The compilation of this database has been made possible by the cooperation of governments, which have supplied most of the information in the form of replies to annual FAO questionnaires. FAO has continued to collaborate with various agencies in order to achieve conformity in the presentation of international figures. The assistance of governments and agencies is gratefully acknowledged.



Unofficial figure


FAO estimate


Data not available








Kilogram per animal


Kilogram per hectare


Hectograms (100 grams)


Hectogram per animal


Hectogram per hectare


Pound (avoirdupois)


Metric ton


Not elsewhere specified or included


European currency unit



A blank space has the same meaning as the symbol (0M) defined above.

For crop yields, livestock carcass weights and all continental totals, no F or * symbol is used as these are derived data.

To divide decimals from whole numbers, a full stop (.) is used.


Time reference

The time reference for statistics on area and production of crops is based on the calendar year. That is to say, the data for any particular crop are reported under the calendar year in which the entire harvest or the bulk of it took place. This does not necessarily mean that for a given commodity the production data are aggregated month by month from January to December, although this is true for certain crops such as tea, sisal, palm kernels, palm oil, rubber, coconuts and, in certain countries, sugar cane and bananas, which are harvested almost uniformly throughout the year. The harvest of other crops, however, is generally limited to a few months and even, in certain cases, to a few weeks. Production of these crops is reported by the various countries in different ways: by calendar year, agricultural year, marketing year, etc. Whatever the statistical period used by the countries for presentation of area and production data, these data are allocated commodity by commodity to the calendar year in which the entire harvest or the bulk of it took place. Obviously, a crop that is harvested at the end of the calendar year will be utilized mostly during the year following the calendar year under which the production figures are reported.

It should be noted that the adoption of a calendar-year time reference period inevitably means that, in a number of cases, crops assigned by countries to a particular split year may appear under two different calendar years.

Livestock numbers have been grouped in 12month periods ending 30 September of the years stated in the tables. For example, animals enumerated in a given country any time between 1 October and 30 September of the following year are shown under the latter year.

As regards livestock products, data on meat, milk and milk products relate to calendar years, with a few exceptions that are mentioned in the “Livestock Products”. Data for other animal products that are produced only in certain periods of the year, for example, honey and wool, are allocated to the calendar year, following a policy similar to that adopted for crops.

Crop areas

Figures for crop areas generally refer to harvested areas, although for permanent crops data may refer to total planted area.

Yields per hectare

All yields per hectare, for single countries as well as for continental and world totals, are given in hectogrammes. In all cases, they are computed from detailed area and production data expressed in hectares and metric tons. Data on yields of permanent crops are not as reliable as those for temporary crops either because most of the area information may correspond to planted area, as for grapes, or because of the scarcity and unreliability of the area figures reported by the countries, as for example for cocoa and coffee.


Continental and world totals are given for all commodities except milking machines. The totals include only data for the countries shown.

Figures may not always add up to the totals because of independent rounding of country figures and of the totals themselves. In general, these totals adequately reflect the situation in the geographical areas they represent, except for certain vegetable and fruit crops and certain livestock products.

Notes on the tables and Country notes

As a general rule, data relate to the country specified with its present de facto boundaries. Country names and continental groupings follow, in general, the nomenclature used by the Statistical Division of the United Nations.


Area and production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed or silage or used for grazing are therefore excluded. Area data relate to harvested area. Some countries report sown or cultivated area only; however, in these countries the sown or cultivated area does not differ significantly in normal years from the area actually harvested, either because practically the whole area sown is harvested or because the area surveys are conducted around the harvest period.

This category also includes other cereals such as mixed grains and buckwheat.

Available data for spelt are included with those for wheat, except for the 15 republics of the former

Millet and sorghum are grown chiefly as feed for livestock and poultry in
Europe and North America, but are used to a large extent as food in Asia, Africa and the countries of the former USSR. Wherever possible, statistics are given separately for millet and sorghum, but some countries, especially in Africa, make no distinction between the two grains in their reports; in such cases, combined figures are given in the table on millet.

