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Bodyweight measurements relationship in Nigerian Red Sokoto goats - Relations entre le poids vif et les mensurations du corps chez la chèvre rousse de Maradi


Abstract
Résumé
Introduction
Materials and methods
Results and discussion
Acknowledgement
References

A. Hassan and A. Ciroma
Department of Animal Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University,
P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria

Abstract

Bodyweight and linear body measurements (body length, height-at-withers and heart girth) of 201 male and female goats in three age groups (1-2, 3-4, 5 years and above) averaged 16.41, 22.94, 30.02 kg; 79.15, 87.33, 96.57 cm; 57.49, 62. 77, 67.39 cm; 61. 78, 67.86 and 75.77 cm, respectively.

The coefficients of variation (CVS) were 23.0, 17.3, 16.8; 6.9, 6.1, 5.8: 8.4, 4.6, 5.8; 11.2, 6.2, 6.9%. Males were heavier (P<0.05) and longer (P<0.01) than females at 3-4 years of age. Females stood higher (P<0.01) at withers at 1-2 years of age but were shorter than the males (P <0.001) at 3-4 years of age. The heart girth of the males was bigger than those of females at 3-4 years (P<0.01) and also 5 years (P < 0.05). Significantly (P < 0. 05) affected by sex at 3-4 years; sex effect was also highly significant (P<0.01) on body length at the same age. Height at withers differed significantly between males and females at 1-2 years (P<0.05) and 3-4 years (P<0.001). Significant sex effect was also observed on hears girth at 3-4 years (P<0.01) and 5 years and above (P<0.05). Bodyweight was correlated with body length (0.45, 0.53, 0.75), height-at-withers (0.73, 0.47, 0.55) and heart girth (0.78, 0.38, 0.58).

Based on the magnitude of the correlation coefficients, body length and height-at-withers could be used for predicting liveweight of the animals at 1-2 years and 3 years and above, respectively.

Résumé

Le poids vif et les mensurations du corps (longueur totale, hauteur au garrot et périmètre thoracique) de 201 caprins mâles et femelles répartis en trois groupes d'âge (1-2 ans, 3-4 ans et 5 ans ou plus) ont été mesurés. Les valeurs moyennes suivantes ont été enregistrées respectivement pour les trois tranches d'âge évoquées: 16,41,22,94 et 30,02 kg pour le poids vif, 79,15, 87,33 et 96,57 cm en ce qui concerne la longueur totale, 57,49, 62,77 et 67,39 cm pour la hauteur au garrot et 61,78, 67,86 et 75,77 cm pour le périmètre thoracique. Les coefficients de variation (CV) étaient respectivement de 23,0, 17,3 et 16,8; 6,9, 6,1 et 5,8; 8,4, 4,6 et 5,8; 11,2, 6,2 et 6,9%. Entre 3 et 4 ans, le sexe de l'animal a montré un effet significatif (P<0,05) sur le poids vif et hautement significatif (P<0,01) sur la longueur totale. Le sexe a de même un effet significatif sur la hauteur au garrot à 1-2 ans (P<0,05) et à 3-4 ans (P<0,001) ainsi que sur le périmètre thoracique à 3-4 ans (P < 0, 01) et à 5 ans et plus (P < 0, 05). Pour les trois groupes d'âge, une corrélation positive entre le poids vif et la longueur totale (0,45, 0,53 et 0,75), la hauteur au garrot (0,73, 0,47 et 0,55) ou le périmètre thoracique (0,78, 0,38 et 0,58) a été montrée. Ces coefficients de corrélation montrent que la longueur totale et la hauteur au garrot peuvent déterminer le poids vif de l'animal à 1-2 ans et à 3 ans et au-dessus.

Introduction

In Nigeria, goats are the most numerous of all types of livestock numbering about 27.6 million (FOS, 1986). The animals are primarily for meat production. The Federal Ministry of Agriculture (FMA, 1981) estimated that goats contributed about 17 per cent (65 000 tonnes) of the total meat supply in Nigeria. Of the three breeds of goats in Nigeria Red Sokoto is the predominant and the most widely used and distributed breed in the northern savannah belts of the country (Ngere et al, 1984). To increase meat yield from this breed requires genetic improvement of its liveweight. Proper measurement of this trait, which often is hard in the villages due to lack of weighing scales, is a requisite for achieving this goal. The need for estimation of the trait from simpler and more easily measurable variable such as linear body measurements therefore arises.

