Traditional Plant Foods of canadian indigenous peoples, Nutrition, Botany and Use

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CHAPTER 5
Comprehensive List of Plant Food Species

In the Comprehensive List the following symbols are used:

N

=

nutrient values listed in Chapter 6

E

=

ethnic use described in Chapter 4

T

=

toxin reported in the plant food

(T)

=

toxin reported in a look-alike species (not closely related) or in a part of the plant not listed as edible; or toxin at relatively low levels

I

=

an introduced species

R

=

rare or endangered plant, or highly vulnerable to overharvesting

The nomenclature given generally follows the original sources. As noted earlier, many species have not been reported in the literature as having been used by Indigenous People, or for having nutrient contents. Please refer to Chapters 4 and 6 for details.

Abies balsamea

Acer nigrum

E

Balsam fir

E

Black maple

Canada balsam

Aceraceae

Pinaceae

sap

N

needles

N

shoot

Acer pensytvanicum

inner bark

E

Moosewood

Striped maple

Abies concolor

Aceraceae

I

White fir

N

leaves

Pinaceae

bark

N

needles

tea

Abies spp.

Acer platanoides

E

Grand fir

I

Norway maple

E

Subalpine fir

Aceraceae

Pacific silver fir

sap

Pinaceae

sprouts

needles

cambium

inner bark

pitch

Acer rubrum

E

Red maple

Abronia latifolia

Aceraceae

E

Yellow sand-verbena

N

leaves

Nyctaginaceae

N

sprouts

N

R

roots

bark

sap

Acer glabrum

E

Rocky mountain maple

Acer saccharinium

Aceraceae

E

Silver maple

leaves

Aceraceae

sap

Acer macrophyllum

sprouts

E

Bigleaf maple

cambium

Broad-leaved maple

bark

Aceraceae

sap

Acer sacchamm

seeds

E

Sugar maple

sprouts

Rock maple

inner bark

Hard maple

Aceraceae

Acer negundo

N

leaves

E

Manitoba maple

N

sprouts

Box elder

N

sap

Aceraceae

N

syrup

N

sprouts

seeds

sap, sugar

Achillea millefolium

Alaria esculenta

E

Yarrow

E

Kelp

Subalpine yarrow

Murlins

Asteraceae, Compositae

Algae

N

Leaves

N

fronds

Flowers

Alaria marginata

Acorus calamus

E

Kelp

E

Sweet flag

Algae

Araceae

fronds

T

rootstocks

T

Leaves

Alaria pylaii

T

Tea

E

Kelp

Algae

Actinogyra spp.

fronds

E

Rock tripe

Lichens

Alectoria spp.

(T)

thallus

Tree lichen

Lichens

Agaricus campestris

(T)

thallus

E

Field mushroom

Fungi

Alisma plantago-aquatica

mushroom

Water plantain

Alismataceae

Agastache foeniculum

T

roots

E

Giant hyssop

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

Alliaria officinalis

leaves, condiment

I

Garlic mustard

Jack-by-the-hedge

Agoseris glauca

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

E

Mountain dandelion

N

leaves dry

Short beaked false dandelion

Asteraceae, Compositae

Allium acuminatum

leaves, latex

E

Hooker's onion

Liliaceae

Agropyron repens

(T)

bulbs

I

Quackgrass

Couchgrass

Allium amplectens

Poaceae, Gramineae

Slim leaf onion

N

grains

Liliaceae

(T)

bulbs

Agrostis perennens

greens

Bent grass

Poaceae, Gramineae

grains

Allium canadense

Allium textile

E

Canada garlic

E

Wild onion

Canada onion

Liliaceae

Tree onion

(T)

bulbs

Liliaceae

greens

(T)

bulbs

greens

Allium tricoccum

E

R Wild leek

Allium cemuum

Ramp

E

Nodding onion

Wild garlic

Liliaceae

Liliaceae

(T)

bulbs

N

(T)

leaves

T

greens

N

bulbs

Allium crenulatum

Allium vineale

Olympic onion

I

Onion grass

Liliaceae

Field garlic

(T)

bulbs

Crow garlic

greens

Liliaceae

N

T

leaves

Allium geyeri

E

Geyer's onion

Allium spp.

Liliaceae

Onion

(T)

bulbs

Garlic

greens

Liliaceae

N

(T)

bulbs

Allium nuttallii

N

(T)

tops

Nuttall's onion

Liliaceae

Alnus crispa

N

(T)

bulbs

E

Mountain alder

American green alder

Allium schoenoprasum

Betulaceae

E

Wild chives

N

bark

Liliaceae

N

Greens

Alnus rubra

Bulbs

E

Red alder

Betulaceae

Allum stellatum

inner bark

Prairie onion

catkins

Pink-flowered onion

Liliaceae

Alnus rugosa

(T)

bulbs

Speckled mountain alder

greens

Betulaceae

inner bark

Althaea officinalis

Ambrosia trifida

I

Marsh mallow

I

Giant ragweed

Malvaceae

Asteraceae, Compositae

mucilaginous juice

seeds

Althaea rosea

Amelanchier alnifolia

I

Hollyhock

E

Common saskatoon

Malvaceae

Serviceberry

N

leaves

Rosaceae

N

fruit

Amaranthus albus

I

Tumble pigweed

Amelanchier arborea

Amaranthaceae

E

High serviceberry

greens

June berry

seeds

Downy shadblow

Rosaceae

Amaranthus graecizans

Firuit

E

Prostrate pigweed

Amaranthaceae

Amelanchier bartramiana

N

greens

Juneberry

seeds

Bartram shadblow

Rosaceae

Amaranthus hybridus

fruit

Amaranth

I

Amaranthaceae

Amelanchier canadensis

N

greens

Medic-downy shadblow

N

seeds

Rosaceae

N

fruit

Amaranthus palmeri

I

Pigweed

Amelanchier femaldii

Careless weed

Fernald's shadbush

Amaranthaceae

Rosaceae

N

leaves

fruit

Amaranthus retroflexus

Amelanchier gaspensis

IE

Redroot pigweed

Gaspe shadbush

Amaranthaceae

Rosaceae

N

greens

fruit

N

seeds

Amelanchier humilis

Amaranthus spinosus

Serviceberry

Amaranth

Low shadbush

I

Amaranthaceae

Rosaceae

N

greens

fruit

seeds

Amelanchier huronensis

Amphicarpa bracteata

Huron shadbush

Falcata bracteata

Rosaceae

Falcata comosa

fruit

Glycine comosa

E Hog-peanut

Amelanchier intermedia

Ground-bean

Swamp sugar pear

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

Rosaceae

seeds

fruit

Anchusa officinalis

Amelanchier laevis

I

Alkanet

Smooth Juneberry

Boraginaceae

Alleghany shadblow

(T)

greens

Rosaceae

fruit

Andromeda glaucophylla

E

Bog rosemary

Amelanchier lucida

Ericaceae

Junebeny shadbush

N

T

greens dried

Rosaceae

T

tea

fruit

T

flowers

Amelanchier mucronata

Anemone multifida

Juneberry shadbush

Pacific anemone

Rosaceae

Ranunculaceae

fruit

T

greens

Amelanchier sanguinea

Anemone narcissiflora

Shadbush

E

Anemone

Wild-pear

Ranunculaceae

Rosaceae

T

leaves

fruit

Anemonella thalictrodies

Amelanchier stolonifera

Rue-anemone

Wild-pear serviceberry

Wild potato

Rosaceae

Ranunculaceae

fruit

T

roots

Amelanchier wiegandii

Anethum graveolens

Serviceberry

I

Common dill

Shadbush

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

Rosaceae

N

greens

fruit

seeds

Ammophila breviligulata

Beachgrass

Poaceae, Gramineae

rhizomes

Angelica archangelica

Anthriscus cerefolium

Angelica

I

Common chevril

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

N

stems dried

N

(T)

greens

condiment

condiment

Angelica atropurpurea

Apios americana

Purple angelica

E

Groundnut

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

Indian potato

roots

Potato bean

stems

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

condiment

N

tubers

Angelica genuflexa

Aquilegia canadensis

E

Kneeling angelica

Wild columbine

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

Ranunculaceae

(T)

roots

T

roots

(T)

stems

(T)

condiment

Arabidopsis thaliana

I

Common mouse-ear cress

Angelica lucida

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

E

Sea coast angelica

greens

"Wild celery"