Root and tuber crops

This includes other root crops such as yautia and arrowroot. Root crops grown principally for feed such as turnips, mangels and swedes are not included.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a root crop commonly divided into two groups, bitter and sweet cassava, sometimes considered as two different species, Manihot utilissima and Manihot dulcis (the latter also known as aipi). In the table, bitter and sweet cassava are reported together.

The yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important subsistence root crop in tropical and subtropical countries.

Taro (Colocasia esculenta), named also cocoyam, dasheen, eddo, malanga, etc., is a subsistence tuber crop cultivated throughout the tropics, particularly in the Pacific area.


Also includes other pulses such as cowpeas and vetch. Data show production of crops harvested for dry grain only (as far as this can be ascertained), whether used for food or feed.

Covers all species of Phaseolus and in a few countries, such as
India, also Vigna species. In certain countries where a considerable amount of dry beans is grown mixed with other crops, area data are clearly overestimated and yields per hectare consequently appear rather low.

Oil- Bearing Crops

Oil crops, or oil-bearing crops, are those crops yielding seeds, nuts or fruits which are used mainly for the extraction of culinary or industrial oils, excluding essential oils. Data for oil crops represent the total production of oilseeds, oil nuts and oil fruits harvested in the year indicated and expressed in terms of oil equivalent and cake/meal equivalent. That is to say, these figures do not relate to the actual production of vegetable oils and cake/meal, but to the potential production if the total amounts produced from all oil crops were processed into oil and cake/meal in producing countries in the same year in which they were harvested. Naturally, the total production of oil crops is never processed into oil in its entirety, since, depending on the crop, important quantities are also used for seed, feed and food. However, although oil and cake/meal extraction rates vary from country to country, here the same extraction rate for each crop has been applied for all countries. Moreover, it should be borne in mind that the crops harvested during the latter months of the year are generally processed into oil during the following year. In spite of these deficiencies in coverage, extraction rates and time reference, the data reported here are useful as they provide a valid indication of year-to-year changes in the size of total oil-crop production.

The actual production of vegetable oils in the world is about 85 percent of the production reported here. In addition, about 3 million tonnes of vegetable oils are produced every year from crops which are not included among those defined above. The most important of these oils are maize-germ oil and rice-bran oil. The actual world production of cake/meal derived from oil crops is also about 86 percent of the production reported in the table.

Sweden's production is given with 18 percent water content. Figures for a few countries, such as India and Pakistan, also include mustard seed.

Area data for the
USSR and a few minor producing countries relate to crops grown for both seed and fibre.

Direct production figures for cottonseed are reported by countries accounting for about 60 percent of world production. Data for the remainder are derived from ginned cotton production, according to ratios obtained from earlier years in these countries or from countries with similar conditions.

With few exceptions, data refer to total oil production, including oil extracted from olive residues.

Data shown refer to total production of coconuts, whether ripe or unripe, whether consumed fresh or processed into copra or desiccated coconut. Production is expressed in terms of weight of the whole nut, excluding only the fibrous outer husk.

Figures for
Brazil refer to babassu kernels.

Vegetables and melons, TOTAL
Data relate to vegetable crops grown mainly for human consumption. Crops such as cabbages, pumpkins and carrots, when explicitly cultivated for animal feed, are therefore excluded. Statistics on vegetables are not available in many countries, and the coverage of the reported data differs from country to country. In general, it appears that the estimates refer to crops grown in field and market gardens mainly for sale, thus excluding crops cultivated in kitchen gardens or small family gardens mainly for household consumption. In
Austria, for example, reported data refer to field crops only and in Cuba they refer to procurement from State and private farms. Production from family and other small gardens not included in current statistical surveys constitutes quite an important part of the estimated total production in certain countries: for example Austria, France, Germany, Italy; and the United States.

For the reasons mentioned above, continental and world totals are far from representative of the total area and production of the different kinds of vegetables. Production data include data on vegetables shown separately, as well as data on all other kinds of vegetables. They also include estimates for nonreporting countries and, when available, production of noncommercial crops for countries reporting only production for sale.

The main varieties of cabbages considered are: red, white and savoy cabbages; Chinese cabbages; Brussels sprouts; green kale; and sprouting broccoli.

