YEARBOOK OF FOREST PRODUCTS

DEFINITIONS




















ROUNDWOOD (1)

1861 ROUNDWOOD
1862 ROUNDWOOD (C)
1863 ROUNDWOOD (NC)
Wood in the rough. Wood in its natural state as felled, or otherwise harvested, with or without bark, round, split, roughly squared or other forms (e.g. roots, stumps, burls, etc.). It may also be impregnated (e.g. telegraph poles) or roughly shaped or pointed. It comprises all wood obtained from removals, i.e. the quantities removed from forests and from trees outside the forest, including wood recovered from natural, felling and logging losses during the period - calendar year or forest year. Commodities included are sawlogs and veneer logs, pulpwood, other industrial roundwood (including pitprops) and fuelwood. The statistics include recorded volumes, as well as estimated unrecorded volumes as indicated in the notes. Statistics for trade include, as well as roundwood from removals, the estimated roundwood equivalent of chips and particles, wood residues and charcoal.


FUELWOOD+CHARCOAL(1)

1864 FUELWOOD+CHARCOAL
The commodities included are fuelwood, coniferous and non-coniferous and the roundwood equivalent of charcoal (using a factor of 6.0 to convert from weight (MT) to solid volume units (CUM).

1629 FUELWOOD
1627 FUELWOOD (C)
1628 FUELWOOD (NC)
Wood in the rough (from trunks, and branches of trees) to be used as fuel for purposes such as cooking, heating or power production.

1630 CHARCOAL(2)
Wood carbonized by partial combustion or application of heat from an external source. It is used as a fuel or for other uses. Figures are given in weight (MT).


INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD(1)

1865 INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD
1866 INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD(C)
1867 INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD(NC)
The commodities included are sawlogs or veneer logs, pulpwood, other industrial roundwood and, in the case of trade, also chips and particles and wood residues.

1868 SAWLOGS+VENEER LOGS
These commodity aggregates include sawlogs and veneer logs coniferous and non-coniferous.

1601 SAWLOGS+VENEER LOGS(C)
1604 SAWLOGS+VENEER LOGS(NC)
Sawlogs, veneer logs and logs for sleepers.
Logs whether or not roughly squared, to be sawn (or chipped) lengthwise for the manufacture of sawnwood or railway sleepers (ties). Shingle bolts and stave bolts are included. Logs for production of veneer, mainly by peeling or slicing. Match billets are included, as are special growth (burls, roots, etc.) used for veneers.

1870 PULPWOOD+PARTICLES
1608 PULPWOOD+PART(C)
1611 PULPWOOD+PART (NC)
Pulpwood, chips, particles and wood residues.
In production, the commodities included are pulpwood coniferous and non-coniferous. In trade, the aggregate includes, in addition, chips or particles and wood residues.

1614 PULPWOOD(Round & Split)
Wood in the rough other than logs - for pulp, particle board or fibreboard. Pulpwood may be barked or unbarked and may be in the form of roundwood or splitwood. In production, it may include the equivalent of wood chips made directly from roundwood.

1619 CHIPS+PARTICLES
Wood chips and particles
Wood that has been deliberately reduced to small pieces from wood in the rough or from industrial residues, suitable for pulping, for particle board and fibreboard production, for fuelwood or for other purposes.

1620 WOOD RESIDUES
Miscellaneous wood residues
Wood residues which have not been reduced to small pieces. They consist principally of industrial residues, e.g. sawmill rejects, slabs, edgings and trimmings, veneer log cores, veneer rejects, sawdust, bark (excluding briquettes), residues from carpentry and joinery production, etc.

1871 OTHER INDUST ROUNDWD
1623 OTHER INDUST ROUNDWD (C)
1626 OTHER INDUST ROUNDWD (NC)
Other industrial roundwood
Roundwood used for tanning, distillation, match blocks, gazogenes, poles, piling, posts, pitprops, etc.
(Note: "OTHER INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD" include pitprops.)

1651 IND RWD-WIR(C)
Industrial roundwood-Wood in the rough (Coniferous)
This commodity aggregate includes all industrial wood in the rough(sawlogs and veneer logs, pulpwood and other industrial roundwood) of coniferous species.

1657 IND RWD-WIR(NC)TROP
Industrial roundwood-Wood in the rough (Non-Coniferous-Tropical)
This commodity aggregate includes all industrial wood in the rough of non-coniferous species of tropical origin.