Aleut celery

Arabis alpina

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

Mountain rock-cress

(T)

stems

Alpine cress

(T)

leaves

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

greens

Angelica sylvestris

condiment

I

Woodland angelica

Wild angelica

Arabis lyrata

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

E

Lyre-leaved rockcress

(T)

roots

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

(T)

stems

greens

condiment

Antennaria rosea

Pussytoes

Aralia nudicaulis

Asteraceae, Compositae

E

Wild sarsaparilla

leaves

Araliaceae

N

greens

Anthoxanthum odoratum

N

leaves

I

Sweet vernal grass

fruit

Poaceae, Gramineae

rhizomes, tea

N

greens dried

N

greens

Aralia racemosa

Arctostaphylos alpina ssp. rubra

E

Spikenard

E

Red alpine bearberry

Araliaceae

Red manzanita

N

greens

Ericaceae

N

fruit

Aralia spinosa

I

Prickly-ash

Arctostaphyos uva-ursi

Devil's walkingstick

E

Kinnikinnick

Araliaceae

Bearberry

greens

Ericaceae

N

fruit

Arbutus menziesii

N

greens

Pacific madrone

leaves, tea

Ericaceae

fruit

Arenaria peploides

Honckenya peploides

Arctium lappa

E

Seabeach-sandwort

IE

Greater burdock

Sea-chickweed

Asteraceae, Compositae

caryophyllaceae

N

stalks

N

leaves

N

roots

greens

Arctium minus

Arisaema spp.

IE

Lesser burdock

E

Jack-in-the-pulpit

Common burdock

Dragon root

Asteraceae, Compositae

Indian turnip

greens

Araceae

roots

T

corm, cooked

Arctium nemorosum

Armeria maritima

Burdock

Thrift

I

Asteraceae, Compositae

Plumibaginaceae

roots

greens, cooked

stalks

Armoraca rusticana

Arctium tomentosum

I

Common horseradish

I

Cotton burdock

Brassicaceae, Cruiciferae

Asteraceae, Compositae

T

condiment

roots

stalks

Artemisia abrotanum

I

Lemon wood

Arctostaphylos alpina

Asteraceae, Compositae

E

Alpine bearbeny

condiment

Alpine manzanita

Ericaceae

N

fruit

Artemisia absinthium

Asarum caudatum

I

Wormwood

E

Western wild ginger

Absinthe

Aristolochiaceae

Asteraceae, Compositae

condiment

T

condiment

rhizomes

Artemisia campestris

Asclepias amplexicaulis

E

Sagewort wormwood

Milkweed

Asteraceae, Compositae

Asclepiadaeae

T

leaves

N

T

greens

Artemisia dracunculus

Asclepias incarnata

E

Tarragon

Swamp milkweed

Dragon sagewort

Asclepiadaceae

Asteraceae, Compositae

N

T

greens

condiment

Asclepias speciosa

Artemisia gnaphalodes

E

Showy milkweed

I

Wormwood

Asclepiadaceae

I

Asteraceae, Compositae

(T)

shoots

N

greens

(T)

young seedpods

(T)

flowers

Artemisia ludoviciana

latex, gum

E

Western mugwort

Asteraceae, Compositae

Asclepias syriaca

leaves

E

Common milkweed

Asclepiadaceae

Artemisia vulgaris

NT

leaves

I

Common mugwort

NT

greens

Asteraceae, Compositae

NT

fruits

N

leaves

(T)

flowers

(T)

shoots

Artemisia spp.

E

Wormwood

Asclepias tuberosa

Mugwort

E

Butterfly weed

Northern sage

Asclepiadaceae

Asteraceae, Compositae

NT

greens

flavoring

NT

roots

leaves

tea

Asclepias verticillata

Whorled milkweed

Asarum canadense

Asclepiadaceae

E

Wild ginger

NT

greens

Aristolochiaceae

condiment

rhizomes

Asclepias viridiflora

Astragalus americanus

E

Green milkweed

E

American milkvetch

Asclepiadaceae

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

T

greens

(T)

roots

T

roots

Astragalus canadensis

Asimina triloba

E

Canadian milkvetch

E

Pawpaw

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

Custard apple

(T)

roots

Annonaceae

N

fruit

Astragalus crassicarpus

E

Groundplum milkvetch

Asparagus officinalis

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

IE

Asaragus

(T)

unripe, pods

Liliaceae

seeds

N

(T)

shoots

Astragalus miser

Aster conspicuus

E

Timber milkvetch

Showy aster

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

Asteraceae, Compositae

(T)

seeds

N

greens

Astragalus serotinus

Aster laevis

Timber milkvetch

Smooth aster

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

Asteraceae, Compositae

N

(T)

leaves

N

leaves

Athyrium filix-femina

Aster macrophyllus

E

Lady fern

E

Large-leaved aster

Polypodiaceae

Asteraceae, Compositae

N

fresh greens

N

greens

rootstocks

roots

Atriplex glabriuscula

Aster sericeus

Pigweed

Silky aster

Chenopodiaceae

Asteraceae, Compositae

greens

N

greens

Atriplex hortensis

Aster simplex

I

Garden orache

Small blue aster

Chenopodiaceae

Asteraceae, Compositae

greens

N

greens

Atriplex nuttallii

Astragalus aboriginum

Salt sage

E

Indian millkvetch

Chenopodiaceae

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

N

leaves

T

roots

Atriplex patula

Baptisia tinctoria

Common orache

False indigo

Chenopodiaceae

Rattleweed

N

leaves

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

shoots

Atriplex rosea

I

Red orache

Barbarea verna

Chenopodiaceae

I

Early winter-cress

greens

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

greens

Atriplex spp.

E

Saltbush

Barbarea vulgaris

Chenopodiaceae

I

Bitter winter-cress

greens

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

greens

Avena fatua

I

Wild oats

Barbareaspp.

Poaceae, Gramineae

IE

Winter cress

N

grains

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

N

greens

Avena sativa

N

flowers

I

Common oats

Poaceae, Gramineae

Beckmannia syzigachne

N

grains

American slough grass

Poaceae, Gramineae

Avena spp.

grains

I

Wild oats

Poaceae, Gramineae

Bellis perennis

N

grains

I

English daisy

Asteraceae, Compositae

Balsamorhiza deltoidea

N

greens

ER Deltoid balsamroot

flowers

Asteraceae, Compositae

N

roots

Berberis aquifolium

sprouts

Mahonia aquifolium

E

Tall Oregon-grape

Balsamorhiza sagittata

Oregon hollygrape

E

Arrow-leaved balsamroot

Berberidaceae

Spring sunflower

N

fruit

Asteraceae, Compositae

young leaves

N

greens

N

stems

Berberis nervosa

N

roots

Low Oregon-grape

seeds

E

Dull Oregon-grape

Berberidaceae

N

fruit

Berberis repens

Betula papyrifera

Creeping Oregon-grape

E

Common paper birch

Berberdaceae

Canoe birch

fruit

Betulaceae

N

leaves

Berberis thunbergii

sap

I

Japanese barberry

inner bark

Berberidaceae

N

fruit

Betula pumila

Bog birch

Berberis vulgaris

Betulaceae

I

Common barberry

N

shoots

Berberidaceae

fruit

Betula tortuosa

Birch

Betula alleghaniensis

Betulaceae

Alleghany birch

N

twigs

Berberidaceae

twigs

Betula spp.

sap

Birches

Betulaceae

Betula glandulosa

N

leaves, stems

E

Scrub birch

Bog glandular birch

Blechnum spicant

Betulaceae

E

Deer fern

N

bark inner

Polypodiaceae

N

leaves

shoots

tea

Borago officinalis

Betula lenta

I

Common borage

Black birch

Boraginaceae

Cherry birch

greens

Sweet birch

flowers

Betulaceae

N

leaves

Boschniakia hookeri

E

Poque

Betula lutea

Ground-cone

E

Yellow birch

Orobanchaceae

Betulaceae

rootstocks

N

leaves

sap

Boschniakia rossica

tea

E

Ground-cone

Orobanchaceae

rootstocks

Brasenia schreberi

Brassica spp.