Data for certain countries, particularly in central and northern
Europe, refer to crops grown mainly or totally under glass. This explains the large yields per hectare obtained in these countries.

Where possible, data on heading broccoli are also included in the figures.

Several countries, particularly in
Europe, cultivate their crops totally or partially under glass, and large yields per hectare reflect this.

Data refer to beans (Phaseolus and Dolichos species only) harvested green; they exclude data on snap or string beans, at least for countries such as France and the United States which publish separate statistics for greenshell beans and string beans. Data on green beans for processing, originally reported by a few countries in shelled weight, have been converted into beans in shell at about 200 percent.

Data refer to peas (Pisum sativum and Pisum arvense) harvested green. Data for a few countries that reported shelled weight have been converted to peas in the shell at 225 to 250 percent.

Data for
Algeria, Bulgaria, Turkey and the five republics of the former Yugoslavia SFR include melons; for the 15 republics of the former USSR, data include melons (about 18 percent) and pumpkins and squash (about 30 percent).

Data for
Romania include watermelons.

Grapes and wine

Certain countries, such as the important producers
Algeria, Austria, Chile, France and Germany, do not publish data on total grape production. Estimates for these countries shown in the table are based on information available on the production of table grapes, raisins and wine. Area data for Italy include area under grapes grown mixed with other crops; 23.5 percent of this mixed area is included in the total area under grapes.

In most of the major wine-growing countries, wine production is estimated from the quantity of grapes crushed at harvest time; consequently, it corresponds to the amount of “grapes for wine” for the same crop year and represents total output at wine presses, irrespective of whether it is finally consumed as wine, vinegar or distilling material. Unfortunately, it has not yet been possible to obtain statistics on this basis from all countries, and gaps have been filled by using tax returns or trade estimates. Some countries do not publish statistics on wine production or give unreliable data, either because they do not include total wine production or because they include mixtures of wine and fruit juices. Wine production for these countries has been estimated on the basis of quantities of grapes crushed for wine when such information was available.

Sugar cane, sugar beets and sugar

Area and production data on sugar cane and sugar beets generally cover all crops harvested, except the crops grown explicitly for feed. Most of the crop is used for the production of centrifugal and noncentrifugal sugar; however, in several countries important quantities of sugar cane are used also for seed, feed, fresh consumption, the manufacture of alcohol and other uses; some sugar-beet production is used for feed and alcohol.

Data include both cane and beet sugar and are shown, as far as possible, in terms of raw value as reported by the countries. It is not certain, however, whether all countries report raw sugar in terms of 96° polarization as requested in the FAO questionnaires.
Australia, for instance, reports sugar production at 94° net titre. Figures for two countries, Haiti and Indonesia, are given as tel quel, which is the actual physical weight of all centrifugal sugar produced. Data reported by countries as refined sugar have been converted to a raw basis at 108.7 percent.

Includes any sugar produced from sugar cane which has not undergone centrifugation. Practically all non-centrifugal sugar is used for local consumption.

Fruit excl. melons, total

Data refer to total production of fresh fruit, whether finally used for direct consumption for food or feed, or processed into different products: dry fruit, juice, jam, alcohol, etc.

Statistics on fruit, especially tropical fruit, are unavailable in many countries, and where reported they often lack uniformity. Generally, production data relate to plantation crops or orchard crops grown mainly for sale. Data on production from scattered trees used mainly for home consumption are not usually collected. Production from wild plants, particularly berries, which is of some importance in certain countries, is generally disregarded by national statistical services. Therefore, the data for the various fruits and berries are rather incomplete, particularly for regions other than Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. The totals shown — although relating to the limited number of countries listed — are nevertheless believed to give a reliable indication of these crops insofar as they influence international trade. The totals, in any case, provide an indication of annual changes in the size of the crops.

Production data include data published on individual fruits and berries shown separately, as well as data on all other kinds of fruits and berries. Dates, plantains and total grapes are also included in the total fruit figures, while olives are excluded. Total figures are more complete than those published for the single commodities because they include estimates for most of the non-reporting countries as well as data for countries reporting total production of fruits in a single figure without specification by kind.

Data for
Guinea, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Georgia and a few other minor producing countries include production of all citrus fruit. Data for a few other countries may include tangerines.

