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1. OVERVIEW


Philippine Hazard and Disaster Situation

The Philippines shares with several Asian countries the unwelcome distinction of being one of the world's most disaster-prone countries. The Center for Research and Epidemiology of Disasters in Belgium recorded a total of 701 disaster incidents from 1900 - 1991, or almost 8 disasters a year. For the period 1987 to 2000, the National Disaster Coordinating Council recorded 523 disasters with total cost of damage of Php 150.071 Billion, or some 37 disasters on the average annually. (OCD, March & August 2001).

Documentation by non-government organizations (NGOs) also covers local disasters which do not land in the newspapers but which are considered disasters at the community level. Aside from natural disasters, the figure includes human-induced disasters such as development aggression (development projects which are undertaken against the will of local communities), fire, labor repression, other industry- related events, armed conflict, and toxic waste contamination. The cumulative documented population affected by disasters from 1991 to 2000 is 96,907,837 individuals, which indicates that many Filipinos are repeatedly hit by disasters. (CDP, 2001)

The Philippines' exposure to disasters is to a significant extent due to the country's geographical and physical characteristics. It is the world's largest archipelago composed of more than 7,100 islands. It lies along the Western Pacific Basin, the world's busiest typhoon belt, with the average of 20 typhoons hitting the country each year. Within 1988 - 2000, 198 typhoons entered the Philippines areas of responsibility and caused Php 22.105 Billion damages. Coastal and extended swamp areas are prone to floods and storm surges during typhoons. In recent years, even heavy rains associated with other climactic conditions such as monsoons, thunderstorms, inter-tropical convergence zone also cause floods in low-lying areas.

The country is also part of the Circum-Pacific seismic belt and lies in between major tectonic plates, whose movements create mountain ranges, islands, volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunamis. There are 220 volcanoes in the country, 21 of which are active. The country also has 8 major earthquake generators and several minor ones such that there are at least 5 earthquakes in a day, most of them imperceptible. The intensity 7.7 earthquake that hit Northern Luzon on July 16, 1990 claimed 1,666 lives, injured 3,500 persons, and caused Php 11 Billion damages to property and Php 1.2 Billion to agriculture. Southern Mindanao is prone to tsunami and on the August 1976 tsunami caused some 4,000 deaths and left 12,000 homeless.

Rapid environmental degradation and resources depletion aggravates the country's vulnerability to natural disasters. The country now finds itself experiencing a cycle of flooding, drought and red tide. Deforestation has resulted in flooding, soil erosion, landslides and siltation. The destruction of mangroves and coral reefs have resulted in the decline in fisheries production and the loss of natural protection of coastal communities from storm surges and beach erosion. El Niño occurrences induce drought in many parts of the Philippines, regularly posing a serious problem in agricultural production and potable water supply. During the El Niño in 1998, about a million families suffered from food scarcity in the highlands of Mindanao and other parts of the country.

The poverty situation of many Filipinos severely restricts capacity to cope with the many natural hazards and more so, to recover from the damages wrought by disasters. Adverse socio-economic situations lead people to inhabit high risk areas and engage in unsustainable and dangerous livelihoods. Fifty feet high trash fell on shanties at the Payatas dumpsite in Quezon City on July 10, 2000 burying some 350 people.

Human-made disasters also take a heavy toll. From 1982- 1990, there were 224 maritime accidents. The collision of MV Dona Paz with an oil tanker is the world's worst peace time sea tragedy with 4,342 confirmed dead. The Philippines also holds a world record for the second worst disco fire with the Ozone disco fire on March 18, 1996 near midnight with 162 dead and 104 injured. Armed conflict in the country, especially in Mindanao causes displacement. and contributes to the worsening disaster situation.

1.1 STUDY AREA PROFILE

1.1.1 Iloilo Province

The province of Iloilo, located in the southeast end of Panay Island in the Western Visayas (southern part of the Philippines), is called the "food basket and rice granary of the Philippines". About 50 percent of its more than 4,700 sq km of land is devoted to agriculture, with rice as the main product. Fish and sea produce abound, with prawns, milkfish and shrimp grown in fish farms. A food processing complex supports its food industry. Still, included in the province's development agenda is the increase in livestock production, crop yield and other means of livelihood.

Figure 1. Location of Iloilo Province, Region VI, Philippines

The province has an extensive local road network that reaches major production areas and market centers. Power supply exceeds current demand, and water supply is provided by 14 water districts. Population is 1.9 million [2000] and 65 % of which depend on agriculture. Around 204,385 ha of crop area is devoted to paddy cultivation almost 50% of which receives irrigation support through small scale irrigation systems both rainfed and irrigation systems are exposed to climate risks. 95% of the area is devoted to rice cultivation. 146,187 form households with most of the holdings less than 1 ha are vulnerable to climate risks.

Table 1. Provincial profile, Iloilo

Province

Iloilo

Capital

Iloilo City

Income/financial resources (1999)

PHP 534.5 M

Expenditure (1998)

PHP 442.7 M

Population (2000)

1,916,707

Population growth rate (1995-2000)

2.10

Labor force (1998)

813,000

Employment rate (2002)

81.9%

Average family income/year (2000)

PHP 110,114

Avg. family expenditure/year (2000)

PHP 91,900

Land area

4,767 sq km

City/municipalities

1/42

No. of barangays

1,901

Infrastructure Facilities

Paved road network, power supply (Panay-Negros-Cebu Grid), Metro Iloilo Water District, telecommunications (300 existing land lines, fax, teleconferencing facilities, 5 mobile phone companies), Iloilo domestic/trunkline airport, Iloilo port (Iloilo river wharf, Old Foreign River, Iloilo Commercial Port Complex), Iloilo Fishing Port Complex

Major Products

Agriculture: rice, corn, legumes, fruits, muscovado sugar, sugar cane, molasses; Forestry: timber; Aquaculture: shrimps, fish; Manufacturing: food processing, metal craft, garments, furniture

Major Industries

Agriculture, forestry, fishery, aquatic farming; manufacturing, construction, trading, tourism

Natural Resources

Fertile land for farming

Agricultural, aquaculture and livestock production are shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Agriculture, aquaculture and livestock production, Iloilo Province (2000)

Crop

Area harvested (hectares)

Production (tons)

No. of farmers

Rice





Irrigated

106,934

399,619

80,671


Rainfed

97,451

300,909

65,516


Total

204,385

700,528

146,187

Corn

6,476

11,333

8,119

Mung beans

4,835

1,224

4,256

Peanuts

332

433

925

Banana

9,871

34,905

8,330

Mango

290

6,981

423

Sugarcane


56,878



Export sugar


225,420


Domestic sugar


2,616,386


Aquaculture




Milkfish

24,705

16,024


Prawns

410

85


Freshwater fish

90

197


Oyster

61

455


Seaweeds

57

1,270


Livestock

Commercial (heads)

Backyard (heads)

Total

Hog/swine

75,724

329,812

405,536

Water buffalo

35

88,066

88,101

Cattle

238

64,264

64,502

Goat

312

142,919

143,231

Duck

4,629

415,873

420,502

Chicken

853,510

3,515,465

4,368,975

Climate: Iloilo is governed by two types of climate. The southern portion, under Type I[1] climate, has two pronounced seasons: dry from December to June, and wet from July to November. Rains associated with the south-west monsoon come as early as May, with July to September as the wettest months. Its north-eastern part, under Type III climate, is relatively dry from November to April, and wet the rest of the year. The mountain range running north to south of Panay Island shields the north-eastern areas from the south-west monsoon. November and December are the wettest months, brought about by the prevailing north-east wind. Figure 2 shows the climate map of the Philippines.

From November to January, tropical cyclones that develop in the northwestern Pacific generally move westward, crossing the province. These cyclones bring strong winds and intense rainfall that oftentimes results to floods, causing loss of lives and destruction of properties. Typhoons that pass the northern part of the country during the southwest monsoon (June to September) or those that form over the South China Sea enhance the prevailing southwest wind flow, bringing monsoon rains over the province for prolonged period of time.