Watershield

I

Mustards

Nymphaeaceae

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

N

greens

N

greens

Brassica hirta

Brodiaea coronaria

I

White mustard

R

Harvest brodiaea

Brassicaceae,Cruciferae

Liliaceae

N

seeds

corms

Brassica juncea

Brodiaea douglasii

I

Indian mustard

ER

Large flowered triteleia

Brown mustard

Liliaceae

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

corms

N

seed

N

greens

Brodiaea hyacinthina

ER

Cluster lily

Brassica kaber

White triteleia

Sinapsis arvensis

Fool's onion

I

Wild mustard

Liliaceae

Brassicaceae,Cruciferae

corms

N

greens

N

seeds

Bromus tectorum

I

Drooping brome grass

Brassica napus

Downy brome

I

Rape

Cheat grass

Brassicaceae,Cruciferae

Poaceae, Gramineae

N

seeds

N

grains

N

greens

Bryoria fremontii

Brassica nigra

E

Black tree lichen

IE

Black mustard

Lichens

Brassicaceae,Cruciferae

(T)

thallus

N

pods

N

greens

Butomus umbellatus

I

Flowering rush

Brassica oleracea

Butomaceae

I

Cabbage

N

leaves

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

N

greens

Cakile edentula

N

seeds

I

American searocket

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Brassica rapa

N

greens

I

Bird rape mustard

young pods

Field mustard

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

N

greens

N

seeds

Cakile maritima

Caltha palustris

European searocket

E

Yellow marsh-marigold

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Ranunculaceae

greens

N T

greens

young pods

Calvatia gigantea

Calandrinia caulescens

E

Giant puffball

Red maids

Fungi

I

Portulacaceae

mushroom

greens

seeds

Calypso bulbosa

ER

Calypso

Calla palustris

False ladyslipper

Wildca calla

Fairy slipper

Araceae

Orchidaceae

T

root, cooked

corms

Calluna vulgaris

Camassia leichtlinii

I

Common heather

ER

Great camas

Ericaceae

Leichtlin's camas

N

leaves

Blue camas

N

shoots

Liliaceae

N

greens, dried

N

(T)

bulbs

Calochortus apiculatus

Camassia quamash

ER Three-spot mariposa lily

E

Common camas

Liliaceae

Blue camas

bulbs

Liliaceae

N(T)

bulbs

Calochortus luteus

R

Yellow mariposa

Camassia scilloides

Liliaceae

ER

Eastern camas

N

bulbs

Wild hyacinth

Liliaceae

Calochortus lyallii

(T)

bulbs

R

Lyall's mariposa lily

Liliaceae

Camelina sativa

bulbs

I

False flax

Large seeded false flax

Calochortus macrocarpus

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

ER

Sagebush mariposa lily

N

seeds

Desert lily

Liliaceae

Campanula persicifolia

bulbs

I

Peach-leaved bellflower

flower buds

Campanulaceae

greens

roots

Campanula rapanculoides

Carduus nutans

I

Creeping bellflower

I

Musk thistle

Campanulaceae

Asteraceae, Compositae

greens

stems, cooked

roots

Carex aquatilis

Cannabis sativa

E

Aquatic sedge

I

Hemp

Cyperaceae

Marijuana

stems

Cannabinaceae

rootstocks

N (T)

seeds, parched

Carex rostrata

Cantarellus cibarius

E

Beaked sedge

E

ChantErelle

Cyperaceae

Fungi

stems

mushroom

leaf bases

Capsella bursa-pastoris

Carpinus caroliniana

IE

Shepherd's-purse

American hornbeam

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Blue beech

N

seeds

Betulaceae

N

greens

seeds

Cardamine bulbosa

Carpinus spp.

Spring cress

Blue Beech

Brassicaceae, Cruciferaen

Betulaceae

greens

N

seeds

Cardamine pensylvanica

Carum carvi

Pennsylvania bittercress

IE

Common caraway

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

greens

N

seeds

Cardamine pratensis

Carya cordiformis

Cuckoo bittercress

E

Bitternut hickory

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Swamp hickory

greens

Juglandaceae

nuts

Carduus acanthoides

I

Plumeless thistle

Carya glabra

Asteraceae, Compositae

Pignut hickory

stems, cooked

Juglandaceae

N

nuts

Carduus crispus

I

Curled thistle

Carya ovalis

Asteraceae, Compositae

False shagbark hickory

stems, cooked

Juglandaceae

nuts

Carya ovata

Celastrus scandens

E

Shagbark hickory

E

American bittersweet

Juglandaceae

Climbing bittersweet

N

nuts

Celastraceae

T

bark

Carya spp.

Hickories

Celtis occidentalis

Juglandaceae

Hackberry

N

nuts

Ulmaceae

N

fruit

Castanea dentata

E

American chestnut

Cenchrus longispinus

Fagaceae

Field sandbur

N

nuts

Poaceae, Gramineae

grains

Castilleja miniata

E

Indian paintbrush

Centaurea calcitrapa

Scrophulariaceae

I

Red star thistle

flower

Asteraceae, Compositae

nectar

stems

leaves

Ceanothus americanus

E

New Jersey tea

Cerastium semidecandrum

Rhamnaceae

I

Little chickweed

N

leaves

Caryophyllaceae

N

greens

greens

leaves, tea

Cetraria crispa

Ceanothus herbaceus

E

Cetraria

Rhamnaceae

Lichens

leaves

(T)

thallus

Ceanothus sanguineus

Cetraria cucullata

E

Buckbush

E

Cetraria

Red stemmed ceanothus

Lichens

Rhamnaceae

(T)

thallus

leaves, tea

Chamaedaphne calyculata

Ceanothus velutinus

E

Leather-leaf

Snowbrush

Ericaceae

Snowbush ceanothus

N

leaves dried

Rhamnaceae

flowers

N

greens

tea

leaves, tea

Chamaesaracha grandiflora

Chenopodium pumilio

Large white ground-cherry

I

Rough-leaved goosefoot

Solanaceae

Chenopodiaceae

Fruit

N

leaves

N

seed heads

Chenopodium album

Chenopodium berlandieri

Chenopodium spp.

Chenopodium bushianum

Goosefoot

Chenopodium macrocalycium

Pigweed

IE

Lambsquarters

Chenopodiaceae

Pigweed

N

greens

Goosefoot

seeds

Chenopodiaceae

N

greens

Chimaphila maculata

N

seeds

Prince's pine

Ericaceae

Chenopodium ambrosioides

leaves

I

Mexican tea

Chenopodiaceae

Chimaphila umbellata

N T

leaves

E

Prince's pine

Common western pipsissewa

Chenopodium bonus-henricus

Ericaceae

I

Good King Henry

N

greens

Chenopodiaceae

Leaves, tea

N

greens

Chorispora tenella

Chenopodium capitatum

I

Common blue mustard

Blitum capitatum

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

E

Strawberry blite goosefoot

greens

Strawberry spinach

Chenopodiaceae

Chrysanthemum balsamita

greens

I

Costmary

fruit

Asteraceae, Compositae

N

leaves

Chenopodium fremontii

flowers

Freemont's goosefoot

Chenopodiaceae

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum

N

leaves

Leucanthemum vulgare

N

greens, cooked

I

Ox-eye daisy

Asteraceae, Compositae

Chenopodium leptophyllum

N

leaves cooked

Narrow-leaved goosefoot

N

leaves

Chenopodiaceae

flowers

greens

N

seeds

Chrysosplenium alternifolium

Cirsium edule

Golden saxifrage

E

Edible thistle

Chrysosplene

Asteraceae, Compositae

Saxifragaceae

roots

greens

stalks

Chrysosplenium americanum

Cirsium flodmanii

Golden saxifrage

Flodman's thistle

Saxifragaceae

Asteraceae, Compositae

greens

roots

stalks

Cicer arietinum

I

Chickpea

Cirsium foliosum

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

Leafy thistle

N

legumes dried

Asteraceae, Compositae

roots

Cichorum intybus

stalks

I

Chicory

Blue sailors

Cirsium hookerianum

Asteraceae, Compositae

E

Hooker's thistle

N

leaves

White thistle

roots, beverage

Asteraceae, Compositae

roots

Cirsium arvense

stalks

I

Canada thistle

flowers

Asteraceae, Compositae

roots

Cirsium muticum

stalks

Swamp thistle

Asteraceae, Compositae

Cirsium brevistylum

N

Shoots

E

Short-styled thistle

Asteraceae, Compositae

Cirsium palustre

roots

Marsh thistle

stalks

I

Asteraceae, Compositae

roots

Cirsium discolor

stalks

Field thistle

Asteraceae, Compositae

Cirsium pitcheri

roots

Pitcher's thistle

stalks

Asteraceae, Compositae

roots

Cirsium drummondii

stalks

Drunmond's thistle

Asteraceae, Compositae

Cirsium pumilum

N

roots

Thistle

Asteraceae, Compositae

roots

stalks

Cirsium undulatum

Claytonia perfoliata

E

Wavy-leaved thistle

Montia perfoliata

Asteraceae,Compositae

E

Miner's lettuce

roots

Portulacaceae

stalks

N

greens

N

greens, cooked

Cirsium vulgare

I

Scottish thistle

Claytonia sibirica

I

Spear thistle

Montia sibirica

Bull thistle

Siberian spring-beauty

Asteraceae,Compositae

Portulacaceae

roots

greens

stalks

Claytonia virginica

Cirsium spp.

