both the seeds and the fibres are harvested from the same plant. Such crops include: coconuts, yielding coir from the mesocarp; kapok fruit; seed cotton; linseed; and hempseed.

In the case of several other crops, both the pulp of the fruit and the kernels are used for oil. The main crops of this type are oil-palm fruit and tallow tree seeds.

Production data are reported in terms of dry products as marketed. Exceptions to this general rule include: groundnuts, which are reported as groundnuts in the shell; coconuts, which are reported on the basis of the weight of the nut including the woody shell, but excluding the fibrous outer husk; and palm oil, which is reported in terms of oil, by weight.

Because of the very different nature of the various oil crops, the primary products cannot be aggregated in their natural weight to obtain total oil crops. For this reason, FAO converts the crops to either an oil equivalent or an oilcake equivalent before aggregating them.

Only 5-6 percent of the world production of oil crops is used for seed (oilseeds) and animal feed, while about 8 percent is used for food. The remaining 86 percent is processed into oil.

The fat content of oil crops varies widely. Fat content ranges from as low as 10-15 percent of the weight of coconuts to over 50 percent of the weight of sesame seeds and palm kernels. Carbohydrates, mainly polysaccharides, range from 15 to 30 percent in the oilseeds, but are generally lower in other oil-bearing crops. The protein content is very high in soybeans, at up to 40 percent, but is much lower in many other oilseeds, at 15-25 percent, and is lower still in some other oil-bearing crops.

FAO lists 21 primary oil crops. The code and name of each crop appears in the list that follows, along with its botanical name, or names, and a short description where necessary.

PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM OIL CROPS. Edible processed products from oil crops, other than oil, include flour, flakes or grits, groundnut preparations (butter, salted nuts, candy), preserved olives, desiccated coconut and fermented and non-fermented soya products.


Oil-bearing crops and Derived Products

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0236SOYBEANS Glycine soja The most important oil crop. Also widely consumed as a bean and in the form of various derived products because of its high protein content, e.g. soya milk, meat, etc.
0237 Oil of Soybeans See Chapter 11.
0239 Soya Sauce A fermented soya product from defatted soybeand and wheat or other cereals that is filtered and pasteurized.
0240 Soya Paste A fermented, salty condiment. Soya paste can be produced through brine fermentation of low- moisture soya curd.
0241 Soya Curd Obtained by precipitating proteins from soya milk and removing the fluid. Can be fermented or non-fermented.

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

Groundnuts in shell

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0242 GROUNDNUTS IN SHELL Arachis hypogaea For trade data, groundnuts in shell are converted at 70% and reported on a shelled basis.
0243 Groundnuts, Shelled Used as direct food and for extracting oil.
0244 Oil of Groundnuts See Chapter 11.
0246 Prepared Groundnuts Roasted, salted, flavoured, etc.
0247 Peanut Butter Obtained by grinding roasted peanuts. In addition to fat, at 40-46%, peanut butter contains all other components of the nuts.

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

Coconuts

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0249 COCONUTS Cocos nucifera Husked coconut In shell, covered by the endocarp, while exocarp (the smooth outer skin) and mesocarp (the fibrous covering) are removed. Immature nuts contain a milky juice that is consumed as a refreshing drink. Mature nuts are consumed as such, or processed for copra or desiccated coconut. The flesh, from which copra/oil is extracted, constitutes 40-70% of the weight of the husked coconut. The oil content is about 36% of the flesh.
0250 Coconuts, Desiccated Dried, shredded flesh of coconut processed for human consumption. It retains most of the oil and proteins of the fresh nut and is mainly used in confectionery and baking.
0251 Copra The dried flesh of coconut from which the oil is extracted.
0252 Oil of Coconut See Chapter 11.

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

[Oil palm fruit]

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0254 [OIL PALM FRUIT] Elaeis guineensis The oil palm produces bunches containing a large number of fruits with the fleshy mesocarp enclosing a kernel that is covered by a very hard shell. FAO considers palm oil (coming from the pulp) and palm kernels to be primary products. The oil extraction rate from a bunch varies from 17 to 27% for palm oil, and from 4 to 10% for palm kernels.
0256 PALM KERNELS Seeds of the oil palm. Babassu kernels (Orbignya speciosa) are often reported as palm kernels.
0257 OIL OF PALM See Chapter 14.
0259 Cake of Palm Kernel  

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

Olives

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0260 OLIVES Olea europaea Includes table olives and olives for oil.
0261 Oil of Olives, Virgin See Chapter 11.
0274 Oil of Olive Residues  

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

Karine nuts

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0263 KARITE NUTS (SHEANUTS) Butyrospermum parkii Production data refer only to the nut contained in the fruit although the pulp around the nut is also edible.
0264 Butter of Karite Nuts


Oil-bearing crops and derived products

Castor beans

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0265 CASTOR BEANS Ricinus communis Valued mainly for their oil, which is used in pharmaceutical products. Ground seedcakes are used as fertilizers (castor oil pomace).
0266 Oil of Castor Beans See Chapter 14.