Figure 2. Climate map of the Philippines

1.1.2 Dumangas Municipality

Dumangas is a coastal town of Iloilo (Figure 3), with an economy predominantly based in agriculture and aquaculture. Over 55 percent of its more than 12,700 hectares of land is utilized for farming, and 35 percent for fish farms. Rice is the major farm crop. Its brackish waters are ideal for milkfish culture, which has an annual production of 2.5 tons per hectare. About 800 people engage in municipal fishing. Municipal industry is small scale, which includes salt making, copra and nipa (grass roofing material) making. Tables 3-5 present the municipal profile; agriculture, aquaculture and livestock production; and land use respectively. Rice production contribution to the provincial rice production from 1995-2000 is shown in Table 6.

Climate is under the Type III category, and is relatively dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year. Average annual rainfall is 1,939 mm. Seven rivers traverse the municipality, the biggest of which is the Jalaur River, which drains out to the sea in Dumangas. The river basin has the highest record of annual flow in the province, and is the major source of irrigation water for Dumangas and three other municipalities.

Figure 3. Location of the municipality of Dumangas

Table 3. Dumangas municipality profile (1998)

Location

Southern part of Panay island, 122º42'34" longitude, 10º49'22" latitude

Boundaries

North: Municipality of Barotac Nuevo; South and East: Guimaras Strait; West: Municipalities of Pototan and Zarraga

Classification (according to income)

3rd class

Income

PHP 33.5 million

Total no. of barangays

45

No. of barangays in the urban/rural area

10/35

No. of barangays along the coast/inland

17/28

No. of barangays energized (with electricity)

45

Population (2000)

56,291

Population growth rate (1995)

44%

No. of households (2000)

11,262

Average family size (1995)

5

Literacy rate (1995)

82.61%

Economy

Agriculture, aquaculture

Land area

12,716 hectares

Area devoted to farmlands

7,001 hectares

Area devoted to fishponds

4,536 hectares

Climate

Type III

Average annual rainfall

1,938.7 mm

Average palay production per hectare under normal condition

4 tons per hectare in irrigated areas
2.5 tons per hectare in rainfed areas

Coastline

21.6 km

No. of rivers

7

Major fish farm products

Milkfish, oyster, shrimp, crab, prawn

Average annual milkfish production/hectare

2.5 tons

Infrastructure facilities

Port, wharf, power supply, water district (dug wells in remote areas), postal service, telegraph and telephone

Table 4. Agriculture, aquaculture and livestock production, Dumangas (1998)

Crop

Area planted (hectares)

Production (tons)

Palay (rice)



Irrigated

5,949

36,381

Rainfed

1,374

3,335

Total

7,323

39,716

Corn

32

1,843

Mung beans

70

12,618

Cassava

5.6

65

Sweet potato

5

50

Banana

120

1,200

Watermelon

199

989

Mango

6

72

Guava

3

24

Philippine lemon

1.5

22.5

Sugarcane

120

6,200

Coconut

140

1,120

Coffee

5

100

Cacao

5

100

Aquaculture

Area (hectares)

Production (tons)

Milkfish

4,536

10,885

Oyster

4.6

4.6

Freshwater fish

2.6

1.3

Livestock


Heads

Hog/swine


5,668

Water buffalo


304

Cattle


163

Goat


4,383

Poultry


61,552

Table 5. Land use distribution, Dumangas (1998)

Land use

Area in hectares

Percent of total area

Built-up area

473.52

3.72

Agricultural

7,001.55

55.06

Fish farms

4,535.95

35.67

Swamps and marshes

512.03

4.03

Forest land

35.08

0.28

Open space

6.70

0.05

Mining and quarrying

8.50

0.07

Infrastructure

142.47

1.12

Table 6. Contribution to provincial rice production, 1995-1999


1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Irrigated (tons)







Dumangas

37,816

42,580

42,081

36,381

45,903

Iloilo

292,107

326,725

317,910

361,581

441,167

Rainfed (tons)







Dumangas

6,950

6,078

3,667

3,335

3,842

Iloilo

293,423

281,277

246,717

136,404

318,145

Total production (tons)






Dumangas

44,766

48,658

45,748

39,716

49,745

Iloilo

585,530

608,002

564,627

497,985

759,312

The municipality is prone to flooding from the bursting of the banks of the Jalaur River, its strong current sweeping away crops, poultry and property. The floods bring with them water-borne diseases that afflict children and damage to infrastructure that includes farm-to-market roads (barangay roads). Flooding is compounded by the backing up of water into the river during high tide. High winds from typhoons that pass the area also cause damage to agriculture. Drought associated with El Niño further impacts on agriculture. 1997 was the worst year when floods damaged the first crop and drought damaged the second crop.

1.1.3 Study Sites

barangays Balud and Maquina, located along the banks of the Jalaur River, are flood-prone communities highly dependent on agriculture as a means of livelihood. barangay Barasan, though traversed by the Barasan river, is a less flood-prone community with agricultural and fish farms as sources of livelihood. Table 7 gives the profile of these selected sites.

Table 7. Profile of selected sites (1998)


Balud

Maquina

Barasan

Municipal

Land area (hectares)

78

171

266

12,716

Population (2000)

474

819

963

56,291

No. of households

94

163

204

11,262

Farm area (hectares)

48

130

261

7,001

No. of farmers

14

77

200

3,606

Fish farm area (hectares)

-

-

29

4,536

Infrastructure common to all barangays are the barangay Hall, basketball court/social hall, primary school and day care center. barangay Maquina has a community chapel.

1.2 HAZARD PROFILE

Dumangas is affected by tropical cyclones that pass from the northwestern Pacific from November to January. These cyclones bring strong winds and intense rainfall. From June to September, typhoons that pass the northern part of the country, or those that form over the South China Sea, enhance the prevailing southwest wind flow, bringing monsoon rains over Iloilo for prolonged period of time. In Dumangas, where 32 of the 45 barangays are identified as flood-prone (Table 8), excessive rainfall would oftentimes result to floods, which occur mostly in the months of October till December (Table 9). barangays Balabag, Balud, Bantud Fabrica, Compayan, Maquina, Pagduque, Patlad and Pulao are considered most vulnerable since they suffer the worst impacts of flood.

Table 8. Flood-prone barangays, Municipality of Dumangas

Least to non- flood prone barangays

Flood-prone baramgays

Barasan

Aurora del Pilar

Ilaya 1st

Burgos Regidor

Bacay

Ilaya 2nd

Dacutan

Bacong

Ilaya 3rd

Jardin

Balabag

Lacturan

Lopez Jaena

Balud

Managuit

Mabini

Bantud

Maquina

Nanding Lopez

Bantud Fabrica

Pagdugue

PD Monfort North

Baras

Paloc Bigque

PD Monfort South

Bolilao

Paloc So-ol

Sulangan

Calao

Patlad

Talusan

Cali

Pulao

Tambobo

Cansilayan

Rosario

Victorias

Capaliz

Sapao


Cayos

Tabucan


Compayan - most vul.

Talusan


Embarcadero Buenaflor

Tanboilan

Table 9. Flood events associated with typhoons, Dumangas (1990-2003)

Event date

Typhoon name

No. of barangays affected

Area affected (hectares)

No. of farmers affected

Estimated damage on agriculture
('000 PHP)

Estimated damage on fishponds
('000 PHP)

Nov 1990

Ruping

37

7,436

2,960

16,850

5,680

Dec 1993

Puring

11

865

938

1,340

925

Sep 1995

Mameng

15

1,230

1,860

1,500

2,650

Oct 1995

Pepang

26

3,800

1,502

2,394

1,854

Nov 1995

Rosing

14

3,207

1,807

3,000

1,508

Dec 1995

Sendang

12

947

865

1,250

898

Nov 1996

Toyang

18

1,505

1,239

2,900

2,560

Oct 1998

Loling

31

1,326

1,342

2,244

1,400

Dec 1998

Norming

32

3,765

1,535

7,318

1,300

Dec 2000

Ulpiang

22

5,658

1,908

11,650

1,520

Nov 2001

Nanang

14

1,130

831

5,787

3,249

May 2003

Chedeng

25

4,961

2,244

4,280

5,284

Balud and Maquina, being located at the banks of the Jalaur River, are prone to floods. Maquina, however, being at the upstream, is lesser prone than Balud. The May 2003 flashflood did not affect barangay Maquina (Table 10).

Barasan, though traversed by the smaller Barasan River, is classified as least flood-prone. Floods associated with Typhoon Nanang in 2001 affected Balud and Maquina, but not Barasan. Damage in Barasan was attributed to high winds.

