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Footnotes

1. This estimate is based upon survey findings of average household size and the proportion of households that stall-feed cattle; human population estimates, and Livestock Service estimates of the cattle population in the Mandara Mountains region.

2. Traders trek cattle across the border to Nigerian markets, where butchers and long distance traders pay a premium for well-fleshed animals. Twenty-eight percent of a sample of 272 stall-fed cattle were sold on the hoof by producers during 1977-1981. The other 72% were slaughtered by producers who reserved some or all of the beef for traditional distribution and household consumption. In 26% of the sample cases, no beef was sold. Producers sold at least one quarter of the carcass from slaughtered bulls to other villagers, including local butchers, or to buyers from neighboring villages in 46% of the cases. In 35% of the sample, producers sold three quarters or more beef from the carcass.

3. This inflation was fueled in part by the rapid growth of the Nigerian economy following the petroleum price hikes of the 1970s which were accompanied by accelerating urbanization and increased incomes. Retail price data for beef from Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon, show average annual appreciation of 496 in real terms between 1970 and 1981.

4. Although slaughter data were not collected by the author in Mokolo after March 1981, data collected by the lycee in Mokolo for the 1976-1981 period show lowest carcass weights in June.

5. Although cattle prices are lowest per kilogram in the October-December period, live animal prices are highest at this time. Cattle are in good condition after the six-month rainy season, and their higher liveweights offset low prices per kilogram, resulting in seasonally high live animal prices.

6. Farm families dispose of income from sales of crops such as sweet potatoes and peanuts as well as cash remittances earned in off-farm dry season employment in urban areas outside the Mandara Mountains (in northern Cameroon and northeastern Nigeria).

7. The butchers' apprentices buy parts of the carcass from the wholesale butcher on one-day credit and retail the beef. Two apprentices working with one butcher each earned 300 FCFA per animal.

8. Butchers report working five days a week for fifty weeks of the year.

9. Butchers generally procure at least two range-fed cattle for slaughter at the market of Gazawa per trip to spread costs. Purchases on credit are rare. Hence, they require at least 60,000-70,000 FCFA as working capital.

10. Despite what is discussed subsequently, it is relevant to point out that a relaxation or outright removal of price controls will have an effect on the projected figures and that it is likely beef consumption will be somewhat lower than projected. Theoretically, the lower projections could also partly result from lower priced meats which could substitute for beef although relative prices remain constant or stable (Editor's note).

11. Arc expenditure elasticities of demand estimated for a sample of 52 rural households were 0.51 between middle and high income households and 0.15 between low and middle income households.

12. It is important to note that incremental demand for beef in rural areas will be 2-2.2 times the incremental demand for beef in urban areas by 1990, even though the projected ranges of population growth and income elasticity of demand are lower for rural areas than for urban areas. The reason for this is that the regional rural population is nine times larger than the urban population.

13. A third scenario for urban areas, representing a very optimistic possibility, would be for urban butchers to meet 50% of the incremental demand for slaughter stock by procuring stall-fed animals. This scenario could only be realized if retail price ceilings were above free market price levels or removed entirely. Under this scenario urban butchers could slaughter an additional 1,573-2,602 stall-fed animals by 1990. By removing price controls, urban markets could offer as much potential for expanded slaughter of stall-fed cattle as rural areas by 1985 and 1990. It is also important to note that increasing rural demand for beef will also increase demand for stall-fed cattle by 1990.


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