Very few studies have been carried out on the linear body measurements of Nigerian breeds of goat and their possible use for estimating the animals' live weights (Mason, n.d.; Robinet, 1967; Ngere et al, 1979; Moruppa and Ngere, 1986; Ibiwoye and Oyatogun, 1987; Osinowo et al, 1989).

This study was carried out to establish the relationship between liveweight and some linear body measurements in the Red Sokoto goat as a step towards employing such in bodyweight estimation for selection and other purposes in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria.

Materials and methods

The animals and their management

The data used for this study were collected on 111 male and 90 female Red Sokoto goats aged 1-5 years at Dan' Maraya Farms' Kano, Nigeria. The animals were managed semi-intensively and separated into three age groups (1-2, 3-4 and 5 years). Groups were housed in separate compartments especially at night. The animals were released daily for grazing at 0800 hours and they remained outside until about 1600 hours. In the wet season, seed cakes and cereal offals were offered as supplement. In the dry season, the goats were fed cowpea and/or groundnut hay. Drinking water and salt lick were provided ad lib. Animals received routine inspection and dipping; drenching and vaccination were done for herd health maintenance.

Records kept on the farm included stock-taking and disposal, breeding and reproduction, weight and health-care records.

Data collection

In all 201 sets of measurements were obtained for the four variables considered. Bodyweight was taken using weighbridge and the following linear body measurements were made using the tailor's tape measure.

(a) Body length (BL) was measured as the distance from the external occipital protuberance to the base of the tail.

(b) Height-at-withers (MAW) was measured as the distance from the surface of a platform to the withers and

(c) Heart girth (HG) represented the circumference of the chest.

Statistical analysis

Data collected were classified on the basis of sex and age. Three age groups (1-2, 3-4 and 5 years) were used. Means±SE for the bodyweight and linear body measurements (BL, HAW and HG) were calculated. Analysis of variance was done to examine possible sex and age effects on the variables measured. The interrelationship of bodyweights and linear body measurements were estimated by simple correlation (Steel and Torrie, 1980). This was done separately for the two sexes in cases of significant sex effect.

Results and discussion

Table 1 summarises the average measurements obtained for all the traits studied. Except for the linear body measurements at 1-2 years of age all the values obtained for the four traits were higher in the males than in the females. This male advantage was more conspicuous and statistically significant at 3-4 years of age. Only the values for heart girth showed a significant (P < 0.05) advantage for males 5 years of age.

Values obtained for the linear body measurements in the present study are very close to those reported by Moruppa and Ngere (1986) for Red Sokoto goats in similar age groups. The differences observed in all the traits studied especially in favour of the male goats agree with earlier reports (Ngere et al, 1979; 1984) on the same and other Nigerian goat breeds.

The correlation coefficients obtained between the variables are presented in Table 2. These values are with no respect to effect of sex of goat on the variables. The high and significant correlation coefficients between height at withers and heart girth and bodyweight at 1-2 years of age suggests that either of these variables or their combination would provide a good estimate for predicting liveweight in Red Sokoto at an early age. The higher coefficient of correlation (r=0.0871) obtained between the two variables attests to this. Moruppa and Ngere (1986) and Osinowo et al (1989) reported a similar trend in the same breed.

Mukherjee et al (1981; 1986) and Singh et al (1987) reported the highest and significant correlation value of bodyweight with chest circumference in various Indian goat breeds. At later stages (3-5 years) body length assumes more importance as an indicator of liveweight (r=0.532, 0.754). Results of the correlation analysis carried out with respect to the significant effect of sex (P<0.01) on the variables are given in Table 3. The higher correlation coefficients for the male goats in most of the cases indicate that on the basis of the dimension of the various body lengths the bodyweight could be predicted more accurately in the male than in their female counterparts.

The results of the analysis have underlined the significant effect of sex on the linear body measurement covered and pointed to the need not to ignore it in employing any of them for predicting liveweight in Red Sokoto goats. Heart girth would give the best estimate for predicting liveweight of Red Sokoto goats at 1-2 years of age. Body length would be a better predictor at later stages.

Table 1. Means (±SE) for bodyweight (kg) and linear body measurements (cm).

Age (yrs)

Sex

No.