Table 10. Damage brought by typhoons in the selected sites


Dec 2000

Nov 2001

May 2003

Typhoon name:

Ulpiang

Nanang

Chedeng

Hazard

Floods and high winds

Floods and high winds

Flashfloods

Damage to infrastructure




Dike (Balabag-Maquina-Balud-Compayan- Bantud Fabrica)


7 km
PHP 20 million


National road (Balabag-Maquina-Balud-Compayan-Bantud Fabrica)

5 km
PHP 11 million

3.5 km
PHP 7 million


barangay roads:





Balud-Maquina

1.5 km
PHP 2 million

0.5 km
PHP 300,000


Compayan-Balud

0.4 km
PHP 740,000

0.1 km
PHP 40,000


Bolilao-Barasan

3 km
PHP 4 million

2 km
PHP 3 million


Barasan-Agcuyawan Pulo

2.75 km
PHP 3.5 million

2 km
PHP 3 million


Total (municipal level)

74 km
PHP 102 million

55 km
PHP 91 million

5 km
PHP 2.5 million

Damage to farmlands




barangay Balud

48 hectares
41 farmers affected

60 hectares
45 farmers affected

4 hectares (seedling)
3 farmers

barangay Maquina

102 hectares
79 farmers affected

90 hectares
75 farmers affected


barangay Barasan

50 hectares
35 farmers affected

14 hectares
8 farmers affected

20 hectares
16 farmers

Total (municipal level)

5,658 hectares
1,908 farmers
PHP 11.65 million

1,130 hectares
831 farmers
PHP 5.8 million

62 hectares (seedling)
PHP 215,000

Damage to fisheries




Barasan

28.95 hectares
PHP 1.158 million

12 hectares
PHP 480,000

8 hectares
PHP 320,000

Total aquaculture

448 hectares
PHP 17.9 million

163 hectares
PHP 3.35 million

423 hectares
PHP 3.5 million

Total municipal fishery

PHP 260,000

PHP 160,000

PHP 765,000

Damage to households




Balud

98 families (488 people affected)

102 families (605 people) affected

21 families (142 people) affected

Maquina

163 families (819 people affected)

162 families (971 people) affected


Barasan

120 families (480 people affected)

38 families (163 people affected)

25 families (150 people affected)

Total (municipal level)

22 barangays affected (2,168 families or 10,689 people)

14 barangays affected (1,344 families or 8,001 people)

25 barangays affected (1,428 families or 8,170 people)

High winds from typhoons that pass over the municipality affect all communities (Table 11). All three are also vulnerable to drought associated with El Niño.

Table 11. House damage report due to high winds and floods, Typhoon Ruping, November 1990


No. of houses totally damaged

No. of houses partially damaged

Total no. of houses damaged

Total estimated worth of damage

Balud

19

31

50

158,000

Maquina

55

105

160

432,500

Barasan

33

111

144

416,000

Municipal

107

247

354

1,006,500

When asked about the frequency of floods and drought in their community, respondents in Balud said that these hazards impacted them 13 years in 15 years (87%); in Maquina, 7 years in 10 years (70%), and in Barasan, 3 in 10 years (30%).

1.3 VULNERABILITY PROFILE

Recurrent natural disasters weaken people's ability to cope when, along the process of recovery, another hazard impacts the community again, putting strain on already very limited resources.

Many respondents said that since they have been ravaged by typhoons, floods and droughts through the years, they have grown wiser in terms of their behavioral responses to disasters. Now, they feel less threatened although they know that their lives and physical properties may be endangered. Their confidence comes from the knowledge that they will somehow recover from a natural disaster. The forecasts respondents get from the radio, television and the municipal government have also made them more confident that, in the wake of a natural hazard, they will have ample time to secure their animals, families, homes, movable properties, if not their crops. Respondents, however, said that their greatest vulnerability still lies in the loss of livelihood or the loss of capacity to recover their losses after a disaster.

1.3.1 barangay Balud

barangay Balud located at the banks of the Jalaur River, is vulnerable to floods. It is also vulnerable to the strong winds brought by typhoons that damage dwellings made of light materials. Added to this physical vulnerability is their economic vulnerability.

Most men in the community engage in farming. However, most do not own the land that they till. Twenty (20) hectares of the 48 hectares agricultural land is owned by one person. The landowner provides agricultural inputs, and farmers get 10% of the produce. Most areas are not reached by irrigation. Areas close to the Jalaur River get water pumped from the river. Most depend on rainfall.

Farmers plant by direct seeding. The first crop is planted in June and harvested in September. When rains come early in May, which in the past 10 years happened only three times, they are able to advance planting. The second crop is planted in October and harvested in January. The first crop is more vulnerable to floods that come at harvest time. According to the respondents, this has happened 4 times in 10 years. When floods damage the second crop, farmers plant again. Farm inputs are still provided by landowners; labor by farmers. Farmers still get 10% of the harvest, but considering twice the effort that they put, this effectively comes to 5%. The second crop is also vulnerable to drought. Respondents said that from 1992 till 2002, they lost their crops 4 times because of drought.

At slack times of the farming cycle, some work at sugarcane fields where they earn PHP 70 per day (about USD 1.30), others work in construction jobs. Skilled workers, such as carpenters, earn about PHP 4,000 per month, while non-skilled workers, such as laborers, earn about PHP 2,000 per month.

The produce that farmers get during harvest is kept for food. If harvest is good, which is rare, they get to sell some rice. Some have backyard vegetables and some fruits, which add to their food source. Children's elementary education is at a very minimal cost in the public school. Household costs increase when children begin attending secondary school at the town proper.

Of the farmers interviewed, the following represent the livelihood structure of the residents:

- Roberto Braga earns 20% of his income from farming, 10% from swine raising, 10% from poultry, and 60% from carpentry and other odd jobs.

- Romulo Baiyo earns 100% from swine raising (about PHP 5,000 per month).

- Remia Basto is a housewife. Her husband works as a laborer at a construction site. Income is not stable.

Most vulnerable household in barangay Balud. At the background is the Jalaur River.

Remia Basto is a housewife with five children, two of them are young, the other three are in primary school. Her husband works as a laborer at a construction site, where he earns PHP 500 per week. When his construction job is completed, he works as a farmhand and gets one sack of palay during harvest. Neighbors would share food and clothing at this time; at other times, they borrow.

Their one-room house, made of light materials, is raised on stilts to keep the floor dry during floods. It is located on public land, very close to the banks of the Jalaur River.

A large number of children further contribute to the family's vulnerability. One farmer that was interviewed has 10 children. He used to borrow about PHP 1,000 a month for about 6 times a year from friends and relatives, who allowed him to pay by installment at no interest, to augment his income. He said that his borrowing is now greatly reduced because his older children are already working.

1.3.2 barangay Maquina

barangay Maquina is a predominantly agricultural community. About 90% of its crops is rice, the other 10% sugarcane. Most farmlands are irrigated, but those at the tail-end of the irrigation system do not get water during the dry season. Farmers wait for the rains in June for planting their first crop. Direct seeding is used to minimize planting expenses. This year, 90% of the agricultural lands were planted, as others had financial difficulty acquiring farm inputs. The second crop is planted from the last week of September till October. All 130 hectares of agricultural land are planted if there is enough irrigation water, which comes from a catch-basin. Other sources of water are shallow tube wells. Two out of the 77 farmers in the community draw water from the Jalaur River.

The first crop (at fruit/harvest stage) is vulnerable to floods that come in October, or to heavy rains that cause crop lodging. Respondents said that in the last 10 years, they lost the first crop once due to drought (1997) and six times due to floods; while they lost the second crop twice due to floods and, for those who are at the tail-end of the irrigation system and do not have shallow tube wells, 3-4 times due to drought.

Over 50% of farmers do not own the land they till. These farmers pay 24 sacks of palay per hectare per year to landowners as rent. Average crop production from the first cropping is 80 sacks/crop/hectare (each sack of palay weighs 42 kg), of which 12 sacks are given to the landowner. Respondents said that they usually could keep only about 10% of the harvest for themselves, as they have to repay their investment (seeds, fertilizer, etc.). They said that they find this difficult to manage.

To make ends meet, most farmers engage in non-farming activities such as construction work as laborers and carpenters, driving (pedaled) tricycles and other odd jobs. According to the respondents, 50% of the households in the community are poor - most of which are located near the banks of the Jalaur River.