ER

Spring-beauty

E

Thistles

Portulacaceae

Asteraceae,Compositae

corms

roots

stalks

Cleome serrulata

E

Rocky mountain bee-plant

Cladina rangiferina

Spider flower

Cladonia rangiferina

Capparidaceae

E

"Caribou" moss

N

seeds

"Reindeer" moss

greens

Lichens

thallus

Clethra alnifolia

R

Sweet pepperbush

Cladophora rapestris

Clethraceae

Cladophora

greens, cooked

Algae

N

seaweed, dried

Clintonia borealis

Corn lily

Claytonia caroliniana

Bluebead lily

Claytonia lanceolata

Liliaceae

Claytonia tuberosa

N

greens

ER Spring-beauty

Portulaceae

Cnicus benedictus

corms

I

Blessed thistle

N

"tubers"

Asteraceae, Compositae

roots

Claytonia megarhiza

flower receptacles

Claytonia acutifolia

ER Alpine spring-beauty

Portulaceae

corms

Cochlearia officinalis

Convolvulus soldanella

Scurvygrass

Beach bindweed

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Convolvulaceae

N

greens

shoots pickled

Comandra umbellata

Coriandrum sativum

E

Bastard-toadflax

I

Coriander

Pale comandra

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

Santalaceae

N

greens

fruit

N

seeds

flower nectar

Cornus amomum

Commelina communis

Silky dogwood

I

Common dayflower

Kinnikinnik

Commelinaceae

Cornaceae

N

leaves

fruit

Commelina spp.

Cornus canadensis

I

Dayflower

E

Canada bunchberry

Commelinaceae

Crackerberry

N

greens

Dwarf dogwood

Cornaceae

Comptonia peregrina

N

fruit

E

Sweet-fern

Myricaceae

Cornus stolonifera

N

leaves, tea

Cornus occidentalis

Cornus sericea

Conioselinum pacificum

E

Red-osier dogwood

Conioselinum chinense

Red-stemmed dogwood

E

Hemlock-parsley

"Red willow"

"Wild carrot"

Cornaceae

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

N

twigs

(T)

roots

fruit

Convolvulus arvensis

Cornus suecica

I

Field bindweed

E

Dwarf bog bunchberry

Convolvulaceae

Swedish bunchberry

condiment

Cornaceae

fruit

Convolvulus sepium

Calystegia sepium

Corylus americana

I

Hedge bindweed

E

American hazelnut

Convolvulaceae

Betulaceae

T

stalks

N

nuts

roots

Corylus cornuta

Crataegus douglasii

E

Beaked hazelnut

E

Black hawthorn

wild filbert

Black thornberry

Betulaceae

Rosaceae

nuts

N

fruit

Corylus spp.

Crataegus flabellata

Hazelnuts

Hawthorn

Betulaceae

Rosaceae

N

Nuts

fruit

Coryphantha vivipara

Crataegus intricata

Mamillaria vivipara

Thicket hawthorn

ER Pincushion cactus

Rosaceae

Cactaceae

fruit

fruits

stems

Crataegus mollis

E

Red hawthorn

Costaria costata

Downy hawthorn

E

Kelp

Rosaceae

Algae

fruit

fronds

Crataegus monogyna

Crataegus brainerdii

IE

English hawthorn

Hawthorn

Common hawthorn

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

fruit

N

fruit, dried

Crataegus calpodendron

Crataegus pruinosa

Pear hawthorn

Frosted hawthorn

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

fruit

fruit

Crataegus coccinea

Crataegus punctata

Thicket hawthorn

E

Punctate hawthorn

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

fruit

fruit

Crataegus crus-galli

Crataegus rotundifolia

Cockspur thorn

Red hawthorn

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

fruit

fruit

Crataegus dilatata

Crataegus succulenta

Hawthorn

Long-spined hawthorn

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

fruit

fruit

Crataegus spp.

Daucus carota

E

Hawthorns

I

Wild carrot

Rosaceae

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

fruit

N(T)

roots

N(T)

seeds

Cryptotaenia canadensis

Honeywort

Daucus pusillus

Wild harvil

American wild carrot

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

greens

roots

roots

Dentaria diphylla

Cucurbita spp.

E

Pepperroot

E

Squashes

Two-leaved pepperroot

Pumpkins

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Melons

roots

Cucurbitaceae

fruits

Dentaria laciniata

N

flowers

Cut toothwort

N

leaves

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

seeds

greens

roots

Cymopteris acaulis

R

Plains cymopterus

Dentaria maxima

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

E

Large toothwort

roots

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

greens

Cynoglossum boreale

roots

Northern hound's tongue

Boraginaceae

Descurainia pinnata

greens

Western tansy mustard

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Cynoglossum officinale

N

seeds

I

Hound's tongue

Boraginaceae

Digitaria ischaemum

N

greens

I

Smooth crabgrass

Poaceae, Gramineae

Cyperus esculentus

grains

Chufa

Yellow nut grass

Digitaria sanguinalis

Cyperus

I

Hairy crabgrass

Cyperaceae

Poaceae, Gramineae

N

tuber

grains

Cytisus scoparius

I

Scotch broom

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

N T

seeds

Dioscorea villosa

Ecinochloa crusgalli

Wild yam

I

Common barnyard grass

Atlantic yam

Barnyard grass

Dioscoreaceae

Poaceae, Gramineae

roots

N

grains

Disporum hookeri

Elaeagnus angustifolia

E

Hooker's fairybells

I

Russian olive

Liliaceae

Elaeagnaceae

fruit

N

fruit

Disporum lanuginosum

Elaeagnus commutata

I

Fairybells

E

Silverberry

Liliaceae

Wolf willow

fruit

Elaeagnaceae

N

fruit

Disporum smithii

Smith's fairybells

Elaeagnus spp.

Liliaceae

Silverberry

fruit

Elaeagnaceae

N

fruit

Disporum trachycarpum

E

Rough fruited fairybells

Eleusine indica

Liliaceae

I

Goosegrass

fruit

Wire-grass

Poaceae, Gramineae

Dryas octopetala

N

grains

White mountain avens

Rosaceae

Elymus arenarius

leaves, tea

E

Sea lyme grass

Strand-wheat

Dryas spp.

Poaceae, Gramineae

Mountain avens

grains

Rosaceae

N

leaves

Elymus canadensis

E

Canada wild rye grass

Dryopteris expansa

Poaceae, Gramineae

Dryopteris austriaca

N

grains

Dryopteris assimilis

Dryopteris spinulosa

Elymus mollis

Dryopteris dilatata

Dune wild rye grass

Dryopteris carthusiana

Poaceae, Gramineae

E

Spiny wood fern

grains

Polypodiaceae

N

rootstock, steamed

Elymus piperi

Equisetum spp.