Body weight

Body length

Height at withers

Heart girth

1-2


Male

45

16.67±0.56

78.80±0.82

56.44±0.72a

60.76± 1.03

Female

47

16.16±0.55

79.49±0.80

58.49±0.70b

62.77±1.01

Total

92

16.41±0.39

79.15±0.57

57.49±0.51

61.78±0.73

Male

41

24.01±0.62a

88.90±0.82a

64.17±0.45a

69.09±0.66a

3-4

Female

34

21.65±0.68b

85.43±0.91b

61.07±0.49b

66.38±0.72b

Total

75

22.94±0.47

87.33±0.64

62.77±0.37

67.86±0.51

Male

25

30.30±1.01

99.66±1.13

68.32±0.78

77.14±1.05a

5

Female

16

29.75±1.26

96.44±1.41

65.94±0.97

73.63±1.31b

Total


41

30.02±0.78

96.57±0.87

67.39±0.63

75.77±0.86

Values within each age group with different superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.001 0.05). No letter indicates subclass groups did not show a significant sex effect in the analysis of variance.

Table 2. Coefficients of correlation between the variables.

Age (years)

Variables1

BW

BL

HAW


BL

0.450



1-2

HAW

0.728

0.573


HG

0.783

0.565

0.871

BL

0.532



3-4

HAW

0.470

0.349


HG

0.377

0.175

0.482

BL

0.754



5

HAW

0.554

0.522


HG

0.583

0.516

0.435

1. BL = body length; BW = body weight; HG = heart girth; HAW = height-at-withors.

Table 3. Coefficient of correlation between bodyweight (kg) and linear body measurements (cm).

Age (yrs)

Sex

BL

HAW

HG


M

0.578

0.733

0.883

1-2

F

0.390

0.812

0.838

M&F

0.450

0.728

0.783

M

0.637

0.554

0.380

3-4

F

0.265

-0.025

0.232

M&F

0.532

0.470

0.377

M

0.993

0.675

0.642

5

F

0.706

0.407

0.572

M&F

0.754

0.554

0.583

BL = body length; HAW = height at withers; HG = heart girth.

Acknowledgement

The authors of the work wish to thank the Management of Dan' Maraya Farm, Kano, for granting permission to collect the data.

References

FMA (Federal Ministry of Agriculture).1981. Report on the Green Revolution. FMA, Lagos, Nigeria.

FOS (Federal Office of Statistics). 1986. Annual abstract of statistics. FOS, Lagos, Nigeria. 202 pp.

Ibiwoye T I I and Oyatogun M O O. 1987. Body weight estimation from measured parameters in sheep and goats in the Kainji Lake Basin, Nigeria. 12th Annual Conference, Nigerian Society for Animal Production, March 22-26, 1987. Ahmadu Bello University, Shika-Zaria, Nigeria.

Mason I L. (n.d.). The classification of West African livestock: Cattle. CAB (Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux), Farnham Royal, Bucks, UK. 10 pp.

Moruppa S M and Ngere L O. 1986. Biometric studies on the Bornu White and Red Sokoto (Moradi) goat breeds. Paper presented at the 11th Annual Conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production, Ahmadu Bello University, 23-27 March, 1986. Nigerian Society for Animal Production, Ahmadu Bello University, Shika-Zaria, Nigeria.

Mukherjee D K, Singh S K and Mishra H R. 1981. Phenotypic correlations of body weight with body measurements in Grey Bengal goats. Indian Journal of Animal Science 51:682 694.

Mukherjee D K, Singh C S P. Mishra H R and Nath. 1986. Body weight measurement relationships in Brown Bengal does. Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 10:1004-1006.

Ngere L O. Adu I F and Mani 1.1979. Report of Small Ruminant Breeding Subcommittee. NAPRI Bulletin 1. Ahmadu Bello University, Shika-Zaria, Nigeria.

Ngere L O. Adu I F and Okubanjo I O. 1984. The indigenous goats of Nigeria. FAO/UNEP Animal Genetic Resources Information 3:1-9. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), Rome, Italy.

Osinowo O A, Olorunju S A S. Otchere E O and Arigi L A. 1989. Development of a weigh-band for Yankasa sheep and Red Sokoto goats. Paper presented at the 14th annual conference of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production held at Makurdi, 2-6 April, 1989.

Robinet A H. 1967. La chèvre Rousse de Maradi son exploitation et sa place dans l'économie et l'élevage de la République du Niger. Revue d'Elévage et de Medecine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux 20(1):129-186; Animal Breeding Abstracts 35, No. 3746.

Singh N R. Mohanty S C and Mishra M. 1987. Prediction of body weight from body measurements in Black Bengal goats: a note. Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management 3:46 49.

Steel R G D and Torrie J H. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics - a biometrical approach. Second edition. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, USA. 633 pp.


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