Photo 1. Farmers and barangay officials interviewed in barangay Maquina

1.3.3 barangay Barasan

The community's main sources of income are farming (about 260 hectares), aquaculture (about 30 hectares) and fishing. All farmlands are irrigated. As with barangay Balud, not all farmers own the land they till. Farmers provide all farm inputs. Landowners get 15 sacks of palay from the first crop, and none from the second crop. Rice at the tail-end of the irrigation system face water shortage during the second cropping (January to February).

About 2% of the households own a farmland and a fishpond. One respondent said that he has 1/2 hectare for rice farming and 1 hectare for fish farming. He said that fish farming provides more income than rice farming. He is able to harvest fish from three to four times per year, providing a net income of about PHP 18,000 per harvest. When asked about converting his riceland into fishfarm, he said that this is possible only if the riceland is close to the river, as water is readily available for filling the pond.

Fishing in municipal waters also brings an additional income of about PHP 1,000 per week. Fishing is favorable when a tide of about 1.5 m brings in fish and shrimp.

The average family size in the community is seven. Households are, however, more affluent than those in barangay Balud, and are able to support a large family.

The community is vulnerable to high winds brought by typhoons, which affect their dwellings and rice crop. The community is not vulnerable to riverine flooding. The unexpected flood of May 2003 brought by the three-day continuous heavy rains incurred losses for fishpond operators. One respondent said that he lost all fish crop amounting to PHP 35,000. He borrowed PHP 8,000 to start again, at 8% interest. Of the 60 fishpond operators, about 50% can finance replacement costs. The May 2003 flood was a shock to most residents, as they were preparing for their children's schooling, which starts in June.

Collectivity is a strength of the community. Residents formed a barangay power association, and bargained a deal with the electric power provider. The association collects power consumption information and payments from residents. They get a 3% rebate for full payment of bills.

1.3.4 General vulnerability features

The livelihood pattern of most of the rural households particularly in barangay Balud and Maquina are fragile. The seasonal gaps and income are often bridged by loans of varying interest rates from different sources. Most loans, from the organized institutions like banks go to the better off and middle-income groups in rural communities. This is due to collateral requirements and poor people are forced to borrow money, from relatives without interest or local money lenders with very high interest rates, especially during lean seasons. They may use this money mostly for unanticipated expenditures like medicines for sick family members. While everyday risk is a constant threat to livelihoods, the periodic weather related shocks keep the livelihood systems from crisis to recovery on a continuous basis.

Most vulnerable households within the community are forced to live on the edge of the Jaluar river with poorly constructed fragile house. In fact with a casual walk from riverside to roadside, one could observe the degree of vulnerability of households in terms of location and quality of homes.

Floods with strong currents are characteristic by other factors such as dyke breaches, high winds and sea surges. Destructive floods such as these are a danger to human life. They may carry away property, and damage irrigation and public infrastructure. Livestock (particularly smaller livestock such as pigs and chickens) may be drowned or washed away.

Floods that are less violent but inundate large areas over long periods of time are less immediately devastating. However, they have severe economic and social impacts. Damage to crops and property occurs as a result of houses and fields standing in water for long periods of time. Articles for household use may be rendered unusable, and the house structure may be weakened. Losses of food stocks stored in the house may threaten food security until the next harvest season. Livestock that survive the flooding may succumb to epidemics that occur following the floods.

1.4. DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT

This section presents and institutional profile of actors actively involved into or managing DRM in the Philippines. The section takes a bottom up perspective and presents first actors at the local level before it then describes the formal government DRM system.

1.4.1 Local institutions involved in DRM

1.4.1.1. Social Institutions in the Community

Real kinship

Personal alliance systems (i.e. groupings composed of kin - real and ritual, grantors and recipients of favors, friends and partners in commercial exchanges), as is elsewhere in the country, are anchored by kinship, beginning with the nuclear family. Support goes first to the immediate family. This kinship extends beyond the nuclear family by affinity and consanguinity, and includes quite a large number of people (e.g. aunts and uncles and their relatives, in-laws and their relatives, etc.). Closeness in relationship depends very much on physical proximity.

Ritual kinship

Ritual kinship is established through godparenthood or sponsorship in three ceremonial occasions: baptism, confirmation and marriage. It extends personal alliances from which one can expect help in the way of favors, such as jobs, loans, or just simple gifts on special occasions. In asking a friend to become a godparent to a child, a Filipino is also asking that person to become a closer friend. Thus it is common to ask acquaintances, who are of higher economic or social status than oneself, to be sponsors. Such ritual kinship can be depended on in moments of crisis, but not to the same extent as real kinship.

Utang na loob relationships

Personal alliance is also formed between a grantor and recipient of favor based on the concept of utang na loob (debt of goodwill). Although it is expected that the debtor will attempt repayment, it is widely recognized that the debt (as in one's obligation to a parent) can never be fully repaid and the obligation can last for generations. Saving another's life, providing employment, or making it possible for another to become educated are "gifts" that incur utang na loob. Moreover, such gifts initiate a long-term reciprocal interdependency in which the grantor of the favor can expect help from the debtor whenever the need arises and the debtor can, in turn, ask other favors. This traditional value remains strong among rural dwellers.

Suki relationships

Suki (market exchange) relationships develop between two people who agree to become regular customer and supplier. In the marketplace, Filipinos will regularly buy from certain specific suppliers who will give them, in return, reduced prices, good quality and, often, credit. Regular patrons often receive special treatment in return for their patronage. Trust is a vital aspect, which creates a platform for personal relationships that can blossom into genuine friendship between individuals.

Patron-client relationship

Patron-client bonds maybe formed between tenant farmers and their landlords or between any patron who provides resources and influence in return for the client's personal services and general support. The reciprocal arrangement typically involves the patron giving a means of earning a living or of help, protection and influence, and the client giving labor and personal favors, ranging from household tasks to political support. These relationships often evolve into ritual kinship ties, as the tenant or worker may ask the landlord to be a child's godparent. Similarly, when favors are extended, they tend to bind patron and client together in a network of mutual obligation or a long-term interdependency.

Friendships

Friendship often is placed on a par with kinship as the most central of Filipino relationships. A willingness to help one another provides the prime rationale for the relationship.

The above relationships, however, are not exclusive. They are interrelated components of the Filipino's personal alliance system. Thus two individuals may be cousins, become friends, and then cement their friendship through godparenthood. Each of their social networks will typically include kin (near and far, affinal and consanguineal), ritual kin, one or two patron-client relationships, one or more other close friends (and a larger number of social friends), and a dozen or more market-exchange partners. Utang na loob may infuse any or all of these relationships. One's network of social allies may include some eighty or more people, integrated and interwoven into a personal alliance system. This provides a dependable social net that one can fall back on in times of crisis.

Pakikipagkapwa

Pakikipagkapwa is a Filipino trait where an individual extends an act of kindness or goodwill to another with whom he has compassion for or whom he identifies with.

Bayanihan

Bayanihan is the spirit of volunteerism in the community, where people put together their strengths or resources to help out a person or a family in need, whether in times of harvest in the fields, or when a house damaged by typhoon needs to be repaired, or in times of crisis. It edifies cooperation and solidarity.

1.4.1.2 Non-Government Organizations

The Dumangas Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management Council (FARMC)

The Dumangas Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management Council was organized in July 2002 through Administrative Order No. 196, series 2000 to institutionalize the role of fishermen and other resource users in the planning and formulation of policies and programs for the management, conservation, protection and sustainable development of fisheries and aquatic resources. FARMC acts as a consultative body of the municipal government on fisheries-related issues and concerns, facilitates the Bantay Dagat (coastal resources watch) Program in barangays, and monitors the fisheries operations in the municipality relative to the environment, zoning ordinance and other local laws. The council also plays a key role in disaster management, with the following activities before, during and after a disaster:

Pre-disaster activities:

Disaster response activities:

Post-disaster activities:

Irrigators' Association

The Tamboilan-Paloc Bigque-Bolilao Irrigators Association (TAPABIA) was organized in 1991 in coordination with the National Irrigation Administration to address disputes among farmers on water distribution issues. As agreed with NIA, TAPABIA undertakes:

The association also airs farmers' grievances to the NIA and to the Municipal Mayor. Its key role in disaster management includes:

Pre-disaster phase:

Response phase: Helps monitor the flooding situation

Post-disaster phase:

Kabalikat Civicom Association, Inc.