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

Sunflower seed

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0267 SUNFLOWER SEED Helianthus annuus Valued mainly for its oil. Minor uses include as a human food and as feed for birds.
0268 Oil of Sunflower Seed See Chapter 11.

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

Rapeseed

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0270 RAPESEED Brassica napus var. oleifera Valued mainly for its oil. Older varieties are rich in Erucic acid, which is considered unhealthy.
0271 Oil of Rapeseed Canola oil See Chapter 11.

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

Tung nuts

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0275 TUNG NUTS Aleurites cordata; A. fordii Valued mainly for their oil.
0276 Oil of Tung Nuts  

See Chapter

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

Jojoba seeds

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0277 JOJOBA SEEDS Simmondsia californica (syn. S. chinensis) From the shrub or small tree of the Buxaceae family.
0278 Jojoba Oil





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Oil-bearing crops and derived products

Safflower seeds

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0280 SAFFLOWER SEED Carthamus tinctorius Valued mainly for its oil. Minor uses include as a human food and as poultry feed.
0281 Oil of Safflower Seed See Chapter 11.

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

Sesame seed

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0289 SESAME SEED Sesamum indicum Valued for its oil, but also as a food, either raw or roasted, as well as in bakery products and other food preparations.
0290 Oil of Sesame Seed See Chapter 11.

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

Mustard seed

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0292 MUSTARD SEED white mustard (Brassica alba; B. hirta; Sinapis alba); black mustard (Brassica nigra; Sinapis nigra) In addition to the oil extracted from them, white mustard seeds, may be processed into flour for food use. Black mustard seeds also yield oil and are processed into flour that is used mainly in pharmaceutical products.
0293 Oil of Mustard Seed See Chapter 11.
0295 Flour of Mustard Seed Includes flour, meal and prepared mustard.

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

Poppy seed

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0296 POPPY SEED Papaver somniferum The source of opium, poppy seeds are also used in baking and confectionery.
0297 Oil of Poppy Seed See Chapter 11.

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

[Tallowtree seeds]

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0305 [TALLOWTREE SEEDS] Borneo tallow tree (Shorea aptera; S. stenocarpa); Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum; Stillingia sebifera) Grown wild and cultivated. FAO considers vegetable tallow and stillingia oil to be primary products (see below).
0306 VEGETABLE TALLOW See Chapter 14.

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

Melon seed

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0299 MELONSEED Cucumis melo Includes seeds of other Cucurbitaceae.

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

[Kapok fruit]

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0310 [KAPOK FRUIT] Ceiba pentandra, Bombacaceae The fruit of kapok contains fibre (see Chapter 14.
0314 Cake of Kapok See Chapter

 

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

[Seed cotton]

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0328 [SEED COTTON] Gossypium spp.: Unginned cotton Grown for both seed and for fibre. FAO considers cottonseed, cotton lint and linters to be primary products. Lint content ranges from 30 to 40%, seed 55 to 65%, and linters 2 to 5% though they are not always separated.
0329 COTTONSEED Used for extracting oil.
0331 Oil of Cottonseed See Chapter 11.

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

Linseed

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0333 LINSEED Linum usitatissimum Flaxseed An annual herbaceous that is cultivated for its fibre as well as its oil.
0334 Oil of Linseed See Chapter 11.

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

Hempseed

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0336 HEMPSEED Cannabis sativa An annual herbaceous that is cultivated for its fibre as well as its oil. In major producing countries oil is extracted from the seeds.
0337 Oil of Hempseed See Chapter 11.

Oil-bearing crops and derived products

Oilseeds nes

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0339 OILSEEDS NES Includes inter alia: beech nut (Fagus sylvatica);(Aleurites moluccana);(Carapa guineensis);(Croton tiglium);(Bassia latifolia);(Guizotia abyssinica);(Licania rigida);(Perilla frutescens);(Jatropha curcas);(Shorea robusta);(Pongamia glabra);(Astrocaryum spp.) Other oilseeds, oleaginous fruits and nuts that are not identified separately because of their minor relevance at the international level. Because of their limited local importance, some countries report commodities under this heading that are classified individually by FAO. Also included under this code are tea seeds, grape pips and tomato seeds from which oil is extracted.
0340 Oil of Vegetable Origin nes See Chapter 11.
0343 Flour of Oilseeds Flours and meals of oilseeds and oleaginous fruits (excluding mustard), non defatted or partially defatted.
0036 Oil of Rice Bran See Chapter 14.
1241 Liquid Margarine See Chapter 14.
1274 Oils Boiled, Dehydrated, etc See Chapter 14.