DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF COMMODITIES

(Draft)

8. FRUITS AND DERIVED PRODUCTS



8. FRUITS AND DERIVED PRODUCTS


FRUIT CROPS consist of fruits and berries that, with few exceptions, are characterized by their sweet taste. Nearly all are permanent crops, mainly from trees, bushes and shrubs, as well as vines and palms. Fruits and berries grow on branches, stalks or the trunks of plants, usually singly, but sometimes grouped in bunches or clusters (e.g. bananas and grapes). Commercial crops are cultivated in plantations, but significant quantities of fruits are also collected from scattered plants that may or may not be cultivated. Although melons and watermelons are generally considered to be fruits, FAO groups them with vegetables because they are temporary crops.

Fruit crops are highly perishable. Their shelf life may be extended through the application of chemical substances that inhibit the growth of micro-organisms and through careful control of the surrounding temperature, pressure and humidity once the fruit has been picked. Fruits and berries have a very high water content accounting for some 70- 90 percent of their weight. They contain, in various degrees, minerals, vitamins and organic acids, some of which reside in the peel or skin. Some fruits have a high fibre content and other inedible components, so that wastage is high, e.g. 60 percent for passion fruit and 35-45 percent for pineapples. The waste in temperate zone fruit is lower, generally of the order of 10-15 percent, while berries contain very little waste.

The carbohydrate content of fruits varies widely. Protein content is very low, averaging less than 1 percent, or below that in vegetables. Fat content in fruit is negligible, with the notable exception of avocados.

Fruit crops are consumed directly as food and are processed into dried fruit, fruit juice, canned fruit, frozen fruit, jam, alcoholic beverages, etc. Fruit crops are not normally grown for animal feed, although significant quantities of diseased and substandard fruits, as well as certain by-products of the fruit processing industry, are fed to animals.

Production data for fruit crops should relate to fruits actually harvested. Data on bananas and plantains should relate to the weight of single bananas or banana hands, excluding the weight of the central stalk.

FAO lists 36 primary fruit crops. The code and name of each is listed below along with its botanical name, or names, and a short description where necessary.

FRUIT CROPS PRODUCTS. Apart from a few main products, international trade classifications do not permit a sufficiently detailed classification of processed products according to the primary commodity used in the preparation. Fruit crops are processed for preservation and conservation, or for transformation from one substance into another, e.g. sugar into alcohol. Drying and wine making are two of the oldest methods of preservation. The manufacture of fruit syrups and juices, jams, jellies, marmalade, chutney and sauces are also traditional methods of preservation. Modern processes include canning, freezing, quick-freezing and dehydration.

Other fruit products include fruit squashes, i.e. juice with some fruit tissues included, fruit nectars containing at least 30 percent fruit solids, and some soft drinks that contain a very small amount of fruit juice. Essential oils are extracted from some fruits and fruit peels, while the peel of some fruit is also used in confectionery.


Fruits and Derived Products

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0486BANANAS Musa sapientum; M. cavendishii; M. nana Bananas are normally eaten raw. Trade figures may include dried bananas. Data should be reported excluding the weight of the central stalk.
0489 PLANTAINS Musa paradisiaca Generally known as a cooking banana. Data should be reported excluding the weight of the central stalk

Fruits and derived products

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0490 ORANGES common, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis); bitter orange (C. aurantium) Bitter oranges are used primarily in the preparation of marmalade.
0491 Juice of Orange Juice is obtained by mechanical extractors, or by pressing, and is then submitted to various processes. Unfermented, it may or may not be frozen. For direct consumption.
0492 Orange Juice, Concentrated Juice that is obtained by a concentration process in which the water is physically removed from the juice until it has not less than 20% of solids by weight. It is then reconstituted with water before consumption. Unfermented, it may or may not be frozen.
0495 TANGERINES, MANDARINS, CLEMENTINES, SATSUMAS mandarin, tangerine (Citrus reticulata); clementine, satsuma (C. unshiu)
0496 Juice of Tangerine See 0491.
0497 LEMONS AND LIMES lemon (Citrus limon); sour lime (C. aurantifolia); sweet lime (C. limetta)  
0498 Juice of Lemon See 0491.
0499 Lemon Juice, Concentrated See 0492.
0507 GRAPEFRUIT AND POMELO Citrus maxima; C. grandis; C. paradisi  
0509 Juice of Grapefruit See 0491.
0510 Grapefruit Juice, Concentrated See 0492.
0512 CITRUS FRUIT NES Including inter alia: bergamot (Citrus bergamia); citron (C. medica var. cedrata); chinotto (C. myrtifolia); kumquat (Fortunella japonica) Some minor varieties of citrus are used primarily in the preparation of perfumes and soft drinks.
0513 Juice of Citrus Fruit nes See 0491.
0514 Citrus Juice, Concentrated nes See 0492.

Fruits and derived products

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0515 APPLES Malus pumila; M. sylvestris; M. communis; Pyrus malus  
0517 Cider, etc. See Chapter 15.
0518 Apple Juice See 0491.
0519 Apple Juice, Concentrated See 0492.

Fruits and derived products

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0521 PEARS Pyrus communis 
0523 QUINCES Cydonia oblonga; C. vulgaris; C. japonica  
0542 POME FRUIT NES Other pome fruit not separately identified. In some countries apples, pears and quinces are reported under this general category.
0526 APRICOTS Prunus armeniaca 
0527 Apricots, Dried Prepared either by direct drying in the sun or by industrial processes. May be marketed as slices or blocks of pulp, either dried or evaporated.
0530 SOUR CHERRIES Prunus cerasus; Cerasus acida &NBsp;
0531 CHERRIES mazzard, sweet cherry (Prunus avium; Cerasus avium); hard-fleshed cherry (var. duracina); heart cherry (var. juliana)  
0534 PEACHES AND NECTARINES Prunus persica; Amygdalus persica; Persica laevis  
0536PLUMS greengage, mirabelle, damson (Prunus domestica); sloe (P. spinosa)  
0537 Plums, Dried See 0527. Known as prunes.
0538 Juice of Plum See 0491.
0539 Juice of Plum, Concentrated See 0492.
0541 STONE FRUIT, FRESH NES Other stone fruit not separately identified. In some countries, apricots, cherries, peaches, nectarines and plums are reported under this general category.