The Kabalikat Civicom Association Incorporated, 215 Chapter, Dumangas was established in January 2000 as a local chapter of the nation-wide Kabalikat Civicom Association of radio communicators. The 215 Chapter, with a current membership of 42, serves as a support group of the Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation DYBQ - Radio Budyong Iloilo (an Iloilo City -based AM radio station). It is an accredited NGO in the municipality, and a member of the municipality's special bodies such as the Municipal Peace and Order Council and the Municipal Disaster Coordinating Council (MDCC).

Its regular activities include the conduct of nightly net calls or program; assistance to the municipal government in information dissemination of important programs, projects and activities; monitoring of and assistance to travelers within its area on directions, etc.; assistance to the municipal government in the implementation of projects in its capacity as member of the local special bodies; and other duties such as tree planting, and coastal and river cleanup. Its key role in disaster management include:

Pre-disaster phase:

Response phase:

Post-disaster phase:

Dumangas Rescue and Emergency Assistance Movement (DREAM)

In response to the need for a more active and sustained support to the MDCC in the areas of emergency preparedness and response, vulnerability reduction and disaster risk control, the municipal government established the Dumangas Rescue and Emergency Assistance Movement (DREAM) in July 1999. Its functions include:

Registered as a non-government organization, the DREAM currently has 36 volunteer members (4 are women) trained in search and rescue, which includes six barangay tanods from the flood-prone barangays. Their expertise in search and rescue, and services/assistance rendered in hazard monitoring, information dissemination, relief operation, medical missions and damage assessment have been put to test in flooding incidents associated with typhoons since 2000. The province has also accessed its expertise in search and rescue in marine navigation accidents, for example the sinking of the fishing boat FV Angelica at the Guimaras Strait (with 24 crew) in September 1999. In non-disaster times, DREAM is involved in activities aimed at reducing risks for floods, such as river and coastal clean-up, and reforestation.

Being a member of the Local Special Bodies, financial support for its operation is provided by the Municipality of Dumangas.

Civic and Religious Organizations

The municipal government also entered into agreements with the following civic and religious organizations to assist, in the spirit of volunteerism, in relief and rescue during emergencies, as well as to participate in the formulation of the Municipal Disaster Preparedness Plan:

The Catholic Church also shares its financial resources to the BDCC through its parish pastoral council to augment resources for relief operations.

The Municipal Economic Council - a private sector business consortium

The Municipal Economic Council was created by the Municipal Executive Order No. 31, series 2000. It is chaired by the municipal mayor and co-chaired by representatives of business proprietors engaged in rice retailing, groceries, pharmacies, dry goods (clothing, utensils, etc.), fuel stations and construction supplies. All accredited business proprietors in the Dumangas Public Market are members of the council. The council advocates related programs, projects and activities to foster municipal economic growth and development, as well as recommends to the Municipal Mayor and the Sangguniang Bayan policies that would enhance the operations of the business sector as well as benefit its clientele. Its key role in times of disaster is to provide on loan, goods and items required for disaster response.

1.4.2 The National Disaster Risk Management System

The Philippine government, from its pre-Commonwealth days up to the present, evolved a disaster scheme to counteract the effects of disasters, both natural and human-induced. Presidential Decree 1566 "Strengthening the Philippine Disaster Control and Capability & Establishing the National Program on Community Disaster Preparedness", issued on 11 June 1978 is the country's basic law on disaster management. It lays down the policy, institutional and operational framework for the disaster risk management system in the country.

From this legal mandate, the National Calamities and Preparedness Plan approved in 1983 was revised and issued in August 1988 together with the Implementing Rules and Regulations to P.D. 1566. An updated Calamities and Preparedness Plan is in process for approval of the National Disaster Coordinating Council.

Efforts have been made since the mid-1990s to update and amend P.D. 1566. This Bill, now called "Philippine Disaster Management Act of 2003", has received comments from key stakeholders is with the House Committee on Defense for consideration of the legislators. While the updated legislation is pending, functional institutional and operational arrangements have been set in place.

Policies for National and Local Disaster Risk Management

P. D. 1566 lays the following policies for national to local disaster management disaster risk management:

1. Responsibility for leadership rests on the Provincial Governor, City/Municipal Mayors, and Barangay Chairmen, each according to his area responsibility

2. Self-reliance shall be developed by promoting and encouraging the spirit of self-help and mutual assistance among the local officials and their constituencies.

3. Each political and administrative subdivision of the country shall utilize all available resources in the area before asking for assistance from neighboring entities or higher authority.

4. The primary responsibility rests on the government agencies in the affected areas in coordination with the people themselves.

5. It is the responsibility of all government departments, bureaus, agencies and instrumentalities to have documented plans of their emergency functions and activities.

6. The national government exists to support the local governments. In times of emergencies and according to their level of assignment, all national government offices in the field shall support the operations of the local government.

Key Actors: Disaster Coordinating Council Network

A multi-sectoral, multi-agency and multi-level approach in disaster risk management is organized through the Disaster Coordinating Council network (proposed to be called Disaster Management Council in the Disaster Management Act of 2003 and the updated Calamities and Preparedness Plan).

Coordinating Councils and Disaster efforts undertaken by the government and the private sector. Operations Centers exist atthe national through the regional, provincial, municipal and down to the barangay (village) level (Figures 1, 2, and 3)

The NDCC is the highest policy making, coordinating & supervising body at the national level for disaster management. It performs the function of advising the President on the status of the national disaster preparedness program, disaster operations and rehabilitation. The NDCC is chaired by the Secretary of National Defense and has for its members almost all the cabinet members and the Secretary-General of the Philippine National Red Cross. The Office of Civil Defense (OCD) provides the operations center and secretariat functions as well executive-director functions through its Administrator.

The NDCC is replicated at the regional and local levels and they function substantially like the NDCC, except that they operate and utilize their own resources at their respective levels. The RDCCs and the local DCCs constitute the core of the disaster management system and it is at this level that emergency is most felt and protection, rescue, evacuation, relief and rehabilitation operations are launched and carried out. The DCCs are expected to embark on proactive activities such as dissemination of information on natural disasters and disaster preparedness, identification of evacuation centers, upgrading of facilities of identified evacuation centers and assignment of responsibilities per member agency during times of emergency.

Figure 1. DCC Organizational Network

Figure 2. Organization of the DCC

NDCC members include almost all of the Cabinet Secretaries.

Secretary, Nat'l Defense - Chairman
Secretary, Interior and Local Government - Member
Secretary, Public Works - Member
Secretary, Health - Member
Secretary, Social Welfare - Member
Secretary, Agriculture - Member
Secretary, Education - Member
Secretary, Finance - Member
Secretary, Labor and & Employment - Member
Secretary, Trade & Industry- Member
Secretary, Transportation and Communication - Member
Secretary, Science & Tech. - Member
Secretary, Budget- Member
Secretary, Justice- Member
Secretary, Environment and Natural Resources- Member
Director, Philippine Information Agency- Member
Sec-Gen, Philippine National Red Cross- Member
Chief of Staff, Armed Forces of the Philippines - Member
Administrator, Office of Civil Defense - Executive Officer

The updated (still for approval of the NDCC) Calamities and Disaster Preparedness Plan includes other Cabinet members as members of the NDCC:

Secretary, Department of Science and Technology (DOST)
Secretary, Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA)
Secretary, Department of Tourism (DOT)
Director-General, National Economic and Development Administration (NEDA)
Office of the Press Secretary
Presidential Management Staff

NDCC's Comprehensive Emergency Management Framework

The NDCC has taken on an All-Hazards Approach in Disaster Risk Management which features the following strategies and approaches:

1. Mitigation: insurance coverage of public and private properties; safety regulations, land use, zoning, etc; building and fire codes; legislation and local ordinances on safety of communities; dams, levees, flood control and other structural measures

2. Preparedness: contingency plans, fire and earthquake plans, etc; public information, rapid dissemination of information through an emergency broadcast system, population awareness, etc; orientation of local officials, deputized coordinators, auxiliaries, volunteers, drills & rehearsals and other education and training activities; available response units, capabilities, equipment, manpower, location, contact nos. & persons, and other resources

3. Response: Alerts - receipt and rapid dissemination of warnings to threatened communities/populations; immediate Notification of response units, Golden Hour principle - the time within which lives could be saved and injuries minimized; Consequence Management

4. Rehabilitation: emergency funding from the Local and National Calamity Funds and other sources; loans and grants extended by NGOs and international NGOs; assistance extended by NGOs, international NGOs, foreign governments, etc.