Elymus cinereus

E

Horsetails

Giant wild rye grass

Equisetaceae

Poaceae, Gramineae

N

shoots

grains

Erechtites hieracifolia

Empetrum nigrum

Fireweed (also see Epilobium)

E

Black crowberry

Asteraceae, Compositae

Curlewberry

greens

Empetraceae

N

fruit

Erigenia bulbosa

tea

Harbinger-of-spring

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

Epigaea repens

roots

Mayflower

Ericaceae

Eriogonum umbellatum

flowers

E

Umbrella-plant

Polygonaceae

Epilobium angustifolium

leaves, tea

E

Fireweed

willowherb

Eriophorum angustifolium

Onagraceae

E

Tall cottongrass

N

GreeNs

"Mousenut"

N

leaves

Cyperaceae

N

stems

stems

flowers

corms

roots

Erodium botrys

Epilobium latifolium

I

Broad leaf alfilaria

E

River beauty

Geraniaceae

Dwarf fireweed

N

greens

Broad-leaved willowherb

Onagraceae

Erodium cicutarium

N

leaves

I

Red stem alfilaria

stems

Geraniaceae

flower buds

N

greens

Equisetum arvense

Erodium moschatum

E

Common horsetail

I

White stem alfilaria

Field horsetail

Geraniaceae

Equisetaceae

N

greens

N

greens

tubers

Eruca sativa

I

Garden rocket

Equisetum telmateia

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

E

Giant horsetail

N

greens

Equisetaceae

shoots

Erythronium americanum

Foeniculum vulgare

R

Yellow adder's tongue

I

Common fennel

Liliaceae

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

(T)

bulbs, cooked

N

greens

Erythronium grandiflorum

Fragaria chiloensis

E

Yellow avalanche lily

E

Pacific coast strawberry

Glacier lily

Beach strawberry

Yellow dogtooth violet

Rosaceae

Liliaceae

fruit

N (T)

bulbs

Fragaria vesca

Erythronium revolutum

Fragaria bracteata

ER

Pink fawn lily

E

Woodland strawberry E

Pink Easter lily

Wild strawberry

Liliaceae

Rosaceae

(T)

bulbs, cooked

N

fruit

leaves, tea

Euphorbia lathyrus

I

Caper spurge

Fragaria virginiana

Euphorbiaceae

E

Blueleaf strawberry

(T)

caper substitute

Wild strawberry

Rosaceae

Eurotia lanata

N

leaves

E

Winterfat

fruit

Chenopodiaceae

leaves, tea

greens

Fagopyrum sagittatum

I

Buckwheat

Fragaria X ananassa

Polygonaceae

I

Strawberry

seeds

Rosaceae

N

fruit

Fagopyrum tartaricum

I

Tartary buckwheat

Fragaria spp.

Polygonaceae

Wild strawberry

N

seeds

Rosaceae

N

leaves

Fagus grandifolia

N

fruit

E

American beechnut

leaves, tea

Fagaceae

NT

nuts

Fraxinus americana

White ash

Floerkea proserpinacoides

Oleaceae

False mermaid

N

leaves

Limnanthaceae

N

seeds

greens

Fraxinus excelsior

Galinsoga ciliata

I

European ash

I

Galinsoga

Oleaceae

Quick weed

seeds pickled

Asteraceae, Compositae

leaves

N

greens

Fraxinus nigra

Galinsoga parviflora

Black ash

I

Small flowered galinsoga

Oleaceae

Asteraceae, Compositae

seeds pickled

N

greens

leaves

Galium aparine

Fraxinus pennsylvanica

Common bedstraw

E

Red ash

Common cleavers

Oleaceae

Rubiaceae

inner bark

N

greens

fruit, beverage

Fraxinus quadrangulata

Oleaceae

Galium triflorum

seeds pickled

Sweet-scented bedstraw

leaves

Rubiaceae

N

greens

Fritillaria camschatcensis

ER

Riceroot lily

Galium verum

Riceroot fritillary

I

Ladies' bedstraw

Mission bells

Rubiaceae

Indian rice

leaves, dried, beverage

Kamchatka lily

Liliaceae

Ganoderma applanatum

N

"root"

E

Shelf fungus

Fungi

Fritillaria lanceolata

fungus

ER

Chocolate lily

Liliaceae

Gaultheria hispidula

bulbs

E

Creeping snowberry

Ericaceae

Fritillaria pudica

N

leaves

ER

Yellowbell fritillary

N

shoots

Liliaceae

leaves, tea

N

bulbs

Gaultheria humifusa

Fucus spp.

E

Alpine wintergreen

Rockweed

Ericaceae

Algae

fruit

fronds

leaves, tea

Gaultheria ovatifolia

Geranium erianthum

E

Oregon wintergreen

E

Sticky geranium

Mountain teaberry

Geraniaceae

Ericaceae

leaves, tea

fruit

Geranium viscosissimum

Gaultheria procumbens

E

Sticky geranium

E

Wintergreen

leaves

Teaberry

Checkerberry

Geum rivale

Ericaceae

Water avens

N (T)

shoots

Rosaceae

(T)

fruit

roots

Gaultheria shallon

Geum triflorum

E

Salal

prairie smoke

Ericaceae

Old man's whiskers

N

fruit

Rosaceae

leaves

roots

Gaylussacia baccata

Geum urbanum

E

Black huckleberry

I

Herb bennet

Huckleberry

Rosaceae

Ericaceae

roots, leaves, beverage

N

fruit

Glaux maritima

Gaylussacia dumosa

E

Sea-milkwort

E

Dwarf huckleberry

Primulaceae

Ericaceae

roots

fruit

Glechoma hederacea

Genista tinctoria

I

Ground-ivy

I

Dyer's greenwood

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

N

leaves

buds, pickled

Gleditsia triacanthos

Geocaulon lividum

Honey locust

E

Northern comandra

Sweet locust

Santalaceae

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

(T)

fruit

(T)

pods

Geranium dissectum

Glyceria borealis

I

Cut-leaved cranesbill

Tall mannagrass

Geraniaceae

Northern mannagrass

roots

Poaceae, Gramineae

N

greens

Glyceria occidentalis

Hedysarum alpinum

Western manna grass

E

Sweet vetch

Poaceae, Gramineae

Alpine hedysarum

grains

Bear root

Alaska carrot

Glyceria striata

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

Fowl manna grass

NT

roots

Poaceae, Gramineae

grains

Hedysarum boreale

R

Northern hedysarum

Glycyrrhiza lepidota

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

E

Wild licorice

T

roots

Licorice

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

Helianthus annuus

NT

roots dry

E

Common sunflower

Asteraceae, Compositae

Gymnocladus dioica

N

sunflower heads

Kentucky coffee tree

N

seeds

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

(T)

fruit

Helianthus giganteus

Giant sunflower

Hamamelis virginiana

Asteraceae, Compositae

E

Witch-hazel

seeds

Hamamelidaceae

buds

N

leaves, dried

budstems

leaves, tea

Helianthus tuberosus

Hedeoma hispida

E

Jerusalem artichoke

Rough pennyroyal

Asteraceae, Compositae

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

N

tubers

(T)

condiment

Hemerocallis fulva

Hedeoma pulegioides

I

Day lily

Pennyroyal

Liliaceae

Pudding-grass

N

flowers

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

T

condiment

Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus

I

Day lily

Hedophyllum sessile

Liliaceae

E

"Bubbly" kelp

N

flowers

Algae

fronds

Hemerocallis spp.

I

Day lilies

Liliaceae

N

buds

Heracleum lanatum

Humulus lupulus

E

Cow-parsnip

I

European hops

“Indian celery”

Moraceae

"Indian rhubarb"

greens

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

condiment, beer

N T

greens

N T

shoots

Hydrocotyle americana

T (T)

stalks

Winter pennyroyal

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

Heracleum sphondylium

greens

I

Cow-parsnip

Common cowparsnip

Hydrocotyle umbellata

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

Water pennywort

T

young shoots

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

T

greens peeled

greens

Heuchera cylindrica

Hydrocotyle verticillata

E

Round-leaved alumroot

Water pennywort

Saxifragaceae

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

leaves, tea

greens

Hieracium spp.

Hydrophyllum appendiculatum

E

Hawkweeds

Waterleaf

Asteraceae, Compositae

Hydrophyllaceae

latex, gum

greens

Hippophae rhamnoides

Hydrophyllum canadense

I

Sea buckthorn

Waterleaf

Elaeagnaceae

Hydrophyllaceae

N

Fruit

roots

N

fruit pulp

Hydrophyllum capitatum

Hippuris tetraphylla

E

Ball-head waterleaf

Four-leaved marestail

Hydrophyllaceae

Hippuridaceae

roots

greens

stalks

Hippuris vulgaris

Hydrophyllum fendleri

E

Common mare's-tail

Fendler's waterleaf

Hippuridaceae

Hydrophyllaceae

greens

roots

Hordeum jubatum

I

Foxtail barley

Poaceae, Gramineae

N

grains

Hydrophyllum virginicum

Inula helenium

E

Virginia waterleaf

I

Elecampane

Indian salad

Asteraceae, Compositae

"John's-cabbage"

confection

Hydrophyllaceae

N

greens

Ipomoea pandurata

Wild sweet-potato vine

Hygrophorus sp.