1670 IND RWD-WIR(NC)OTHER
Industrial roundwood-Wood in the rough (Non-Coniferous-Other)
This commodity aggregate includes all industrial wood in the rough of non-coniferous species of origin other than tropical.


S A W N W O O D (2)

1872 SAWNWOOD+SLEEPERS
The aggregate includes sawnwood and sleepers, coniferous or non-coniferous.

1632 SAWNWOOD(C)
1633 SAWNWOOD(NC)
Sawnwood, unplaned, planed, grooved, tongued, etc., sawn lengthwise, or produced by a profile-chipping process (e.g. planks, beams, joists, boards, rafters, scantlings, laths, boxboards, "lumber", sleepers, etc.) and planed wood which may also be finger jointed, tongued or grooved, chamfered, rabbeted, V-jointed, beaded, etc. Wood flooring is excluded. With few exceptions, sawnwood exceeds 5 mm. in thickness.

W O O D - B A S E D P A N E L S(2)

1873 WOOD-BASED PANELS
The aggregate includes the following commodities: veneer sheets, plywood, particle board and fibreboard compressed or non-compressed. Starting from 1995 the Fibreboard, Compressed has been disaggregated in Hardboard and Medium density fibreboard (MDF); and the Fibreboard, non-compressed has been re-labeled Insulating board.

1634 VENEER SHEETS
Thin sheets of wood of uniform thickness, rotary cut, sliced or sawn, for use in plywood, laminated construction, furniture, veneer containers, etc. In production, the quantity given excludes veneer sheets used for plywood production within the country.

1640 PLYWOOD
Plywood, veneer plywood, core plywood including veneered wood, blockboard, laminboard and battenboard. Other plywood such as cellular board and composite plywood. Veneer plywood is plywood manufactured by bonding together more than two veneer sheets. The grain of alternate veneer sheets is crossed generally at right angles. Core plywood is plywood whose core (i.e. central layer, generally thicker than the other plies) is solid and consists of narrow boards, blocks or strips of wood placed side by side, which may or may not be glued together. (This item includes veneered wood in sheets or panels in which a thin veneer of wood is affixed to a base, usually of inferior wood, by glueing under pressure). Cellular board is a plywood with a core of cellular construction while composite plywood is a plywood with core or certain layers made of material other than solid wood or veneers.

1646 PARTICLE BOARD
A sheet material manufactured from small pieces of wood or other ligno-cellulosic materials (e.g. chips, flakes, splinters, strands, shreds, schives, etc.) agglomerated by use of an organic binder together with one or more of the following agents: heat, pressure, humidity, a catalyst, etc. (Flaxboard is included. Wood wool and other particle boards, with inorganic binders, are excluded).

1874 FIBREBOARD
Fibreboard (fibre building board)
A panel manufactured from fibres of wood or other ligno-cellulosic materials with the primary bond deriving from the felting of the fibres and their inherent adhesive properties. Bonding materials and/or additives may be added. It is usually flat pressed but may also be moulded. (Similar products made from pieces of wood, wood flour or other ligno-cellulosic material with added binders are excluded - as are, for example, boards of gypsum or other mineral material). The aggregate includes fibreboard compressed (Hardboard and Medium Density Fibreboard) and insulating board.

1649 FIBREBOARD, COMPRESSED
Fibreboard Compressed includes fibreboards with a density greater than 0.50 g/cm3. This commodity for the time reported (1961-1994) was not disaggregated. Starting from 1995 the Fibreboard compressed has been disaggregated in Hardboard and MDF as defined below.

1647 HARDBOARD
Hardboard is a type of fibreboard with a density exceeding 0.80 g/cm3.

1648 MDF
MDF (Medium Density Fibreboard) is a type of fibreboard with a density exceeding 0.50 g/cm3 but not exceeding 0.80 g/cm3.

1650 INSULATING BOARD
Insulating Board is a type of fibreboard with a density exceeding 0.35 g/cm3 but not exceeding 0.50 g/cm3. Note: this commodity used to be labeled "fibreboard non-compressed".


P U L P(3)

1875 WOOD PULP
The following commodities are included in this aggregate: mechanical, semi-chemical, chemical and dissolving wood pulp.

1654 MECHANICAL WOOD PULP
Wood pulp obtained by grinding or milling:coniferous or non-coniferous rounds,quarters,billets,etc into fibres or through refining coniferous or non-coniferous chips. Also called groundwood pulp and refiner pulp. It may be bleached or unbleached. It excludes exploded and defibrated pulp, and includes chemi-mechanical and thermo-mechanical pulp.