Office of Civil Defense

The Office of Civil Defense (OCD) is the operating arm and the secretariat of the NDCC. It has the primary task of coordinating the activities and functions of various government agencies and instrumentalities, private institutions and civic organizations for the protection and preservation of life and property during emergencies. It executes and monitors the implementation of NDCC policies and programs and provides secretariat services to the Council. It operates and maintains the Council's National Defense Management Center (NDMC).

Figure 4. Organizational Structure of the Office of Civil Defense

OFFICE OF CIVIL DEFENSE ORGANIZATIONAL CHART

Civil defense Executive Officer*
Assistant Civil Defense Executive Officer**
Emergency Management Information System Unit+
Internal Audit Unit++
Calamity Fund Management Unit+++
Regional Disaster Management Center++++

It has 16 Civil Defense Regional Centers (field offices) nationwide for its regional-level operations and has desinated Civil Defense Coordinators (Action Officers) at the provincial and municipal/city levels. The Regional Civil Defense offices man the operating facilities or the Regional Disaster Management Centers of the RDCCs on a 24-hour basis. The Regional Disaster Operations Centers are mostly located in the Philippine National Police regional commands.

Operations Flow: If more than 3 municipalities are affected, the province assists in operations. If more than 3 provinces are affected, the Region assists in operations. If more than 2 Regions are affected, the National assists in the operations. Good coordination is usually in place with the provinces/PDCCs and member agencies of the RDCC.

Program Thrusts and ongoing activities for 2003-2005

1. Civil Protection and Preparedness
2. Disaster Operations and Support Services
3. Risk and Vulnerability Reduction
4. Human Resource Development
5. International Partnership and Cooperation
6. Emergency Resource Data Generation
7. Policy Development and Implementation Program
8. Resource Generation
9. ICT Development for Disaster Management Applications

Ongoing Activities in Disaster Risk Management in the Philippines

· Preparedness

  • Capability Building for Emergency Response - training for collapsed structure search & rescue teams

  • Conduct of basic life support and emergency medical services training

  • Contingency planning for emergencies for local government units

  • Preparations for the establishment of NDCC Preparedness Center at Camp Aguinaldo: for stockpile of relief items for 10,000 people and housing of NDCC disaster response equipment

  • Review of Learning Competencies in disaster preparedness for primary, secondary and collegiate level

  • Forging linkages among NDMC and NBN4 and Philippine Broadcasting System as primary carriers of video & audio warnings hooked up with the private media

· Mitigation

  • Non-structural

    - GSIS proposal for insurance coverage of selected local government properties

    - Working for approval of Villar Bills to amend use of 5% LCF for preparedness activities

    - Working for approval of Disaster Management Act of 2003

    - Commissioned World Bank study on vulnerability of the Philippines to Disasters

    - Forged Memorandum of Agreement among DENR-DILG-LGU on strengthening partnership on devolved and other Forest management functions

  • Structural - Flood Mitigation Project in Central Luzon

· Response

  • Water Search & Rescue Operations - distribution of 28 rubber

  • Boats and repair of aqua truck

  • Relief assistance augmentation

· Rehabilitation

  • Funding support to rehabilitate damaged infrastructure in

  • affected areas

  • Kalasag Awards - awarding of DCCs, government organizations, NGOs and individuals for excellence in disaster management

  • Formation of 4 NDCC Technical Management Group committees mitigation, preparedness, response and rehabilitation and various subcommittees to conduct studies & researches and recommend on policies and various DM concerns

  • Community Based Disaster Management

Financial Resource Mobilization for DRM

Resources for national and local comprehensive emergency management come from either emergency funding from the Local (LCF) and National Calamity Funds (NCF) or/and other sources, loans and grants (loans and grants extended by local and international NGOs) and/or assistance extended by NGOs, international NGOs, foreign governments, etc.

The National Calamity Fund refers to the appropriation in the annual General Appropriations Act (GAA) which is available for aid, relief and rehabilitation services to communities and areas affected by calamities including training of personnel and other pre-disaster activities as well as repair and reconstruction of permanent structures including capital expenditures for pre-disaster operations. Policies in the Use of the NCF:

1. The NCF can be used only for the following purposes:

a. Aid, relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction and other works or services in connection with calamities which may occur during the budget year or previous years' past two plans

b. Pre-disaster activities such as training, and

c. Capital expenditures such as purchase of equipment for pre-disaster operations and rehabilitation

2. NCF shall be used in the following order of priority:

a. Priority I - For urgent and emergency relief operations and emergency repair and rehabilitation of vital public infrastructures and lifelines damaged by calamities occurring within the budget year e.g. hospitals, schools, major roads and bridges and farm-to-market roads

b. Priority II - For repair, rehabilitation and reconstruction of other damaged public infrastructures, which are not emergency in nature but are necessary for disaster mitigation

c. Priority III - For pre-disaster activities outside the regular budgets of line agencies and proposed capital expenditures for pre-disaster operation

3. NCF cannot be used for the following:

a. Repair/rehabilitation of government buildings damaged by fire e.g. hospitals, school buildings, capitol buildings and public markets

b. Relief and rehabilitation requirements for specific calamities with specific appropriations under special laws, except when the appropriations have been fully expended or utilized

4. Release of Quick Response Funds to agencies concerned is subject to the calamity fund provisions of the annual GAA.

5. Putting up of a local counterpart fund by LGUs as follows:

a. 1st class - 50% of the total project cost
b. 2nd class - 40%
c. 3rd class - 35%
d. 4th class - 30%
e. 5th and 6th class - Exempted but request should not exceed P3 Million

For 2003, the GAA has appropriated Php 800,000 for the National Calamity Fund. 25% is immediately released to the DSWD, 15% to OCD and another 15% to the NDCC as Quick Response Fund, and 20% to the DPWH for reconstruction activities, and the balance reserved as a standby fund.

The President has also Discretionary Funds from where she can draw for disasters, but this is also used for other priorities, like construction of school buildings in depressed areas.

Details on the LCF are provided in section 1.5.2 which focusses on municipality and barangay levels.

1.5.2 DRM coordination at municipality level and below

1.5.2.1 The Municipal Disaster Coordinating Council (MDCC)

The establishment of the Municipal Disaster Coordinating Council is mandated as explained by Presidential Decree No. 1566, the Local Government Code, in 1999. The Dumangas MDCC was re-organized in 16 October 2001 through Municipal Executive Order No. 16, series 2001. It is composed by the Municipal Mayor as Chairman, the Station Commander of the Philippine National Police as Vice-Chairman and Action Officer, with representatives from the private sector, municipal officials tasked with specific emergency functions, and National officials assigned in the municipality as members. Figure 2, page 22 has shown the organic structure of the MDCC. However in 2001 also the task units were streamlined from ten to five as follows:

1. Health Service Committee - chaired by the Municipal Health Office, with private clinics as members

2. Security and Fire Committee - chaired by the Philippine National Police, with the Fire Service Unit and barangay Tanods as members

3. Communication, Warning and Public Information Committee - chaired by the Office of the Mayor, with the Liga ng mga barangay President and all Punong barangays as members

4. Transportation, Rescue and Evacuation Committee - chaired by the Municipal Engineers Office, with the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS), Philippine National Police, Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), the Sangguniang Bayan and the Sangguniang Kabataan as members

5. Relief and Rehabilitation Committee - chaired by the Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office (MSWDO), with the Municipal Planning and Development Office, Municipal Engineers Office, Municipal Agriculture Office, Municipal Transportation Office, and representatives from the NGO and the bus transportation sectors as members

In addition to these task units, NGO and disaster welfare desks were set up to coordinate NGO assistance and to provide information on disaster victims, respectively.

The MDCC has the following functions and responsibilities:

1. Coordinates disaster operations activities

2. Implements within the municipality the guidelines set by the MDCC

3. Advises the barangay Disaster Coordinating Councils regarding disaster management, and

4. Submits reports and recommends for allocation of needed resources

The Disaster Operations Center (ref page 22) is the facility where field activities are monitored and controlled. It is made up of the:

1. Intelligence and Disaster Analysis Unit - which evaluates information and advises member agencies of the MDCC of an impending disaster, makes recommendations on how to prevent disaster and/or suggest precautionary measures to minimize the impacts of disasters, submits recommendations for allocation of needed resources, and prepares appropriate recommendations to relevant authorities of possible declaration of the existence of state of calamity in affected areas.

