LEAD Livestock, Environment and Development initiativeLivestock and the Environment Finding a Balance
Interactions between Livestock Production Systems and the Environment
Impact Domain: concentrate feed demand


©FAO - P.GerberC R C HENDY
U KLEIH
R CRAWSHAW
M PHILLIPS

NATURAL RESOURCES INSTITUTE, UK
NOVEMBER, 1995

Study Sponsors:
Commission of the European Union
Denmark
France (Ministère de la Coopération)
Germany (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit-GTZ)
Netherlands
United Kingdom (Overseas Development Administration)
United States (Environmental Protection Agency)

Study Coordination by:
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
United States (U.S. Agency for International Development)
World Bank

Table of Contents

 

Table of Contents


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ABBREVIATIONS

1. INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY

1.1. Background and general objectives
1.2. Terms of reference
1.3. Implementation of the study
1.4. Summary

2. THE USE OF CONCENTRATE FEEDS IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

2.1. Definition of concentrate feeds
2.2. Raw materials for concentrate feeds
2.3. Livestock production and feeding systems using concentrate feeds

2.3.1. Roles and implications of concentrate feeding.
2.3.2. Nutritional roles of concentrates in feeding systems based on different forage resources
2.3.3. Livestock production systems utilizing concentrates

2.4. Utilization of concentrate feeds by livestock production systems

2.4.1. Global and regional availability and utilization of concentrate feeds
2.4.2. Utilization of specific concentrate feed commodities
2.4.3. Concentrate utilization by different livestock species
2.4.4. Concentrate feed requirements in farming systems and world regions classified by Sere (1994).

3. FEED COMMODITY DEMAND AND SUPPLY

3.1. Factors affecting demand for feed commodities

3.1.1. Population and economic growth
3.1.2. Impacts of urbanization
3.1.3. Trends in demand for livestock products
3.1.4. Trends in demand for feed concentrates
3.1.5. Feeding system factors affecting demand for feed concentrates

3.2. Factors affecting supply of major feed commodities

3.2.1. Recent trends in production of feed commodities
3.2.2. Prospects for commodity production
3.2.3. Patterns of trade in commodities
3.2.4. Global significance of trade in feed commodities

3.3. Potential impacts of international trade and agricultural development policy

3.3.1. Potential impacts of GATT
3.3.2. Regional trade agreements
3.3.3. Agricultural development policy impacts

4. POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE SUPPLY OF CONCENTRATE FEED COMMODITIES

4.1. Components and features of potential environmental impacts
4.2. Relative importance of feed production and trade in the context of all cropping and food trade

4.2.1. Areas cropped for feeds as a proportion of all arable land
4.2.2. The potential significance of trade in concentrate feed commodities

4.3. Environmental impacts of feed concentrate commodity supply

4.3.1. Impacts of crop production
4.3.2. Changes in land-use and land resources
4.3.3. Impacts on soil, water and air
4.3.4. Impacts on landscape and biodiversity
4.3.5. Impacts on human health
4.3.6. Impacts due to the use of energy, fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture

4.4. Environmental impacts of feed commodity production and mitigation measures (some examples).

4.4.1. Wheat and barley production in Northern Europe
4.4.2. Maize production in the USA
4.4.3. Soya bean production in Brazil, Asia and Africa
4.4.4. Cassava production in Thailand
4.4.5. Barley production in the Middle East

4.5. Summary of environmental impacts of production of feed crop commodities

5. INDICATORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF FEED COMMODITY PRODUCTION

5.1. Framework for identification of indicators

5.1.1. The pressure-state-response framework
5.1.2. Criteria for selection of indicators

5.2. Indicators of environmental impacts of concentrate feed demand

5.2.1. Environmental pressures and components of the environmental state affected
5.2.2. Indicators of environmental pressures and conditions
5.2.3. Key indicators

5.3. Application of indicators to monitoring the impacts of feed concentrate demand in different livestock production systems and development programmes

5.3.1. Selection of appropriate indicators by livestock production systems
5.3.2. Selection of indicators for programmes and project monitoring

References

Appendix 1 Definitions of geographical regions and livestock production systems

Appendix 2 Concentrate feed commodity utilization 1965/67 to 1990/92

Appendix 3 Estimation of total concentrate feed utilization in world regions and production systems

Appendix 4 Effects of feeding systems and dietary manipulations on demand for feeds

Appendix 5 Areas grown, yields and production of concentrate feed commodities 1975/77 to 1990/92

Appendix 6 Trade in concentrate feed commodities by regions of the world 1975/77 to 1990/92