1655 SEMI-CHEMICAL WOOD PULP
Wood pulp, chemi-mechanical and semi-chemical Wood pulp obtained by subjecting coniferous or non-coniferous wood to a series of mechanical and chemical treatments, none of which alone is sufficient to make the fibres separate readily. According to the order and importance of the treatment, such pulp is variously named: semi-chemical, chemi-groundwood, chemi-mechanical, etc. It may be bleached or unbleached.

1667 DISSOLVING WOOD PULP
Wood pulp, dissolving grades chemical pulp (sulphate, soda or sulphite) from coniferous or non-coniferous wood, or special quality, with a very high alpha-cellulose content (usually 90% and over), readily adaptable for uses other than paper making. These pulps are always bleached. They are used principally as a source of cellulose in the manufacture of products such as synthetic fibres, cellulosic plastic materials, lacquers, explosives.

1656 CHEMICAL WOOD PULP
Sulphate (kraft) and soda and sulphite wood pulp except dissolving grades, bleached, semi-bleached and unbleached. Where detail is available, statistics for the following four component pulps (1660,1661,1662,1663) are given:

1660 UNBLEACHED SULPHITE PULP
Wood pulp, sulphite, except dissolving grades. Wood pulp obtained by mechanically reducing coniferous or non-coniferous wood to small pieces which are subsequently cooked in a pressure vessel in the presence of a bi-sulphite cooking liquor. Bi-sulphites such as ammonium, calcium, magnesium and sodium are commonly used. The class includes semi-bleached and unbleached pulps.

1661 BLEACHED SULPHITE PULP
Wood pulp, sulphite, except dissolving grades. Wood pulp obtained by mechanically reducing coniferous or non-coniferous wood to small pieces which are subsequently cooked in a pressure vessel in the presence of a bi-sulphite cooking liquor. Bi-sulphites such as ammonium, calcium, magnesium and sodium are commonly used. The class includes bleached pulp.

1662 UNBLEACHED SULPHATE PULP
Wood pulp, sulphate (kraft) and soda, except dissolving grades. Wood pulp obtained by mechanically reducing coniferous or non-coniferous wood to small pieces which are subsequently cooked in a pressure vessel in the presence of sodium hydroxide cooking liquor (soda pulp) or a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphite cooking liquor (sulphate pulp).The class includes semi-bleached and unbleached pulps.

1663 BLEACHED SULPHATE PULP
Wood pulp, sulphate (kraft) and soda, except dissolving grades. Wood pulp obtained by mechanically reducing coniferous or non-coniferous wood to small pieces which are subsequently cooked in a pressure vessel in the presence of sodium hydroxide cooking liquor (soda pulp) or a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphite cooking liquor (sulphate pulp). The class includes bleached pulp.

1668 OTHER FIBRE PULP
Pulp of fibrous vegetable materials other than wood. Including straw, bamboo, bagasse, esparto, other reeds or grasses, cotton linters, flax, hemp, rags, other textile wastes. Used for the manufacture of paper, paperboard and fibreboard.

1669 RECOVERED PAPER
Waste and scrap of paper or paperboard. This commodity includes paper and paperboard which has been used for its original purpose and residues from paper conversion. This includes waste and scrap collected for re-use as a raw material for the manufacture of paper and related products.

P A P E R and P A P E R B O A R D (4)

1876 PAPER+PAPERBOARD
The following commodities are included in this agreggate: Newsprint, printing and writing paper, other paper and paper- board.

1671 NEWSPRINT
Uncoated paper, unsized (or only slightly sized), containing at least 60% (percentage of fibrous content) mechanical wood pulp, usually weighing not less that 40 g/square m and generally not more than 60 g/square m of the type used mainly for the printing of newspapers.

1674 PRINTING+WRITING PAPER
Other printing and writing paper
Paper, except newsprint, suitable for printing and business purposes, writing, sketching, drawing, etc., made from a variety of pulp blends and with various finishes. Included are such papers as those used for books and magazines, wallpaper base stock, box lining and covering calculator paper, rotonews, duplicating, tablet or block, label, lithograph, banknote, tabulating card stock, bible or imitation bible, stationary, manifold, onionskin, typewriter, poster, etc.