2. Plans and Operations Unit - which recommends courses of action to be taken based on the recommendations of the Intelligence and Disaster Analysis Unit, determines the type of service units to be utilized in the disaster area, recommends implementation of existing plans, maintains and/or supervises progress of operations, determine the necessity of utilizing additional service units, and prepares appropriate reports upon termination of operations.

3. Resources Management Unit - which identifies and secures possible sources of funds for disaster victims, and gathers the necessary statistics on resources such as food, clothing, construction materials, medical supplies, transportation and other relief and rehabilitation items.

The 5 task units formulate their own action/operations plan, which are consolidated to form the overall Municipal Disaster Preparedness Plan.

1.5.2 The Municipal Disaster Preparedness Plan

The Municipal Disaster Preparedness Plan details activities to be undertaken, including funding requirements and sources, prior to, during and after an emergency. It envisions to have a peaceful, self-sustaining municipality of God-loving people, who are cohesive, self-reliant and actively engage in confronting disasters on a total system approach, from preparedness, prevention and mitigation to emergency relief, rehabilitation, recovery and development. It aims for the optimum management of disasters by pooling resources, both human and material, and the application of practical operational technique. Its objectives are to:

It details the functions and responsibilities of the MDCC, and the strategies for and extent of intervention.

1.5.3 The barangay Disaster Coordinating Council (BDCC)

Prior to 1991, the barangay disaster brigade was the local institution tasked to monitor the emergency situation, communicate with the municipal government, receive relief assistance and facilitate its distribution and, though having no formal training, execute rescue operation in cooperation with the barangay tanods. The barangay brigade responded according to need. According to the communities interviewed, the barangay brigade performed well because of their experience and knowledge of the community.

The barangay brigade was replaced by the barangay Disaster Coordinating Council, BDCC, in 1991, with clearly delineated roles assigned to specific people. The communities interviewed appreciated this, as they are clear on who has responsibility over certain tasks, but this does not limit them to respond to a need in times of emergency. The BDCC's organizational structure shown below was established by the Local Government Code in 1999.

Figure 3: The organic chart of the BDCC.

1.5.4 DRM Resource Mobilization at local levels

1.5.4.1 Financial Resources

The Local Calamity Fund comes from the "five percent (5%) of the estimated revenue that is set aside by the local government as annual lump sum appropriations for relief, rehabilitation, reconstruction and other works and services in connection with calamities which may occur during the budget year" as provided for by Section (324 (d) of the Local Government Code. Pre-requisites for the Use of the 5% Local Calamity Fund are:

1. Appropriation in the LGU budget as annual lump sum appropriations for disaster relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

2. To be used for calamities occurring during the budget year in the LGU or other LGUs affected by a disaster or calamity

3. Passage of a Sanggunian Resolution re calamity area declaration

4. In case of fire, the LCF can be used only for relief operations

The 5% LCF as originally designed could not be used for disaster preparedness activities of the LGUs unlike the National Calamity Fund. The authors of RA 8185 reasoned that the local government units should already program their preparedness activities in their respective budgets for the ensuing year. If unused during the budget year, this fund is added to the municipality's general fund for the subsequent year. Bills are pending in the Philippine Congress to allow the use of the LCF for preparedness activities. A Memorandum Circular issued by the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) and the Department of Budget and management (DBM) on 20 March 2003, however, provides for the use of the LCF for preparedness activities for human-induced threats, including terrorism. The municipality has imaginatively used this provision in funding disaster management training for barangay tanods by integrating disaster management in the police training to counter terrorism.

The municipal development fund comes from the 20 percent of the internal revenue allotment (IRA) from the National government. The IRA is appropriated to local government units proportionate with the LGU's population and land area. This development fund supports the municipality's programs in the agriculture, health, social welfare, infrastructure, environmental management, disaster preparedness, tourism and youth sectors, including the appropriation of development funds for each of the 45 barangays. Recognizing that disaster management is a key component of development, the municipal mayor utilizes the development funds to support disaster management in the relevant sectors (e.g. rehabilitation of roads and drainage systems from the infrastructure sector appropriation, medical missions from the health sector appropriation, etc.). Table 12 shows the appropriation of the municipal development fund for various disaster management-related activities.

Other sources of funds include un-appropriated funds in the municipal general funds, special budgetary allocations from the National Government, donations from businesses and the private sector, and assistance from other government and non-government agencies, such as the DSWD, Philippine National Red Cross, and others.

Table 12. Municipal fund for disaster preparedness, mitigation and response

Item

2001
(PHP)

2002
(PHP)

2003
(PHP)

Calamity Fund


2,041,684

2,282,171

Development Fund




Construction/repair/rehabilitation of drainages

250,000



Repair/rehab of barangay roads, irrigation system

600,000

300,000

361,685

Installation of water system in various barangays

100,000


100,000

Construction of water impounding center, operation of Bgy. Balabag Pumping Station



150,000

Repair of various barangay Health Stations



100,000

Purchase of utility vehicle

150,000

100,000


Purchase of dump trucks

1,000,000



Operation and maintenance of heavy equipment

100,000

300,000

300,000

Repair/rehabilitation of government vehicles


270,000

200,000

DREAM Equipment

50,000



Disaster preparedness equipment (VHF repeater system, etc.)



300,000

Purchase of fiber glass boat

250,000



Health programs (medical mission, etc.)

100,000

200,000

200,000

Livelihood programs (including training)


150,000

200,000

Clean and green programs (river and coastal cleanup, portable toilets, etc.)



150,000

Public safety program



200,000

Training on disaster preparedness



100,000

barangay Development Fund (for 45 barangays)

720,000


1,440,000

Operation of demo farm and agromet station



200,000

Municipal contribution to Jalaur-Suage Rivers irrigation system rehabilitation



100,000

Total

3,320,000

3,361,684

6,383,856

In line with the self-reliance espoused by the Local Government Code, barangays have their own calamity fund (5% of the barangay income) for disaster relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction. When available funds are not sufficient to meet their needs, external assistance from the municipal government is sought.

1.5.4.2 Relief Goods

As agreed with members of the Economic Council, the municipality acquires goods and materials for disaster relief and rehabilitation on loan. This includes rice, canned food, medicine, clothing, cooking utensils, fuel and construction supplies. Payment is made upon the release of the local calamity fund. The municipal government ensures that payments are made on time to maintain business proprietors' confidence. There have been instances that members of the council have donated goods to disaster victims even when not requested, indicating their level of confidence in the local government.

Surplus goods from previous events also provide additional source.

1.5.5 Disaster Risk Management in the Municipality

Early warning. The Municipal Mayor, who is the MDCC Chairman, issues the official early warning as soon as information of an impending hazard is received, to give people ample time to undertake preparatory actions. Information sources include the PAGASA, NIA (which manages the Jalaur-Suage Rivers irrigation system), and individual reports of observed conditions from the Punong barangays via the handheld radio sets.

Communication. Each barangay has a handheld radio handset for communication. A main constraint is weak transmission signal especially in far-flung barangays.

Evacuation. Evacuation is carried out by the BDCC.

Damage and needs assessment. A rapid damage and needs assessment is conducted within six hours upon impact of a hazard to obtain an initial assessment of the impact, determine response undertaken at the local disaster coordinating council level and additional requirement for follow-up response, and serve as bases for decision-making at higher levels and for future plans. Extent of damage is reported within 12 hours upon impact of the hazard.

Declaration of state of calamity. Upon receipt of the rapid damage and needs assessment, the MDCC Chairman recommends to the Municipal Council the declaration of the state of calamity, which is needed for the mobilization of the calamity fund and to enable other agencies to extend assistance.

Response. Rescue and relief teams are sent to affected barangays to address pressing needs that the barangays are unable to meet.

Rehabilitation. Rehabilitation works are usually completed about 15 days after the impact of the hazard. However, for infrastructure outside the jurisdiction of the municipality, such as National and provincial roads, bureaucratic procedures delay repair works, which causes longer dislocation for affected residents. Certified seeds stored at the Municipal Demonstration Farm are distributed by the Municipal Agriculturist's Office to affected farmers.