Fruits and derived products

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0544 STRAWBERRIES Fragaria spp. 
0547 RASPBERRIES ubus idaeus Trade data may include blackberries, mulberries and loganberries (a cross between the raspberry and blackberry).
0549 GOOSEBERRIES Ribes grossularia Trade data may sometimes include black, white or red currants.
0550 CURRANTS black (Ribes nigrum); red and white (R. rubrum) Trade data may sometimes include gooseberries.
0552 BLUEBERRIES European blueberry, wild bilberry, whortleberry (Vaccinium myrtillus); American blueberry (V. corymbosum) Trade data may include cranberries, myrtle berries and other fruits of the genus Vaccinium.
0554 CRANBERRIES American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon); European cranberry (V. oxycoccus) Trade data may include blueberries, myrtle berries and other fruits of the genus Vaccinium.
0558 BERRIES NES Including inter alia: blackberry (Morus nigra); loganberry; white, red mulberry (M. alba; M. rubra); myrtle berry (Myrtus communis) huckleberry, dangleberry (Gaylussacia spp.) Other berries not separately identified. In some countries, some or all of the berries listed previously are reported under this general category.

Fruits and derived products

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0560 GRAPES
Vitis vinifera
Includes both table and wine grapes.
0561 Raisins Dried grapes. Includes sultanas and currants.
0562 Juice of Grape See 0491. Includes unfermented grape must.
0563 Must of Grape See Chapter 15.
0565 Vermouths, etc. See Chapter 11.

Fruits and derived products

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0569 FIGS Ficus carica 
0570 Figs, Dried See 0527.
0587PERSIMONS Diospyros kaki: D. virginiana 
0592 KIWI FRUIT Actinidia chinensis
0571 MANGOES Mangifera indica Trade figures may include dried mangoes, guavas and mangosteens, including both fresh and dried.
0583 Juice of Mango See 0491.
0584 Mango Pulp Fruit pulp prepared in water, syrup, etc.
0572 AVOCADOS Persea americana 
0574PINEAPPLES Ananas comosus; A. sativ Trade figures may include dried pineapples.
0575 Pineapples, Canned Fruit pulp prepared in water, syrup, etc.
0576 Juice of Pineapples See 0491.
0580 Juice of Pineapples, Concentrated See 0492. Soluble fruit solids of not less than 27% by weight.
0577 DATES Phoenix dactylifera Includes fresh and dried fruit.
0591 CASHEWAPPLE Anacardium occidentale The thickened, fleshy stem below the cashew nut. When soft it is used for jam.
0600 PAPAYAS Carica papaya 
0603 FRUIT, TROPICAL (FRESH) NES Including inter alia: breadfruit (Artocarpus incisa); carambola (Averrhoa carambola); cherimoya, custard apple (Annona spp.); durian (Durio zibethinus); feijoa (Feijoa sellowiana); guava (Psidium guajava); hog plum, mombin (Spondias spp.); jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia); longan (Nephelium longan); mammee (Mammea americana); mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana); naranjillo (Solanum quitoense); passion fruit (Passiflora edulis); rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum); sapote, mamey colorado (Calocarpum mammosum); sapodilla (Achras sapota); star apple, cainito (Chrysophyllum spp.) Other tropical fresh fruit that are not identified separately because of their minor relevance at the international level. In some countries mangoes, avocados, pineapples, dates and papayas are reported under this general category.
0604 Fruit, Tropical (Dried) nes Including, whenever possible, dried bananas, plantains and pineapples as well as other unlisted tropical fruits.

Fruits and derived products

FAOSTAT
CODE
COMMODITY DEFINITIONS, COVERAGE, REMARKS
0619 FRUIT, FRESH NES Including inter alia: azarole (Crataegus azarolus); babaco (Carica pentagona); elderberry (Sambucus nigra); jujube (Zizyphus jujuba); litchi (Nephelium litchi); loquat (Eriobotrya japonica); medlar (Mespilus germanica); pawpaw (Asimina triloba); pomegranate (Punica granatum); prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica); rose hips (Rosa spp.); rowanberry (Sorbus aucuparia); service-apple (Sorbus domestica); tamarind (Tamarindus indica); tree-strawberry (Arbutus unedo) Other fresh fruit that are not identified separately because of their minor relevance at the international level. Because of their limited local importance, some countries report fresh fruit under this heading that are classified separately by FAO.
0620 Fruit, Dried nes Dried fruit other than apricots, dates, citrus, figs, grapes, nuts and plums.
0622 Juice of Fruits nes See 0491.
0623 Fruit, Prepared nes Fruit, nuts and peel, including frozen, prepared or preserved, jam, paste, marmalade, pur‚e and cooked fruits, other than those listed separately.
0624 Flour of Fruits Includes the flour, meal, powder, nuts and peel of fruits.
0625 Fruit, Nuts, Peel, Sugar Preserved Fruit, nuts, fruit peel, and other parts of plants preserved with sugar (either drained, glazed or crystallized).
0626 Homogenized Cooked Fruit, Prepared Cooked fruit preparations, homogenized for dietetic and infant foods.
0628 Pulp, Waste of Fruit for Feed See Chapter 3.

© FAO 1994

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