Animal traction for agricultural development













Table of Contents


Paul Starkey and Adama Faye (editors)

Proceedings of the Third Workshop of the West Africa Animal Traction Network held 7-12 July 1988, Saly, Senegal

Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (ACP-EEC Lomé Convention) Ede-Wageningen, The Netherlands

Correct citation of this publication

Starkey P. H. and Faye A. (eds) 1990. Animal traction for agricultural development. Proceedings of the Third Workshop of the West Africa Animal Traction Network held 7-12 July 1988, Saly, Senegal. Published on behalf of the West Africa Animal Traction Network by the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Ede-Wageningen, The Netherlands. 479p. (E/F).

Previous publications of the West Africa Animal Traction Network include

Starkey P. H. and Ndiamé F. (eds) 1988. Animal power in farming systems. Proceedings of the Second West Africa Animal Traction Networkshop held 17-26 September 1986, in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Vieweg for German Appropriate Technology Exchange, GTZ, Eschborn, Federal Republic of Germany. 363p. (E/F).

Starkey P. H. and Apetofia K 1986. Integrated livestock systems in Nepal and Indonesia: implications for animal traction programmes in West Africa. Network Report No. 3. Farming Systems Support Project, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. 64p. (E).

Poats S. V., Lichte J., Oxley J., Russo S. L. and Starkey P. H. (eds) 1986. Animal traction in a farming systems perspective. Report of networkshop held Kara, Togo, 3-8 March 1985. Network Report No. 1, Farming Systems Support Project, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA 187p. (E).

Desktop Publishing

These proceedings were prepared to the stage of camera-ready copy by Paul Starkey

Printed by
International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Published for the West Africa Animal Traction Network by
Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation, Ede-Wageningen, The Netherlands

LE CENTRE TECHNIQUE DE COOPERATION AGRICOLE ET RURALE (CTA)

Le Centre technique de coopération agricole et rurale (CTA) est installé depuis 1983 à Ede/Wageningen aux Pays-Bas au titre de la Convention de Lomé entre les états membres de la Communauté européenne et les états ACP (Afrique-Caraibes-Pacifique). Le CTA est à la disposition des Etats ACP pour leur permettre un meilleur accès à l'information, à la recherche, à la formation ainsi qu'aux innovations dans les secteurs du développement agricole et rural et de la vulgarisation.

TECHNICAL CENTRE FOR AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL COOPERATION (CTA)

The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) was established in 1983 at Ede-Wageningen, The Netherlands. It operates under the Lomé Convention between Member States of the European Community and the ACP (Africa, Caribbean and Pacific) States. CTA is at the disposal of the ACP states to provide them with better access to information, research, training and innovations in the field of agricultural and rural development and extension.

Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (ACP-EEC Lomé Convention)

Centre technique de coopération agricole et rurale (Convention ACP-CEE de Lomé)

Headquarters
De Rietkampen
Galvanistraat 9, Ede
The Netherlands

Postal Address
Postbus 380
6700 AJ Wageningen
The Netherlands

Tel (31) 8380-20484
Telex: (44) 30169 CTA NL
Fax: (31) 8380-31052

Siège
De Rietkampen
Galvanistraat 9, Ede
Pays-Bas

Adresse Postale
Postbus 380
6700 AJ Wageningen
Pays-Bas

Tél: (31) 8380-20484
Télex. (44) 30169 CTA NL
Télécopie: (31) 8380-31052

Animal Traction for Agricultural Development
Proceedings of the Third Workshop of the West Africa Animal Traction Network held 7-12 July 1988, Saly, Senegal

La Traction Animale pour le Développement Agricole
Les actes du Troisième Atelier Régional du Réseau Ouest Africain sur la Traction Animale Organisé du 7 au 12 juillet 1988 à Saly au Sénégal

The workshop was organized* by:

The West Africa Animal Traction Network
Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA)

With support* from:

GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit)
IDRC (International Development Research Centre)
CTA (Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation)
GATE (German Appropriate Technology Exchange)
ILCA (International Livestock Centre for Africa)
ENDA (Environment and Development in the Third World)

*The opinions expressed in these proceedings do not necessarily represent the views of the publishing organization or the workshop sponsors

The Editors

Paul Starkey studied Natural Science at Oxford University, Education at Cambridge University and Tropical Agricultural Development at the University of Reading, UK. He worked in Malawi for four years and for seven years he was an ODA technical cooperation officer in Sierra Leone, where he initiated a national animal traction programme. He is now a consultant, specializing in animal traction, and also an Honorary Research Fellow at the Centre for Agricultural Strategy, University of Reading. His experience has been published in many journal articles and books. He has been closely involved in regional liaison activities, and has been the Technical Adviser of the West Africa Animal Traction Network since its inception in 1985. His main professional interests are the improved utilization of draft animal power and stimulating closer international liaison in this field.

Adama Faye graduated in agriculture and animal science at Cheikh Antadiop University in Dakar, Senegal. He is currently preparing his Doctoral thesis in association with CIRAD, Montpellier. Most of his professional life has been spent with the Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), and he is currently Head of the Kolda Research Station in Casamance, Senegal. He has been an active member of the West Africa Animal Traction Network Steering Committee since its inception in 1985. Since 1988 he has been the Chairman of the Network Steering Committee, and has represented the Network in discussions on the establishment of a Network Secretariat.

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.

Cette version numérique du document a été scannérisé en utilisant des logiciels de reconnaissance optique de texte (OCR) et en vérifiant manuellement et attentivement le texte. Bien que la digitalisation soit de haute qualité, la FAO décline toute responsabilité pour les éventuelles différences pouvant apparaître dans ce document par rapport à la version imprimée originale.