Mitigation. Several activities have been initiated to mitigate the impacts of floods. The municipal government has led an annual clearing and cleaning of rivers and coastline. Weather forecasts form the local Agromet station are disseminated to various agencies, institutions and communities for anticipatory actions to future climate/weather condition. Training and symposia have been conducted on disaster management and prevention, involving community leaders and key agencies

1.5.6 Disaster Risk Management in the Study Sites

1.5.6.1 Barangay Balud

Photo 2 shows the BDCC structure in barangay Balud. Roles are clearly delineated and assigned. The barangay Chairman is the BDCC Chair, supported by the barangay Council, which has 7 members. The Kabataang barangay (youth organization), which is involved in the community in youth development and anti-drug activities, is also involved in the transportation committee of the BDCC. This organizational chart is prominently displayed at the barangay Hall.

Photo 2. barangay Balud Disaster Coordinating Council

Improvements that the community appreciated due to the new structure (BDCC over the barangay disaster brigade) are the improved communication and transportation system. A handheld radio was provided by the municipal government, which facilitates communication with the MDCC, other barangays and NGOs. Transportation during emergency (evacuation, etc.) is now coordinated. Also, the recently constructed earth dike that runs along the Jalaur River has decreased the incidence of flooding in the community.

Hazard monitoring is done by everyone in the community. Water level at the Jalaur River is monitored using marked tree trunks at the riverbank as flood markers. Upstream river conditions are reported by other barangays by radio. Community members also observe cloud conditions upstream of the river.

Release of water from the dam located in the upstream municipality also cause flooding, but the community is always prepared for it, as warning is issued by the dam operators. The May 2003 flood was however unexpected, as water level at the Jalaur River was low. The heavy rains flooded only the ricefields.

Most farmers have small huts in higher areas, which they move to when the residential area is already flooded. An elevated school building, built in 2002 a few meters away from the barangay Hall, serves as an evacuation center (Photo 3).

Photo 3. School building used as an evacuation center in barangay Balud.

The barangay has one banca (small row boat) and four tricycles, all privately owned, but are volunteered during emergencies. Rafts made of bamboo or banana trunk are built for use during evacuation. Some members of the BDCC's evacuation team were trained in search and rescue in 1998 by the Mountain Tigers, a provincial organization of rescuers. Other members of the BDCC received training in disaster management in 2000. According to the respondents, a religious NGO, which has been in existence only in this barangay for 40 years, assists in the distribution of relief goods (they do not, however, provide the goods themselves).

1.5.6.2 Barangay Maquina

All 11 council members of the barangay are involved in resource mobilization. The 18 barangay Tanods are involved in rescue and evacuation, in addition to their regular duties of securing the barangay. The barangay income supports the honoraria of the barangay officials (PHP 1,700/month for the Punong barangay, PHP 1,270/month for each council member, and PHP 125/month for each barangay Tanod). Five percent of the barangay income is allocated as local calamity fund for disaster relief.

Everyone in the community, but especially the BDCC, monitors the height of the Jalaur River whenever there is heavy rainfall in the community, or upstream of the community. They also observe the debris content of the river, as well as bubbles in the water caused by the strong current, as these are indications of rushing water from upstream. River conditions are also reported to the MDCC. Warning of a possible flooding is given 24 hours in advance to enable the community to prepare. Official warning comes from the MDCC. Respondents, however, said that when they see that the water level in the river is rising, they initiate preparatory actions even when official warning is not yet received.

A good practice that this barangay has is the use of ropes tied to trees leading to the evacuation center to guide people during evacuation, especially since the floodwater current is strong.

1.5.6.3 Barangay Barasan

The community receives warning of an impending hazard and its corresponding advisory from the AM radio, and from the municipal hall (MDCC) through the handheld radio communication network.

Photo 6. Farmers and barangay officials engaged in rice and fish farming in barangay Barasan

1.6. RISK PROFILE

1.6.1 Community Perception of Risk

Risk and disasters are terms not commonly used by people in Dumangas. Any event, which is not desired and causes the destruction of property, livelihoods and their capacity to engage in a livelihood activity, is referred to as kalamidad. Thus, in the respondents' opinion, kalamidad or disasters can either be natural or man-made. From their own experiences, natural disasters include typhoons, flooding, drought, rat infestation, pest infestation and tidal waves. Man-made disasters include fires. The respondents, however, perceive that floods and drought can possibly be man-made as well. But the most interesting insight raised by the respondents is their perception that the man-made disasters that have far destructive effects in comparison with natural disasters are graft and corruption, the expansion of fishponds in river pathways, the establishment of fishponds in municipal coastal waters, the importation of rice and the agricultural policies of the government that further marginalize small farmers. Their impact is most often broader, affecting more people/communities than natural disasters do. Moreover, the effect of natural disasters are perceived as shorter and allows faster economic, physical and social recovery, whereas man-made disasters normally have longer effects that are more economically, socially and politically debilitating.

1.6.1.1 Typhoon and flooding

Of the natural disasters the respondents have experienced, typhoon and flooding were the most common. Typhoons accompanied by strong wind destroy relatively unstable houses and cause palay washout in farming communities, as well as washout of fishnets and fishtraps for fishing communities. For fishpond operators, the destruction of dikes is their greatest concern.

When flooding comes, physical dislocation occurs for households residing in low-lying areas of the municipality. Animals, agricultural equipment and household fixtures which cannot be moved to higher grounds are often washed away to river banks. Flooding also cut-off people's access to sources of potable water since most of the households still draw drinking water from wells and manually-operated water pumps. Fever, flu and diarrhea among the elderly and children are often attributed to lower temperatures rather than contaminated water and food.

It is, however, interesting to note that for most respondents, typhoon and flooding are not necessarily perceived as disasters if they do not negatively impact on their lives and livelihood. Heavy losses of capital and invested non-financial capital that result from floods and typhoons render many incapable of immediately paying off debts, of providing effectively and efficiently for family needs for several days to several months, and of immediately going back to the livelihood they have grown accustomed to. Respondents in barangays Maquina and Barasan expressed that financial losses may range from 75-100% of the capital they have invested on their farming and fishing activities. Thus, such losses lead to psychological stress, economic multiple-burdens for parents who wish to provide for their families, and for those who are unable to economically recover immediately, possible loss of their traditional livelihood. And while adults concern themselves with economic capacities and losses, children see typhoons and floods, in particular, as opportunities for them to swim in pools created by floods.

1.6.1.2 Drought

Droughts are considered far worst than flooding and typhoon in terms of loss of crops. In the case of flooding, only sections of farmlands, fishtraps and breeding areas affected by floods will have their produce washed out. Droughts, on the other hand, have wide-range effects causing plants to either grow stunted or die, thus, grazing animals will have nothing to feed on. Crops often raised like palay will most likely have the same fate without enough water, thus, leading to losses. Fishing communities, suffer from drought as well. The fishermen perceive that fish often prefer cooler temperature habitats. Thus, when the temperature and salinity in the water rises, the fish tend to migrate to cooler habitats - either upstream in rivers or into deeper waters. Growth of oysters and other mollusks, a major source of income for those residing near the coastline, are, likewise, affected. Oysters tend to grow slower and are less tasty.

1.6.2 Environmental Issues

The municipal government recognizes that forest degradation, and siltation and obstruction of waterways have contributed to the increase in flood risk in recent years. The mouth of the river has narrowed due to the increase in the number of fishponds located thereat, increasing the risk of flooding. Environmental protection laws exist, but lacking in their implementation.

The continuing expansion of fishponds by current fishpond operators does not only deny small fisherfolks access to traditional fishing grounds, but also cause river pathways to narrow. Thus, when heavy rains come, the water does not flow through the river with ease hence causing flooding.

In the case of those living near the coastline of the municipal waters and whose livelihood traditionally depend on their access to municipal fishing grounds, the establishment of private fishponds in municipal waters limit and block their access to the very source of their livelihood. According to respondents, while natural disasters will allow them to recover at a relatively shorter time period, man-made disasters such as the continuous expansion of private property into what should have been common or municipal property (such as rivers and municipal waters) may just be the end of their traditional livelihood.


[1] There are four climate zones in the Philippines, Type –I, II, II and IV. The categorization is broadly based on the characteristics of dry and wet months.

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