Convolvulaceae

"Slippery-top"

root

Fungi

mushroom

Iris pseudacorus

I

Yellow iris

Hypochaeris radicata

Iridaceae

I

Common cat's ear

T

seeds

Asteraceae, Compositae

T

rhizomes

N

greens, dry

Iris setosa

Hyssopus officinalis

Northern iris

I

Hyssop

Beachhead iris

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

Iridaceae

condiment

T

rootstocks

Ilex glabra

Iris sibirica

I

Inkberry

I

Siberian iris

Gallberry

Iridaceae

Aquifoliaceae

T

rootstocks

leaves, tea

Isatis tinctoria

Ilex verticillata

I

Woad

Common waterberry

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Aquifoliaceae

N

leaves, dry

leaves, tea

Iva annua

Impatiens biflora

Marshelder

Spotted touch-me-not

Sumpweed

Bakaminaceae

Asteraceae, Compositae

N

leaves

seeds

Impatiens capensis

Juglans cinerea

Spotted touch-me-not

E

Butternut

Balsaminaceae

Juglandaceae

N

greens

N T

greens

N

nuts

Inonotus obliquus

E

Wood-rot fungus

Fungi

tea

Juglans nigra

Kochia scoparia

E

Black walnut

I

Summer cypress

Juglandaceae

Chenopodiaceae

N T

shoots

N

greens

N

nuts

N

seeds

Juncus balticus

Lactuca canadensis

Baltic rush

Tall yellow lettuce

Juncaceae

Wild lettuce

N

greens

Asteraceae, Compositae

N

greens

Juncus effusus

E

Common rush

Lactuca muralis

Soft rush

I

Wall lettuce

Juncaceae

Asteraceae, Compositae

N

shoots

greens

Juncus ensifolius

Lactuca saligna

E

Sword-leaved rush

I

Indian salad

Juncaceae

Asteraceae, Compositae

"bulbs"

greens

Juniperus communis

Lactuca scariola

E

Common juniper

I

Prickly lettuce

Cupressaceae

Asteraceae, Compositae

(T)

fruit

N

greens

(T)

tea

Laminaria groenlandica

Juniperus virginiana

E

Kelp

E

Juniper

Algae

Cupressaceae

fronds

N

shoots

Laminaria spp.

Juniperus spp.

E

Kelp

Junipers

Algae

Cupressaceae

fronds

N

leaves

(T)

tea

Lamium album

I

White dead-nettle

Kalmia polifolia

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

E

Swamp laurel

N

greens

Ericaceae

N

leaves

T

leaves, tea

Lamium amplexicaule

I

Henbit dead-nettle

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

(T)

greens, cooked

Lamium purpureum

Ledum groenlandicun

I

Purple dead-nettle

E

Common Labrador-tea

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

Hudson's Bay tea

(T)

greens, cooked

Ericaceae

NT

leaves, tea

Lapsana communis

I

Nipplewort

Ledum palustre

Asteraceae, Compositae

E

Northern Labrador-tea

greens

Hudson's Bay tea

Ericaceae

Larix occidentalis

N T

leaves, tea

E

Western larch

N

flowers

Pinaceae

gum

Lepidium campestre

inner bark

I

Field pepergrass

sap

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

greens

Lathyrus japonicus

Lathyrus maritimus

Lepidium densiflorum

E

Beach pea

Prairie peppergrass

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

(T)

seeds

greens

N T

fruit, greens

Lepidium latifolium

Lathyrus ochroleucus

I

Broad-leaved peppergrass

E

Creamy vetchling

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

greens

roots

(T)

greens

Lepidium ruderale

(T)

seeds

I

Roadside peppergrass

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Lathyrus palustris

greens

E

Marsh vetchling

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

Lepidium sativum

T

seeds

I

Garden cress

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Lathyrus tuberosus

N

seeds

I

Tuberous vetchling

N

greens

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

(T)

tubers

Lepidium virginicum

E

Tall peppergrass

Ledum glandulosum

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

E

Trapper's tea

greens

Ericaceae

condiment

T

leaves, tea

Lepidium spp.

Ligusticum scothicum

I

Peppergrass

Ligusticum hultenii

Brassicaceae, Cruiciferae

E

Beach lovage

N

greens

"wild celery"

Scotch lovage

Lessoniopsis littoralis

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

E

Kelp

(T)

greens

Algae

fronds

Lilium bulbiferum

I

Lily

Levisticum officinale

Liliaceae

I

Lovage

bulbs

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

greens

Lilium canadense

condiment

Lilium columbianum

ER

Tiger lily

Lewisia columbiana

Columbia lily

ER

Columbia bitterroot

Canada lily

Columbia lewisia

Liliaceae

Portulacaceae

bulbs

roots

Lilium philadelphicum

Lewisia pygmaea

ER

Wood lily

ER

Alpine lewisia

Liliaceae

Portulacaceae

bulbs

roots

Lilium tigrinum

Lewisia rediviva

I

Tiger lily

ER

Bitterroot

Liliaceae

Portulacaceae

bulbs

N

roots

Lindera benzoin

Liatris punctata

E

Spicebush

E

Blazing star

Spicewood

Asteraceae, Compositae

Lauraceae

roots

N

leaves

twigs, beverage

Ligusticum canbyi

E

Canby's lovage

Linum perenne

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

Wild flax

roots, condiment

Linaceae

N(T)

seeds

Linum usitatissimun

I

Common flax

Linaceae

N(T)

Seeds

Liriodendron tulipifera

Lomatium foeniculaceum

Tulip tree

R

Hairy-fruited parsley

Magnoliaceae

Fennel-leaved lomatium

roots

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

roots

Lithospermum angustifolium

Narrow-leaved puccoon

Lomatium geyeri

Boraginaceae

ER

Geyer's lomatium

roots

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

N

roots

Lithospermum incisum

E

Yellow gromwell

Lomatium macrocarpum

Boraginaceae

E

Desert parsley

roots

Biscuit-root

"Wild carrot"

Lithospermum ruderale

"Indian carrot"

E

Columbia gromwell

Large-fruited lomatium

Boraginaceae

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

roots, tea

N

roots

Lomatium ambiguum

Lomatium nudicaule

ER

Desert parsley

E

" Indian celery"

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

Bare-stem lomatium

roots

Indian consumption plant

leaves

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

seeds

N

greens

flowers

seeds, condiment

condiment

Lomatium triternatum

Lomatium canbyi

E

Narrow-leaved lomatium

"White camas"

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

roots

roots

flowers

seeds

Lomatium cous

leaves, condiment

E

Biscuitroot

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

Lomatium utriculatum

N

roots

E

Spring gold

N

roots dry

Fine-leaved lomatium

N

roots cooked

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

roots

Lomatium dissectum

shoots

E

Chocolate-tips

Fern-leaved lomatium

Lonicera canadensis

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

American fly honeysuckle

T

roots

Caprifoliaceae

T

young shoots

fruit

Lonicera ciliosa

Lycium halimifolium

Orange honeysuckle

I

Matrimony vine

Western trumpet honeysuckle

Solanaceae

Caprifoliaceae

greens cooked

flower nectar

fruit

Lonicera involucrata

Lycoperdon giganteum

E

Black twinberry

E

Giant puffball

Twinflower honeysuckle

Fungi

Caprifoliaceae

mushroom

T

fruit

Lycopodium lucidulum

Lonicera utahensis

E

Shining club-moss

E

Red twinberry

Lycopodiaceae

Utah honeysuckle

greens

Caprifoliaceae

fruit

Lycopodium selago

E

Club-moss

Lonicera villosa

Lycopodiaceae

Blue fly honeysuckle

greens

Caprifoliaceae

fruit

Lycopus asper

E

Rough water-horehound

Lunaria annua

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

I

Annual honesty

roots

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

N

seeds

Lycopus uniflorus

flowers

E

Northern water-horehound

Bridgeweed

Lupinus littoralis

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

E

Chinook licorice

roots

Beach lupine

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

Lygodesmia juncea

T

roots

Rushlike skeleton plant

Asteraceae, Compositae

Lupinus nootkatensis

latex, gum

E

Nootka lupine

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

Lysichiton americanus

NT

roots

E

Western skunk-cabbage

Swamp lantern

Lupinus perennis

Yellow arum

Wild lupine

Araceae

Wild pea

(T)

rhizomes, cooked

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

T

leaves

T

seeds

T

roots

Macrocystis integrifolia

Malva neglecta

Macrocystis pyrifera

I

Dwarf mallow

E

Giant kelp

Malvaceae

Kelp flag

N

leaves

Sea ivy

fruit

Devilsapron

Long bladder kelp

Malva parviflora

Algae

I

Small-flowered mallow

N

fronds, fresh

Malvaceae

N

fronds, dry

N

greens

young fruit

Madia glomerata

Clustered tarweed

Malva rotundifolia

Asteraceae, Compositae

Malva pusilla

seeds

I

Small mallow

Malvaceae

Madia sativa

N

greens

I

Chilean tarweed

Asteraceae, Compositae

Malva sylvestris

seeds

I

Common mallow

High mallow

Maianthemum canadense

Malvaceae

E

Wild lily-of-the-valley

N

greens

Canadian mayflower

Liliaceae

Malva verticillata

N

fruit

I

Whorled mallow

Malvaceae

Maianthemum dilatatum

greens

E

Wild lily-of-the-valley

young shoots

Two-leaved false Solomon's-seal

Liliaceae

Malva spp.

fruit

Mallows

Malvaceae

Malva spp.