Table of Contents


Préface

Preface

Notes du rédacteur et remerciements

Editor's notes and acknowledgements

A note on desktop publishing

Part 1: Report of the workshop

Summary of workshop activities

Compte-rendu des séances et activités de l'Atelier

Networking announcements

International and resource organizations
National programmes in Africa

Petites annonces du réseau

Organisations internationales et de soutien
Programmes nationaux en Afrique

List of workshop participants - Liste des participants

Workshop evaluation

Evaluation de l'atelier

Statutes of the West Africa animal traction network

Les statuts du réseau Ouest Africain sur la traction animale

Part 2: Papers prepared for the workshop

Keynote paper and overviews: animal traction experiences in West Africa and elsewhere

Animal traction for agricultural development in West Africa: production, impact, profitability and constraints

Les projets de développement de la traction animale: contraintes lices à l'animal et voies d'intervention prioritaires

Effets dynamiques la traction animale dans les systèmes de production

Overcoming constraints to animal traction through a collaborative research network

La gestion de la carrière des bovins de traits

The impact of animal traction on women

Using science to understand the biological constraints that limit work animal productivity

Profitability of animal traction: studies in Morocco, Guinea, Togo, Benin, Senegal and Ghana

Rentabilité de la traction animale dans les petites exploitations marocaines

La rentabilité du labour attelé dans la sous-préfecture de Bangouya, Guinée

Etude comparative de rentabilité de la culture manuelle et de la culture attelée au Togo

Impact socio-économique de la traction animale dans la province de l'Atacora, Bénin

Rôle de la mécanisation dans l'intensification de l'agriculture en Basse Casamance, Sénégal

Profitability of animal traction investment: the case of northeastern Ghana

Developing equipment for animal traction: studies in Burkina Faso, Senegal, Mali, Zambia, Brazil and India

Etude de deux outils attelés: réduction des contraintes de travail du sol en zone sèche

Le travail à la dent sur sol gravillonnaire au Sénégal

Local production of animal-drawn implements

The need for standardized procedures to test ox-drawn implements: experience from Zambia

Animal power production and mechanisms for linking animals to machines

Le semis direct sous mulch dans les petites exploitations du Sud-brésilien

Workload constraints: the measurement and interpretation of mechanical factors

Animal traction in Senegal: impact, constraints and experiences

Application d'une méthode simple de suivi et d'évaluation de la culture attelée au Bassin Arachidier, Sénégal

Rôle des forgerons traditionnels dans la maintenance du matériel de traction animale en Basse Casamance, Sénégal

Adoption et principales contraintes à la diffusion des équipements de traction animale en Basse Casamance, Sénégal

Eléments de méthodologie et d'analyse pour les enquêtes sur le matériel de culture attelée: expérience de la Basse Casamance, Sénégal

L'impact du crédit sur la traction animale: analyse critique du Crédit Spécial du Projet PIDAC en Basse Casamance, Sénégal

Disponibilité des animaux de trait et contraintes structurelles en Basse Casamance

Animal traction in The Gambia: impact, constraints and experiences

A note on animal traction research and development activities in The Gambia

Post-cultivation constraints to increasing productivity using animal traction in The Gambia

Socio-economic constraints to the use of animal traction for rainfed rice production in The Gambia

Foaling and mortality of equines in The Gambia: a national survey

Animal traction in Sierra Leone: impact, constraints and experiences

Constraints to the extension of draft animal technology in the farming systems of Sierra Leone

Overcoming some animal health constraints to work oxen in Sierra Leone through a revolving fund

L'approvisionnement en animaux de trait: contrainte à l'extension de la traction animale en Sierra Leone

Village level engineering: the importance of the blacksmith in supporting animal traction and agricultural production

Social constraints to the adoption and expansion of work oxen in Sierra Leone

Animal traction in Togo and Côte d'Ivoire: impact, constraints and experiences

La culture attelée au Togo: données statistiques

Les contraintes de la culture attelée observées par la Société Togolaise de Coton

Usure des pièces travaillantes des équipements de culture attelée au Togo

Impact de la traction animale en Côte d'Ivoire

Animal traction in Nigeria: impact, constraints and experiences

Animal traction in Nigeria: impact, constraints and current initiatives

Animal traction technology in northern Nigeria: a survey of constraints and a model of prospects

Animal power for agricultural production in Nigeria

A note on the draft animals used in northern Nigeria

Observations on animal power utilization in the farming systems of northern Nigeria

Animal traction in Mali: impact, constraints and experiences

Impact de la culture attelée dans la zone de l'Opération Haute Vallée du Niger, Mali

La traction animale dans la zone de l'Opération Haute Vallée, Mali: utilisation et contraintes

Présentation du projet Centre d'Animation Rurale Mixte (CARM), Mali

L'impact de la traction animale: cas des prêts "Premier Equipement" dans la région Mali-Sud

Animal traction in Niger: impact, constraints and experiences

Contraintes à l'utilisation de la traction animale au Niger

The development of animal traction equipment adapted to the rainfed areas in the Republic of Niger

The potential impact of the use of animal traction on millet-based cropping systems in the Sahel

Animal traction in Cameroon and Zaïre: impact, constraints and experiences

The impact of animal traction for production in a permanent farming system in North-West Cameroon: the role of the PAFSAT Project

Expériences en traction bovine du projet rural Diocésain, Zaïre

Animal traction in Zambia, Kenya and Tanzania: impact, constraints and experiences

Historical and present constraints to the use of animal traction in zambia

A note on the impact of animal traction in Zambia

The impact of the oxenization programme in the North-Western province of Zambia

Reducing present constraints to the use of animal power in Kenya

Constraints to the adoption of animal traction weeding technology in the Mbeya Region of Tanzania

Abbreviations and acronyms: Abréviations et sigles