Evaluation and mapping of tropical African rangelands













Table of Contents


PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEMINAR

BAMAKO - MALI
3-8 MARCH 1975

INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK CENTRE FOR AFRICA

P.O. BOX 5689
ADDIS ABEBA, ETHIOPIA
TELEPHONE : 15-13-22
TELEX: 21207
CABLE: ILCAF ADDIS

CENTRE INTERNATIONAL POUR L'ELEVAGE EN AFRIQUE

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Table of Contents


General remarks

List of participants - Liste des participants

Inaugural session - Under the distinguished patronage of H.E. the Minister of Production of Mali

Opening speech by the minister of production of the republic of Mali
Speech of welcome by Dr. R.E. Hodgson
Opening speech of Dr. J.R. Pagot

Topic I - Phytosociological survey and evaluation of tracts of land

Remote sensing

Predevelopment survey: The initial stages

The sub-Sahara African rangeland resource

Rangeland survey in the framework of pastoral development

The use of rangeland inventory and condition surveys

Introduction
Methodology in western Australian surveys
Estimation of stocking rate on grazing areas
Conclusions
Appendix
Bibliography

Review of the discussions

I. Definition of objectives
II. Evaluations
III. The methods used

Topic II - Case study

The rangeland of north Africa: Typology, yield, productivity and development

Introduction
Methodology - Inventoried and mapped areas
Principal types of pasture, their yield and their productivity
Improvement of pasturelands
Conclusions
Bibliography

The inventory and mapping of rangeland in West Africa

A. Classification and appraisal of rangeland
B. Principles for the development of West African pastures
C. Cartographic work carried out
Bibliography

Considerations on cartographic studies of natural rangeland in the Republic of Senegal

Bibliography

Rangeland resource surveys for farm and regional development in Queensland

Introduction
Data collection and storage
Data retrieval and interpretation
Conclusions
Bibliography

East African habitat monitoring practice: A review of methods and application

Introduction
Methods
Results and analysis
Discussion
Bibliography
Figure legends

Review of the discussions

Intervention by H. Le Houerou
Conclusion
Discussion
Intervention by G. Boudet
Intervention by N. Dawson
Intervention by E. Trump
Intervention by M. Gwynne
Discussion

Topic III - Evaluation of the site: Parameters and methods

Method for the study of the structure of tropical grasslands

1. General principles
2. Structural characteristics and parameters
3. Morphological and biomorphological types
4. Structural analysis of grasslands
5. Structural card
6. Scope for the application of the method
I. Graminoid layer
II. Ligneous layer
Bibliography

Measurement of herbaceous production in the Sahelian zone

A. Measurement of standing biomass
B. Comparison of net production and biomass

Drought and its relationship to dynamics of primary productivity and production of grazing animals

Introduction
Drought and vegetation changes
Drought and forage yield
Drought and livestock responses
Management flexibility to cope with drought
Bibliography

Influence of rainfall on the productivity of grasslands

Introduction
Conclusion
Bibliography

Ecological status: Range condition trend recognition and value of indicator species

Range condition and range trend

Introduction
Range condition defined
Range trend defined
Range site
Types of ecosystem changes
Factors used to measure condition
Factors used to indicate range trend

Test for the study of the evolution of vegetation in the Sahelian zone

Conclusion

The natural pasturelands of the sylvopastoral zone of the Senegal Sahel, twenty years after their development

Bibliography

Evolution of vegetation on the Niono Ranch since 1969

Introduction
Conclusion
Bibliography

Evolution of the natural pasturelands of C.N.R.Z., Sotuba *

I. Climatology
II. Geomorphology and geology
III. Pedology
IV. Plant formations
V. Productivity of certain rangelands
Conclusions

Influence of the intensity of exploitation on the productivity of grasslands

Introduction
Conclusion
Bibliography

Evolutionary trends of some vegetational formations under the influence of grazing in the Guinean Savannah of the Ivory Coast

Outline of methods used
Selective effect of grazing and its role in the evolution of organic matter in two types of soil
Evolution of the floristic composition of 3 types of Savannah under the impact of grazing
Bibliography

The productivity, forage value, and dynamics of different cutting intervals of three natural rangeland formations of the Adamaoua plateau in Cameroon

General remarks
Results
Conclusions

Plant/animal interactions in the Sahelian zone

Introduction
Influence of biotic factors on the recovery of the herbaceous vegetation stratum
Influence of biotic factors on the evolution of the woody stratum
Conclusion
Bibliography

The need for a wide ecological approach in the planning of future rangeland surveys

Evaluation of plant-animal relationships on different range-pastures in western Rajasthan, India