Figures for the
United States include tangelos, a tangerine/ grapefruit hybrid, and temples, a sweet orange/tangerine hybrid.

Figures for
Bolivia include grapefruit.

Data for
Japan include lemons. Figures for other countries generally refer to production of total or unidentified citrus crops.

Figures on bananas refer, as far as possible, to all edible fruit-bearing species of the genus Musa except M. paradisiaca, commonly known as plantain. Unfortunately, several countries make no distinction in their statistics between bananas and plantains and publish only overall estimates. When this occurs and there is some indication or assumption that the data reported refer mainly to bananas, the data are included. None of the countries excluded are significant exporters. The production data on bananas and plantains reported by the various countries are also difficult to compare because a number of countries report in terms of bunches, which generally means that the stalk is included in the weight.

Some data on raspberries (Rubus idaeus) appear to include other berries of the genus Rubus, such as blackberries, loganberries and dewberries.

Data include Ribes rubrum, Ribes album and Ribes nigrum.

Treenuts, total

Production of nuts (including chestnuts) relates to nuts in the shell or in the husk. Statistics are very scanty and generally refer only to crops for sale.

In addition to the kind of nuts shown separately, production data include all other treenuts mainly used as dessert or table nuts, such as Brazil nuts, pili nuts, sapucaia nuts and macadamia nuts. Nuts mainly used for flavouring beverages are excluded as are masticatory and stimulant nuts and nuts used mainly for the extraction of oil or butter: areca/betel nuts, cola nuts, illipe nuts, karite nuts, coconuts, tung nuts, oilpalm nuts, etc.

Beverages and other products

Production figures for coffee refer to green beans. Data for a few countries reporting in terms of cherries or parchment coffee have been converted into clean coffee by using appropriate conversion factors. Official area statistics for coffee are available only for certain countries and are not always reliable. Yields per hectare are therefore not very meaningful. Production data on coffee shown for
Brazil are the official figures published in the Brazilian statistical yearbook. Data reported in terms of dry cherries have been converted into green coffee at 50 percent.

Production data relate to cocoa beans fermented and dried. Official area statistics for cocoa are available only for certain countries and are not always reliable. Yields per hectare are therefore not very meaningful.

Production figures relate to made tea. For
Indonesia, however, about one-third of the production shown is given in green-leaf weight. Myanmar each year produces about 45000 tonnes of tea leaves which are not included since most of the crop is consumed fresh as a vegetable.

Production data refer to dried-cone weight, except those from
Spain, which refer to green weight.

The production figures refer to farm sales weight as far as this could be determined. Data available on a dry weight basis have therefore been converted into farm sales weight at about 90 parts to 100.

Fibre crops and natural rubber

Data shown refer generally to scutched and hackled flax and include tow. Figures for countries reporting production in terms of straw or retted flax have been converted into flax fibre and tow to make them comparable with data for other countries.

As for flax, data on hemp refer to scutched fibre and include tow. Figures for
Bangladesh, India and Pakistan refer to sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), while data for other countries refer to true hemp (Cannabis sativa).

Jute fibres are obtained from Corchorus capsularis and Corchorus olitorius. Allied fibres include a number of jute substitutes, the main ones being kenaf or mesta and roselle (Hibiscus spp.) and
Congo jute or paka (Urena lobata).

Data on sisal comprise fibres and waste of Agave sisalana. Area data are usually very rough estimates, even when official. Figures for
Mexico include henequen.

This data was prepared in cooperation with the International Cotton Advisory Committee. For most countries, the production figures are those officially reported as lint and do not include cotton linters. In a few cases where production was reported in terms of unginned cotton, and where no specific conversion factor for lint was known, the lint equivalent was taken to be one-third.

The main vegetable fibres are
Mauritius fibre (Furcraea gigantea), New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax), fique (Furcraea macrophylla), caroa (Neoglazovia variegata), istle (Samuela carnerosana), ramie and rhea (Boehmeria spp.), kapok (Ceiba pentandra) and coir (a fibre contained in the husk of coconuts). Agave fibres and abaca are excluded.

