Traditional Plant Foods of canadian indigenous peoples, Nutrition, Botany and Use

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We must first of all acknowledge that it is difficult to identify all of the individuals who have contributed directly or indirectly to this book. The book itself has been in process, on and off, for about ten years. Added to this, our collective experience of working with Indigenous Peoples and their plant foods in many regions of North America spans at least two decades. Where do we begin?

Our collaboration began when we were introduced, as an ethnonutritionist and an ethnobotanist, by our mutual friend, colleague and mentor, Dr. Richard I. Ford of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Michigan. We have shared many delightful and productive research experiences since Dick created this fortuitous event, as our bibliography in this volume will show. Beyond this, and certainly very important to both of us, we developed a close friendship which is shared by our husbands and children as well. We wish to acknowledge our families for their contributions, their good will, and their ever-patience in the completion of this project—Bob Turner and Urs Kuhnlein; Molly, Sarah and Katie Turner; Letitia McCune Haakonsen, Matthew McCune and Peter Kuhnlein.

The actual project began in 1980 with literature searches for nutrient values through funds provided by the National Museum of Natural Sciences, the Health Promotion Directorate of Health and Welfare Canada, and Employment and Immigration Canada. Margo Palmer in the Vancouver office of the Health Promotion Contribution Program assisted by providing funds for summer students from the School of Family and Nutritional Sciences at the University of British Columbia during May-August of both 1980 and 1981. The students who learned well the difficulties of compiling nutrient values were: Janet Madill-Trick, Leslie Helyar, Karen Kristensen, Michaela Palaniak, Letitia McCune, Anne Wheeler, Marilyn Gravelle, Geri Onishi, Rhea Joseph and Anthea Kennally. Very capable library assistance was provided by Dr. Doug Dewar and Bill Parker of the UBC library, and Frederike Verspoor and Carron Nixon of the Royal British Columbia Museum library. Computing assistance was given generously by Frank Flynn of UBC, and by Debra Simpson and Bernard Eckhardt at McGill. Rula Soueida assisted with final computations at McGill, and typing assistance and proofreading were provided at McGill by Francine Tar-dif, Beth Gunjal and Anju Tehim. Photographic assistance was given by Andrew Niemann and Burton Storey of the Royal British Columbia Museum.

The late Dr. Douglas Leechman, former ethnologist with the National Museum of Canada, originally conceived the idea for a book such as this and compiled many notes on edible wild plants of Canada which he generously allowed us to incorporate. Dr. Adam F. Szczawinski also contributed his knowledge in many ways. Many others contributed information and help at various stages and we are deeply grateful to all of them: Randy Bouchard and Dorothy Kennedy of the British Columbia Indian Language Project; Dr. Adolf Ceska; Brian Compton; Dr. Keith N. Egger; Dr. Richard Hebda; Dr. Timothy Johns; Dr. Andrea Laforet; Dana Lepofsky; Dr. Sandra Lindstrom; Carol McGrath; Judy McCrath; Robin McGrath; Dr. Steven McNeary; Dr. Robin Maries; Dr. Thomas F. Mumford; Dr. R. T. Ogilvie; and Dr. Scott Redhead.

Our greatest acknowledgments, however, go to the many Indigenous People who have contributed to our knowledge and understanding of the vital importance of traditional plant foods to their cultural expression and nutritional health. To mention just a few individuals who have made major contributions to our understanding we would like to note: Bernadette Antoine, Nlaka'pamuk (Thompson); Eliza Archie, Shuswap; Cecilia August, Sechelt; Hilda Austin, Nlaka'pamuk (Thompson); Bertha Blondin, Sahtú Dene; Elsie Claxton, Saanich (Straits); Agnes Cranmer, Kwakwaka 'wakw (Southern Kwakiutl); Florence Davidson, Haida; Kenneth Eaglespeaker, Blackfoot; Bill Edwards, Lillooet; Dora Grandjambe, Hare Dene; Catherine Grevelle, Kootenay; Willie Hans, Nuxalk; Alice Hill, Great Bear Lake, Sahtú Dene; George Ignace, Hesquiat (Nuu-chah-nulth); Chief Charlie Jones, Ditidaht (Nuu-chah-nulth); Ida Jones, Ditidaht (Nuu-chah-nulth); Kilabuck Kooneeliusee, Inuit; Sara Kooneeliusee, Inuit; Margaret Lester, Lillooet; Martin Louie, Okanagan-Colville; Alice Masazumi, Sahtú (Hare) Dene; Chief William and Emma Matthews, Haida; Dr. Louis Miranda, Squamish; Sam Mitchell, Lillooet; Agnes Moody, Haida; Maude Moody, Haida; Helena Myers, Chilcotin; Linda Myers, Chilcotin; Edith O'Donaghey, Lillooet; Alice Paul, Hesquiat (Nuu-chah-nulth); Christopher Paul, Saanich (Straits); Mary Paul, Kootenay; Alec Peters, Lillooet; Desmond Peters, Sr., Lillooet; Louis Phillips, Nlaka'pamuk (Thompson); Patricia Pierrot, Sahtú (Hare) Dene; Dr. Margaret Siwallace, Nuxalk; John Thomas, Ditidaht (Nuu-chah-nulth); Selina Timoyakin, Okanagan-Col-ville; Mike Tom, Hesquiat (Nuu-chah-nulth); Felicity Walkus, Nuxalk; Nellie Wallace, Lillooet; Frank Whitehead, Kootenay; Violet Williams, Cowichan (Halkomelem); Solomon and Emma Wilson, Haida; Annie York, Nlaka'pamuk (Thompson); George Young, Haida.

Some of these people have now passed away, but their contributions in preserving knowledge of their cultural traditions and heritage will always remain. Innumerable others, not named above but greatly appreciated, have contributed immeasurably to our knowledge. Many of these people are cited by name in some of the publications listed in the references. We would like to pay a special tribute to the late Dr. Margaret Siwallace, the late John Thomas, and to Ida Jones, Florence Davidson and Annie York, whose love of people and traditional lifeways and dedication in teaching us about their plant foods we will always remember.

Harriet V. Kuhnlein
Nancy J. Turner

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