Introduction
References

Chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of some range forage species of Iran

Introduction
Area locations and characteristics
Study methods and materials
Results
Crude protein
Crude fibre
Cell wall constituents (CWC) (neutral detergent fibre)
Acid detergent fibre (ADF)
Lignin
Cellulose
In-vitro true digestibility of organic matter (IVTDOM)
Ash and minerals
Discussion
Bibliography

Maximum carrying capacity of Malian grasslands

1. Introduction
2. Method
3. Results
Conclusion
Bibliography

A method used in Australia for estimating stocking rates

Reference

Note on some problems in the assessment of livestock carrying capacity

Animal carrying capacity, including concepts and definition, methods for assessment and use of standard stock units

Problems encountered in estimating the rate of stocking of "natural pastureland" in a tropical zone

Basis for estimating rates of stocking
Necessity of control of the use of pasture by animals
Conclusion

Problems in the evaluation of the nutritional value of natural tropical rangeland

Factors determining the value of rangeland
Current methods of rangeland evaluation
Critical points and motifs
Variation factors in voluntary intake
Methods for the measurement or evaluation of quantities ingested
Methods for the evaluation of digestibility
Conclusion

Assessment of potential for rangeland improvement

Introduction

Problems posed by the evaluation of the browse potential of the Sahel zone

Exploitation of this vegetation by animals
Cattle
Value of the grazing lands

Review of the discussions

Review of the discussions
Surveys and measurements
Plant-animal interaction
Changes in pastureland conditions
Nutritive value and estimation of carrying capacity

Topic IV - Sampling and processing of data

Phytosociological survey and pasture-range evaluation

The phytosociological survey
Realisation
Evaluation of pastures (range grazing)
Evaluation for management
Control of ecological changes
Conclusion

Environmental monitoring in Africa

Bibliography

Presenting the results of integrated surveys by computer mapping

1. Introduction - The need for planning-relevant information
2. The concept of cellular mapping
3. The concept of multi-source data
4. Extraction of planning-relevant information
5. Presentation of results
6. Computer-mapping and spectral pattern recognition

Modelling primary production

Introduction
Special problems in desert research and modelling
Modelling primary production

Potential primary production of unirrigated land in the Sahel

Introduction
Bibliography

Model studies on actual and potential herbage production in arid regions

Aims
Results
Concluding remarks

Mathematical analysis of surveys of vegetation in the Sahelian zone

A. processing of the surveys
B. Pluriannual variations

Review of the discussions

Review of discussions
1. Evaluations through mapping with computer assistance
2. Surveying the environment
3. Simulation models
4. Vegetation surveys
5. Collection data and sampling techniques

Topic V - Mapping

Fourteen years of rangeland mapping at I.E.M.V.T.

Purpose of mapping - two-fold option
Criteria to be strictly followed in rangeland cartography
Homogeneity of presentation
Evolution of the presentation of rangeland cartography at I.E.M.V.T. over the past 14 years
Conclusions and wishes

The search for a cartographic methodology applicable to the Sahelian pasturelands

Data on the Sahel
Proposals for a methodology
Conclusions
Bibliography

Factors determining the selection of scales for pastureland maps

Introduction
The reconnaissance plan (or map) of pasturelands
The synthesis map
The inventory map
Detailed maps
Conclusions

Mapping

Classification of grassy formations by the structure of the vegetation

1. Ranking of criteria
2. Organization of classification
3. Naming of herbaceous formations
Bibliography

Review of the discussions

Techniques and cost
Contents and utilization
Training

Topic VI - Conclusions: Actions to undertake

General considerations concerning the programme

1. Categories of rangeland survey and evaluation
2. Review of experiences
3. Site evaluation: Parameters and methods
4. Sampling and data processing
5. Cartography
6. Guidelines for the future

Needs for evaluation and mapping of African rangeland

Grazing capacity as a function of regional socio-economic structure

Introduction
The economic approach to cattle husbandry
A classification of West African cattle breeders
Locational aspects of cattle husbandry
The influence of planning measurements
Conclusion
Bibliography

Review of the discussions

Structure and carrying capacity
Economic problems
Research
Training

Closing session

Recommendations and conclusions

Item 1: Categories of rangeland survey and evaluation
Item 2: Review of experiences
Item 3: Site development - parameters and methods
Item 4: Sampling and data processing
Item 5: Cartography
Item 6: Guidelines for the future

Closing speech by Dr. R.E. Hodgson
Closing speech by Dr. J.R. Pagot
Speech of gratitude by the delegate of the OAU, Dr. P. Nderito
Closing speech by the Minister of production of the Republic of Mali