This data was prepared in cooperation with the International Rubber Study Group, which defines natural rubber (Hevea spp.) as including the dry content weight of latex; balata, gutta-percha and all rubber-allied gums as well as scrap rubber are excluded, as their uses are considered entirely different from those of natural rubber.


Livestock numbers
The data on livestock numbers are intended to cover all domestic animals irrespective of their age and the place or purpose of their breeding. Estimates have been made for non-reporting countries as well as for countries reporting incomplete data. However, in certain countries, data for chickens, ducks and turkeys do not yet seem to represent the total number of these birds. Certain other countries give a single figure for all poultry; data for these countries are shown under “Chickens”.

Livestock products

Data present, for major species, the number of animals slaughtered, the average dressed carcass weight and the corresponding production of meat. Data relate to animals slaughtered within national boundaries, irrespective of their origin. Similarly, the data on production of horse meat, poultry meat and total meat refer to animals slaughtered in the country concerned, regardless of the origin of the animal.

The concept of indigenous production of meat is different. Here, the production figures relate to indigenous animals, i.e. they include the meat equivalent of exported live animals and exclude the meat equivalent of imported live animals.

All data shown relate to total meat production, that is, from both commercial and farm slaughter. Data are given in terms of dressed carcass weight, excluding offal and slaughter fats. Production of beef and buffalo meat includes veal; mutton and goat meat includes meat from lambs and kids; pig meat includes bacon and ham in fresh equivalent.

Poultry meat includes meat from all domestic birds and refers, wherever possible, to ready-to-cook weight. Data on poultry-meat production reported by national statistical offices are expressed in terms of either live weight, eviscerated weight, ready-to-cook weight or dressed weight. Data for countries reporting in other than ready-to-cook weight have been converted into the ready-to-cook equivalent. Data for the United States — the largest poultry-meat producer — are given on a ready-to-cook basis and include giblets; however, most countries reporting in terms of ready-to-cook weight do not specify whether giblets are included or excluded.
Total meat production includes meat from animals slaughtered in countries, irrespective of their origin and comprises horse meat, poultry meat and meat from all other domestic or wild animals such as camels, rabbits, reindeer and game animals.

Although most countries report data on a calendar-year basis, there are a few exceptions. Israel and New Zealand, for example, give data for years ending 30 September and Australia for years ending 30 June.

Data on cow milk production relate to total production of whole fresh milk, excluding the milk sucked by young animals but including amounts fed to livestock. However,
Austria, the Czech Republic, Italy and Slovakia report production including milk sucked by young animals. Official statistics on cow milk production are available for most important producing countries; where they have not been available, estimates based on food consumption surveys and other indicators have been used. For a few countries where statistics on milking cows were not available, data shown have been estimated on the basis of milk production and on the actual or presumed yield per cow. Yield per cow is the result of dividing the production of milk by the number of milking cows. Milk production data shown for Australia refer to years ending 30 June; and for New Zealand, to years ending 31 May. Also, a few other minor producing countries report data for periods other than the calendar year.

The concept of production is the same as for cow milk; however, the coverage is probably less adequate.

Data shown for the commodities in this group generally refer to total production, whether manufactured at dairy factories or on farms. No data are available for certain countries, and those reported by other countries may be underestimated, particularly as regards farm production. Naturally, continental and world totals reflect the limited coverage of the data.

Data on cheese relate to all kinds of cheese produced: from full fat cheese to fatless cheese, hard and soft cheese, ripe and fresh cheese, cottage cheese and curd. Data on butter include ghee, which is liquid butter clarified by boiling.

Some countries have no statistics on egg production, and estimates had to be derived from such related data as chicken or total poultry numbers and reported or assumed rates of egg laying.

Most of the countries that have statistics on egg production report either the total weight of eggs or the numbers of eggs produced; data on numbers have been converted into weight, using official conversion factors wherever possible. Data generally refer to total production, including eggs for hatching, in both agricultural and non-agricultural sectors.

The data presented are incomplete, particularly with regard to African and Asian countries.

Although data for a few producing countries are missing, data for the countries listed adequately represent total world production.