N

greens

(see Pyrus spp.)

Marrubium vulgare

Malva alcea

I

Common horehound

I

Pink mallow

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

Malvaceae

Condiment

greens

young fruit

Matricaria matricarioides

E

Pineappleweed

Malva moschata

Wild chamomile

I

Musk mallow

Asteraceae, Compositae

Malvaceae

stems

N

leaves

flowers

Matteuccia struthiopteris

Melissa officinalis

ER

Ostrich fern

I

Lemon balm

Fiddlehead fern

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

Polypodiaceae

greens, condiment

N

fiddleheads

Mentha arvensis

Medeola virginiana

E

Field mint

R

Indian cucumberroot

Canada mint

Liliaceae

Common mint

roots

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

leaves, tea, condiment

Medicago hispida

I

Bur-clover

Mentha citrata

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

I

Bergamont mint

N

greens

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

leaves, condiment

Medicago lupulina

I

Black medic

Mentha gentilis

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

I

American apple mint

N

seeds

Labiatae, lamiaceae

leaves, condiment

Medicago polymorpha

I

Bur-clover

Mentha longifolia

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

I

Horse mint

N

greens

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

leaves, condiment

Medicago sativa

IE

Alfelfa

Mentha piperita

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

IE

Peppermint

N

greens

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

condiment

N

greens dry

leaves, tea, condiment

Melica bulbosa

Onion grass

Mentha rotundifolia

Poaceae, Gramineae

I

Apple mint

bulbs

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

N

leaves, condiment

Melica subulata

Alaskan onion grass

Mentha spicata

Poaceae, Gramineae

Spearmint

bulbs

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

N

leaves, condiment

Melilotus officinalis

I

Yellow sweet-clover

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

Mentha spp.

NT

seeds

Mint

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

N

leaves, condiment

Mentzelia albicaulis

Monardella odoratissima

White-stemmed blazing star

E

Coyote mint

Loasaceae

Labiatae, Laminaceae

N

seeds

leaves, tea

Menyanthes trifoliata

Monotropa uniflora

Buckbean

Indian-pipe

Gentianaceae

Pyrolaceae

N

roots

N

stalks

Menziesia ferruginea

Montia perfoliata

E

False azalea

(see Claytonia perfoliata)

(T)

Ericaceae

leaves and twigs, tea

Morchella crassipes

Morel

Microseris nutans

Fungi

Nodding microseris

N

mushroom

Asteraceae, Compositae

roots

Morchella esculenta

Common morel

Milium effusum

Fungi

Millet grass

N

mushroom

Poaceae, Gramineae

grains

Morchella hortensis

Morel

Mitchella repens

Fungi

E

Partridge-berry

N

mushroom

Squaw-vine

Rubiaceae

Morchella spp.

N

fruit

E

Morel

plant, tea

Fungi

mushroom

Mollugo verticillata

I

Common carpet weed

Morus alba

Aizoaceae

I

White mulberry

potherb

Moraceae

N

fruit

Monarda didyma

Oswego tea

Morus rubra

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

E

Red mulberry

leaves, condiment, tea

Moraceae

(T)

fruit

Monarda fistulosa

E

Wild bergamot

Morus spp.

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

Mulberry

N

seeds

Moraceae

leaves, condiment, tea

N

fruit

Myrica gale

Nigella damascena

Sweet gale

I

Love-in-a-mist

Myricaceae

Ranunculaceae

leaves

N(T)

seeds

fruit, condiment

Nuphar advena

Myrica pensylvanica

E

Yellow pond-lily

Bayberry

Common spatterdock

Myricaceae

Water lily

N

fruit

Cow lily

Nymphaeaceae

Nasturtium officinale

N

greens

Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum

rhizomes

IE

Common watercress

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Nuphar polysepalum

N

greens

Yellow pond-lily

Nymphaeaceae

Nelumbo lutea

seeds

E

Yellow lotus

rhizomes

Waternut

Duck acorn

Nuphar variegatum

Water chinquapin

E

Yellow pond-lily

Nymphaeaceae

Yellow water-lily

N

rhizomes

Bullhead-lily

N

seeds

Nymphaeaceae

N

greens

Nemopanthus mucronata

rhizomes

Mountain holly

Aquifoliaceae

Nymphaea odorata

fruit

E

Fragrant water-lily

Nymphaeaceae

Nepeta cataria

tubers

IE

Catnip

flowerbuds

Catmint

seeds

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

N

leaves

Nymphaea tuberosa

N

seeds

Tuberous water lily

leaves, tea

Magnolia water lily

Nymphaeaceae

Nephroma arcticum

N

greens

E

Arctic kidney lichen

tubers

Lichens

thallus

Nymphoides cordata

Floating-heart

Nereocystis luetkeana

Gentianaceae

E

Bull kelp

greens

Algae

fronds, stipes

Nyssa sylvatica

Opuntia fragilis

Sourgum

E

Fragile prickly-pear cactus

Pepperidge

Brittle prickly-pear cactus

Nyssaceae

Cactaceae

N

fruit

stems

fruit

Oemleria cerasiformis

Osmaronia cerasiformis

Opuntia polyacantha

E

Indian plum

E

Many-spined prickly-pear cactus

Bird cherry

Plains prickly-pear cactus

June plum

Cactaceae

Rosaceae

stems

(T)

fruit

fruit

Oenanthe sarmentosa

Origanum vulgare

E

Water-parsley

I

Wild marjoram

Wild celery

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

Pacific oenanthe

leaves, condiment

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

NT

tubers

Orobanche ludoviciana

T (T)

stems

Louisiana broom-rape

Orobanchaceae

Oenothera biennis

stems

Yellow evening primrose

Onagraceae

Oryzopsis asperifolia

shoots

White-grained mountain rice

roots

grass

Poaceae, Gramineae

Onoclea sensibilis

grains

E

Sensitive fern

Polypodiaceae

Oryzopsis hymenoides

shoots (fiddleheads)

E

Indian rice grass

Poaceae, Gramineae

Onoclea struthiopteris

N

grains

(see Matteuccia struthiopteris)

Osmaronia cerasiformis

Onopordum acanthium

(see Oemleria cerasiformis)

I

Scotch cotton-thistle

Asteraceae, Compositae

Osmorhiza chilensis

stalks

E

Sweet cicely

flower receptacles

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

seed oil

(T)

roots

condiment

Opuntia compressa

Prickly-pear cactus

Cactaceae

stems

N

fruit

Osmorhiza claytonii

Oxalis stricta

Sweet cicely

E

Wood-sorrel

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

E

Upright yellow oxalis

roots

Oxalidaceae

condiment

(T)

leaves

Osmorhiza depauperata

Oxalis spp.