1675 OTHER PAPER+PAPERBOARD
Includes construction paper and paperboard, household and sanitary paper, special thin paper, wrapping and packaging paper and paperboard and other paper and paperboard not elsewhere specified. Where detail is available statistics for categories composing the above (1676, 1681, 1683) are given as follows:

1676 HOUSEHOLD + SANITARY PAPER
Household and sanitary paper; special thin paper
Household and sanitary paper includes absorbent paper, creped or uncreped, sometimes embossed, made from bleached or unbleached chemical wood pulp, sometimes with a mixture of pulp from waste paper and mechanical pulp. Included are towelling, napkin, facial tissue, toilet tissue, wadding disposable tissues.

1681 WRAPG+PACKG PAPER+BOARD
Wrapping and packaging paper and paperboard
Paper or paperboards included are the following: vegetable parchment, greaseproof and glassine paper. Papers made from pure chemical wood pulp or from mixture of chemical wood pulp, cotton fibre pulp, treated (e.g. highly hydrated or hard beaten) to render the resulting paper resistant to oil, grease and water. They are used primarily for packaging frozen, moist or greasy materials such as butter, margarine, meat or fish, linerboard; paper or paperboard used as facing material on corrugated or solid paper or paperboard boxes and containers. Fluting medium: paper or paperboard used as medium when combining paper and paperboard for conversion into a corrugated board. Sack kraft paper: strong paper made from sulphate pulp and used in the manufacture of single, or multiwall, sacks. Other kraft wrapping paper: all other wrapping and packaging papers made principally from sulphate pulp. Folding boxboard: all types of paperboard used in the manufacture of folding boxes. Other wrapping and packaging paper and paperboard.

1683 PAPER+PAPERBOARD NES
Other paper and paperboard not elsewhere specified
Includes: Kraft papers for waxing, asphalting, water proofing, laminating, impregnating, spinning or twisting,gumming,etc.,paper manufactured principally from furnishes other than sulphate pulp not included elsewhere, such as rope and jute paper,folder stock, blotting paper, filter paper, photographic sensitizing paper,etc. and paperboards not included elsewhere such as shoe board, gasket board,transformer board,press textile board,index pressboard, panel board (automotive) trunk and suitcase board, matrix board.
Construction paper and paperboard:
Papers, paper felts and paper boards used in the construction of buildings and other structures for insulation,vapour seal,roofing and flooring underlay,etc.They are made from fully refined material such as wood pulp, waste paper, other vegetable pulp and mineral fibre. Low thermal conductivity, moisture resistance,fire resistance permanency,insect and vermin resistance are desirable characteristics of these materials (excluded are papers, felts or boards impregnated, saturated laminated or further manufactured in any way and fibreboard or fibre building board, in the form of insulating board, medium hardboard and hardboard).
Special thin paper:
papers made for special purposes, their common characteristics being their relative thinness. They may be made from mechanical or chemical wood pulps, bleached or unbleached,but frequently from pulps containing flax,hemp or cotton fibre.Principal characteristics of some of these papers are:
uniformity of surface and caliper, freedom from pinholes,strength close formation, low permeability, chemical purity - all related to special uses. Examples of types of paper included are:
carbonizing tissue, condenser and capacitator paper,cigarette paper, lens tissue, pattern tissue, tea bag paper.

NOTES

(1) Figures are given in solid volume of roundwood (or roundwood equivalent) without bark.

(2) Figures are given in solid volume.

(3) Figures are given in weight (air-dry = 10% moisture)

(4) Figures are given in weight.


































SPECIES

(C) Coniferous
All woods derived from trees classified botanically as Gymnospermae - e.g. fir (Abies), parana pine (Araucaria), deodar (Cedrus), ginkgo (Ginkgo), larch (Larix), spruce (Picea), pine, chir, kail (Pinus), etc. These are generally referred to as softwoods.

(NC) Non-Coniferous
All woods derived from trees classified botanically as Angiospermae - e.g., maple (Acer), alder (Alnus), ebony (Diospyros), beech (Fagus), lignum vitae (Guiaicum), poplar (Populus), oak (Quercus), sal (Shorea), teak (Tectona), casuarina (Casuarina), etc. These are generally referred to as broadleaved or hardwoods.

NC(TROP) Non-Coniferous Tropical
Non-coniferous woods originating from tropical countries.

NC(OTHER) Non-Coniferous Other
Non-coniferous woods originating from countries other than tropical.