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The effect of maize bran on voluntary intake and digestibility of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) pods by goats

J.A. Ayoade
Department of Animal Science
University of Malawi
P.O. Box 219
Lilongwe, Malawi


Abstract
Introduction
Materials and methods
Results and discussion
Acknowledgements
References


Abstract

Three male Malawi local goats (about 19 kg) were used in a 3 x 3 Latin Square design experiment to investigate the effect of maize bran supplementation on the voluntary intake and digestibility of pigeon pea pods by goats. The treatments were: (a) ad libitum pods; (b) treatment a (i.e. ad libitum pods) plus 100 g maize bran/goat/day; and (c) treatment a plus 200 g maize bran/goat/day. The voluntary dry-matter intake and digestibility of pigeon pea pods by goats were improved with maize bran supplementation, but not statistically significant (P>0.05). It is concluded that pigeon pea pods supplemented with maize bran could be used as a dry-season ration for goats in the villages when good quality forages are scarce.

Introduction

A study with sheep (Bell, 1978) suggested that pigeon pea pods as a sole diet are of low nutritive value and that the inclusion of small amounts of high quality pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) considerably improved the nutritive value. Utilization of maize bran to supplement pigeon pea pods would be particularly appropriate for small-scale as well as large farms in Malawi. Large amounts of maize bran are produced in the villages resulting from the use of maize as staple crop. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize bran supplementation on voluntary intake and digestibility of pigeon pea pods by goats.

Materials and methods

Three male Malawi local goats (about 19 kg) were used in a 3 x 3 Latin Square experiment to investigate the effect of maize bran on voluntary intake and digestibility of dried pigeon pea pods by goats. The treatments were (a) ad libitum dried pods; (b) treatment a (i.e. ad libitum pods) plus 100 g maize bran/goat/day; and (c) treatment a plus 200 g maize bran/goat/day. At the beginning of the experiment, the animals were treated for parasites and were confined in individual metabolism crates throughout the experiment. The experiment was divided into three 14-day periods consisting of a 9-day preliminary period followed by a 5-day collection period. Maize bran was fed at 0800 hours daily and the pigeon pea pods were given three hours later. No mineral supplements were given. Clean drinking water was made available daily. Feeds (offered and refusals) samples were analysed for dry matter, ash and crude protein while faecal samples were analysed for dry matter and ash using the AOAC (1970) procedures. Data were subjected to analysis of variance.

Results and discussion

The chemical composition of the pigeon pea pods and maize bran used in the study (Table 1) is similar to that used by Bell (1978). The dry-matter, organic matter and crude protein contents of the maize bran are also within the range reported for maize bran from some Central Malawi villages (Ayoade, unpublished).

Table 1. Proximal chemical composition of pigeon peas and maize bran (as fed basis)


Dry matter
(%)

Crude protein
(%)

Ash
(%)

Gross energy
(MJ/kg)

Pigeon pea pods

91.7

7.0

4.7

14.8

Maize bran

88.9

9.6

2.4

1.9

The voluntary dry-matter intake (DMI) and digestibility of pigeon pea pods by goats are presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Voluntary intake and digestibility of pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan) pods as affected by maize bran supplementation.



Level of maize bran supplementation (g/goat/day)

0

100

200

*SEX

Daily dry-matter intake (pods) g

385.7

356.8

329.8

24.0

g/100 kg body weight

2460.3

2179.5

2054.8

147.8

g/kg W0.75

48.8

43.7

40.8

3.0

Daily total dry-matter intake g

385.7

445.4

491.7

30.0

g/100 kg body weight

2460.3

2770.5

3075.4

82.8

g/kg W0.75

48.8

55.3

60.9

2.3

Daily free water intake (litres)

0.53

0.66

0.50

0.05

Digestibility (%):


Dry-matter

46.0

51.7

55.0

1.1


Organic matter

49.7

54.9

55.9

2.6

*Significant at P>0.05.

The voluntary DMI of pigeon pea pods by goats was reduced while the total DMI by the goats was increased with maize bran supplementation (Table 2). However, these differences were not statistically significant. All animals lost weight while on pigeon pea pods alone and maintained their body weight or gained weight slightly while on the supplemented treatments. This indicates that pigeon pea pods alone did not meet the maintenance requirements of the goats. Similar observations were obtained by Bell (1978) when pigeon pea pods alone were fed to sheep. The maintenance of body weight and slight body weight gain by goats while on the supplemented treatment indicate the importance of supplementation of pigeon pea pods if maintenance of growth is to be realised in the animals (Bell, 1978).

There were no significant differences among the treatments in the mean daily free water intake of the goats (Table 2). However, there was tendency for a greater free water intake for animals fed pigeon pea pods plus maize bran compared to those fed pigeon pea pods alone.

Supplementation with maize bran improved digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter of pigeon pea pods by goats (P>0.05). This agrees with the findings of Bell (1978), Ayoade and Tambala (1984), Devendra (1982) and Mosi and Butterworth (1985) who reported improved digestibility of low quality roughages through concentrate/high quality forage supplementation.

The results of the study indicate improved utilization of pigeon pea pods by goats with maize bran supplementation.

When compared with the results of Bell (1978), the goats utilized pigeon pea pods alone better than the sheep. It is concluded that pigeon pea pods supplemented with maize bran could be used as a dry season ration for goats by the small-scale farmers when good quality forages are scarce.

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by University of Malawi Research and Publications. The author thanks Professor O.T. Edje for supplying the dried pigeon pea pods and Mr. M.M. Kayange for analysing the samples.

References

AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). 1970. Official methods of analyses. 11th edition. AOAC, Washington, D.C.

Ayoade, J.A. and Tambala, P.A.J. 1984. The effect of concentrate supplementation on voluntary intake and digestibility of chopped groundnut haulms by goats. African Research Network for Agricultural By-products Newsletter 3(4):5. ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Bell, G.D. 1978. The nutritive value of pigeon pea (Caianus cajan) hulls and cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf for sheep. University of Queensland, Agriculture Department, Research Project Report, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

Devendra, C. 1982. Perspectives in the utilization of untreated straw by ruminants in Asia. In: P.T. Doyle (ed.), The utilization of fibrous agricultural residues as animal feed. pp. 7-26.

Mosi, A.K. and Butterworth, M.H. 1985. The voluntary intake and digestibility of diets containing different proportions of tef (Eragostis tef) straw and Trifolium tembense hay when fed to sheep. Tropical Animal Production 10(1):1923.


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