Wool production statistics are generally given for greasy wool, which contains from 30 to 65 percent impurities. In order to make figures comparable, data are given also on a degreased (scoured) basis.

All figures refer to fresh weight of hides and skins. For countries reporting production in numbers or expressed in dry, cured or salted weight, data have been converted into fresh weight using appropriate conversion factors. Where no official data were available, estimates based on slaughtering and on other information have been given.

The terms relating to meat of cattle, pigs and poultry have different meaning and coverage in the various Domains of our Data Collections:

code 867 Beef and Veal. Data are given in terms of dressed carcass weight, bone-in,
excluding offals and slaughter fats removed in slaughterhouses.
code 1035 Pigmeat. Data are given in terms of dressed carcass weight, bone-in, excluding
offals and slaughter fats removed in slaughterhouses.
code 1808 POULTRY MEAT. Includes meat of chickens, turkeys, ducks, etc. Some
countries report eviscerated weight, others, ready-to-cook, with or without giblets.

2.Domain TRADE
code 867 Beef and Veal. Same definition as production.
code 1035 Pigmeat. Same definition as production.
code 1924 MEAT BOVINE FRESH. Includes beef and veal, buffalo meat and related
boneless meat; all taken in their product weight. Boneless meat is meat partly boned and
partly defatted (butcher fats).
code 2071 BOVINE MEAT or MEAT BOVINE. Includes beef and veal and buffalo meat as
well as derived products, principally, boneless meat, in terms of dressed carcass weight
equivalent. Boneless meat is meat partly boned and partly defatted (butcher fats).
code 2027 Meat of Swine. Pigmeat and pork taken in their product weight. Pork is pigmeat
partly boned and partly defatted (butcher fats).
code 2073 Pig Meat or MEAT OF PIG. Includes pigmeat and derived products expressed in
equivalent of pigmeat.
The products are: pork, bacon and ham, sausages and preparations.
code 2074 POULTRY MEAT or MEAT OF POULTRY. Same coverage as production plus
meat equivalent of liver and canned meat.

code 1926 MEAT POULTRY FRESH. Includes chicken, duck, goose and turkey meat.


code 2731 Bovine Meat
a)El. Production. Includes beef and veal and buffalo meat
b)El. Trade and other elements. Includes also derived products in dressed carcass weight
equivalent (see code 2071)
code 2733 Pigmeat
a)Element Production as pigmeat above (see code 1035)
b)Element Trade and other elements. Includes also derived products in dressed carcass weight
(see code 2073)
code 2734 Poultry Meat
a)Element Production (as in code 1808).
b)Element Trade and other elements (as in code 2074).


Data for
Anguilla are included with those of Saint Kitts and Nevis.

Data for
China generally include those for Taiwan (Province of China).

As a result of the present situation in
Cyprus, data refer to the government-controlled area only.

Czech Republic, Slovakia
Starting in 1993, these independent republics, formerly
Czechoslovakia, are shown separately.

Eritrea, Ethiopia
Starting in 1993,
Eritrea and Ethiopia, formerly Ethiopia PDR, are shown separately.

Independent republics of the USSR
Starting in 1992, the independent republics
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are shown separately in Asia, while Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, the Russian Federation and Ukraine are shown separately in Europe. However, they are not included in the continental totals. Data before 1992 are shown under USSR.

Independent republics of Yugoslavia SFR
Starting in 1992, the independent republics Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Slovenia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) are shown separately. Data for the years prior to 1992 are shown under Yugoslavia SFR.

India and Pakistan
Data relating to Kashmir-Jammu, whose final status has not yet been determined, are generally included under
India and excluded from figures for Pakistan. Data for Sikkim are included under India.

Pacific Islands
This heading includes data for the Republic of the
Marshall Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of Palau until 1994 inclusive. Beginning 1995 data for these areas are shown separately.

Saint Helena
Data for
Saint Helena include those for Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

Data for the former
Yemen Arab Republic and the former Yemen, Democratic, have been combined.


For consistency of the time series, the totals for "Asia" and "Europe" do not include the estimates for the independent republics of the former USSR which are however, included in the World Total.

The Total "B" for Asia includes the estimates for Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, while the total "B" for Europe includes the estimates for Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation and Ukraine.