E

Sweet cicely

E

Wood-sorrel

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

Oxalidaceae

T

roots

N (T)

leaves

condiment

Oxycoccus macrocarpus

Osmorhiza longistylis

Vaccinium macrocarpon

Smooth sweet cicely

Large-fruited cranberry

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

Ericaceae

(T)

roots

N

fruit

condiment

Oxycoccus microcarpus

Osmorhiza occidentalis

"Vaccinium oxycoccus”

E

Western sweet cicely

E Small-fruited bog cranberry

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

Ericaceae

(T)

roots

fruit

condiment

Oxycoccus ovalifolius

Osmunda cinnamomea

"Vaccinium oxycoccus”

E

Cinnamon fern

E

Oval-leaved bog cranberry

Osmundaceae

Ericaceae

shoots

fruit

Oxalis corniculata

Oxycoccus quadripetalus

IE

Wood-sorrel

"Vaccinium oxycoccus”

Yellow oxalis

E

Small cranberry

Oxalidaceae

Ericaceae

N (T)

greens

N

fruit

Oxalis dillenii

Oxyria digyna

Wood-sorrel

E

Mountain-sorrel

Oxalidaceae

Polygonaceae

(T)

leaves

N (T)

leaves

Oxalis montana

Oxytropis maydelliana

E

Wood-sorrel

E

Yellow oxytrope

Oxalidaceae

Locoweed

(T)

leaves

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

T

roots

Oxytropis nigrescans

Parmelia physodes

E Black oxytrope

E

Puffed shield lichen

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

Lichens

roots

T

thallus

Palmaria palmata

Parrya nudicaulis

Rhodymenia palmata

E

Parry's wallflower

E

Dulse

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Red alga

leaves

Algae

roots

N

fronds

condiment

N

fronds dry

Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Panax quinquefolius

E

Virginia creeper

R

American ginseng

Vitaceae

Araliaceae

T

stalk

roots for tea

T

sap

condiment

N

roots

Pastinaca sativa

I

Common parsnip

Panax trifolius

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

R

Dwarf ginseng

N (T)

roots

Araliaceae

roots, tea

Pedicularis canadensis

E

Wood betony

Panicum miliaceum

Scrophulariaceae

I

Broomcorn millet

greens

Common millet

roots

Indian millet

Poaceae, Gramineae

Pedicularis capitata

N

grains

R

Capitate lousewort

Scrophulariaceae

Papaver nudicaule

roots

Iceland poppy

shoots

Papaveraceae

leaves

Pedicularis hirsuta

(T)

seeds

Hairy lousewort

Scrophulariaceae

Papaver rhoeas

N

leaves

I

Common field poppy

Papaveraceae

Pedicularis lanata

N

seeds

ER

Woolly lousewort

Bumblebee plant

Papaver somniferum

Scrophulariaceae

I

Opium poppy

roots

Papaveraceae

shoots

NT

Seeds

NT

seed capsules

Pedicularis lanceolata

Petasites frigidus

E

Wood betony

E

Arctic coltsfoot

Scrophulariaceae

Sweet coltsfoot

greens

Asteraceae, Compositae

T

stalks

Pedicularis langsdorfii

N

leaves, young

ER

Langsdorf's lousewort

Scrophulariaceae

Petasites japonicus

roots

I

Japanese butterbur

Asteraceae, Compositae

Pedicularis sudetica

T

stalks

R

Sudeten lousewort

T

leaves, young

Scrophulariaceae

roots

shoots

Petasites palmatus

E

Palmate coltsfoot

Peltandra virginica

Common coltsfoot

Arrow-arum

Asteraceae, Compositae

Araceae

T

stalks

roots

T

leaves, young

Penstemon fruticosus

Petasites sagittatus

E

Shrubby penstemon

Arrow-leaved coltsfoot

Scrophulariaceae

Asteraceae, Compositae

leaves, condiment

T

leaves, young

T

stalks

Perideridia gairdneri

Petasites vitifolius

Carum gairdneri

Grape-leaved coltsfoot

E

Yampah

Asteraceae, Compositae

Wild caraway

T

stalks

Squaw-root

T

leaves, young

"Wnd carrot"

"Indian carrot"

Phalaris canariensis

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

I

Canary grass

N (T)

roots

Poaceae, Gramineae

N

grains

Petalostemon candidum

N

roots

Dalea Candida

E

Prairie-clover

Phaseolus vulgaris

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

Beans

roots

Navy beans

leaves, tea

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

N

seeds

Phragmites australis

Physalis virginiana

Phragmites communis

Virginia ground-cherry

E

Reed grass

Solanaceae

Common reed

(T)

fruit

Poaceae, Gramineae

rootstocks

Physalis spp.

N

shoots

Ground-cherry

sap

Husk-tomato

grains

Solanaceae

N (T)

fruit

Phyllospadix scouleri

E

Scouler's surf-grass

Picea abies

Sea-grass

I

Common spruce

Zosteraceae

Pinaceae

rhizomes

N

needles

leaves

Picea engelmannii

Phyllospadix torreyi

E

Engelmann spruce

E

Torrey's surf-grass

Pinaceae

Sea-grass

gum

Zosteraceae

needles

rhizomes

inner bark

leaves

Picea glauca

Physalis alkekengi

E

White spruce

I

Chinese lantern plant

Pinaceae

Solanaceae

gum

N

seeds

tea

(T)

fruit

sap

Physalis heterophylla

Picea mariana

E

Yellow ground-cherry

Black spruce

Solanaceae

Pinaceae

(T)

fruit

N

needles

gum

Physalis ixocarpa

tea

I

Tomatillo

Solanaceae

Picea rubens

N (T)

fruit

E

Red spruce

N

seeds

Pinaceae

N

needles

Physalis pubescens

tea

I

Small yellow ground-cherry

Solanaceae

(T)

fruit

Picea sitchensis

Pinus strobus

E

Sitka spruce

E

White pine

Pinaceae

Pinaceae

gum

N

needles

inner bark

Pinus spp.

Picris echioides

E

Pines

I

Bristly oxtongue

Pinaceae

Asteraceae, Compositae

gum

N

blossoms

N

seeds

young needles

Picris hieracioides

inner bark

I

Oxtongue

Asteraceae, Compositae

Plantago coronopus

greens, cooked

I

Buck's horn plantain

Plantaginaceae

Pilea pumila

leaves

Richweed

seeds

Urticaceae

greens, cooked

Plantago decipiens

I

Goosetongue

Pinguicula vulgaris

Plantaginaceae

Common butterwort

N

greens

Lentibulariaceae

N

greens, cooked

rennet source

Plantago lanceolata

Pinus albicaulis

I

Ribwort plantain

E

White-bark pine

Plantaginaceae

Pinaceae

N

seeds

inner bark

seeds

Plantago macrocarpa

E

Seaside plantain

Pinus contorta

Goosetongue

Lodgepole pine

Plantaginaceae

Pinaceae

leaves

inner bark

tea

Plantago major

seeds

Greater plantain

Broad-leaved plantain

Pinus ponderosa

Plantaginaceae

E

Ponderosa pine

N

greens

Pinaceae

N

seeds

N T

needles

N

leaves

inner bark

seeds

Plantago maritima

Polygonum aviculare

E

Seaside plantain

I

Common knotweed

Goosetongue

Polygonaceae

Plantaginaceae

N

greens

leaves

seeds

Polygonum bistorta

E

Mountain bistort

Plantago rugelii

Bistort

I

Rugel's plantain

Polygonaceae

Plantaginaceae

roots

N

greens

shoots

N

leaves

Platanus occidentalis

Plane tree

Polygonum bistortoides

Buttonwood

E

Smokeweed bistort

American sycamore

Polygonaceae

Platanaceae

roots

sap

beverage

Polygonum convolvulus

I

Wild buckwheat

Pleurotus ostreatus

Polygonaceae

Pleurotus sapidus

N

greens

E

Oyster mushroom

N

seeds

Fungi

mushroom

Polygonum cuspidatum

I

Japanese knotweed

Podophyllum peltatum

Polygonaceae

E

Mayapple

shoots

Mandrake

Berberidaceae

Polygonum douglasii

(T)

fruit, ripe

Douglas' knotweed

Polygonaceae

Polygala vulgaris

seeds

I

Common milkwort

Polygalaceae

Polygonum lapathifolium

leaves for tea

Pale smartweed

Polygonaceae

Polygonatum biflorum

N

seeds

E

Solomon's-seal

Liliaceae

Polygonum paronychia

roots

Beach knotweed

Polygonaceae

Polygonatum pubescens

greens

Solomon's-seal

Liliaceae

roots

Polygonum pensylvanicum

Polypodium glycyrrhaa

Pennsylvania smartweed

(see Polypodium vulgare)

Polygonaceae

N

greens

Polypodium vulgare

N

greens, cooked

Polypodium glycyrrhiza

E

Licorice fern

Polygonum persicaria

Polypody fern

I

Lady's thumb smartweed

Polypodiaceae

Polygonaceae

N

rhizomes

N

leaves

N

greens, cooked

Polyporus sulphureus

Laetiporus sulphureus

Polygonum phytolaccaefolium

E

Bracket fungi

Polygonum alaskanum

Fungi

Polygonum alpinum

fungus

IE

Alpine knotweed

"Wild rhubarb"

Polyporus spp.

Polygonceae

E

Bracket fungi

greens

Fungi

fungus

Polygonum punctatum

Dotted smartweed

Polystichum munitum

Polygonaceae

E

Sword fern

N

seeds

Polypodiaceae

rootstocks

Polygonum sachalinense

I

Giant knotweed

Pontederia cordata

Polygonaceae

Common pickerelweed

N

greens

Pontederiaceae

N

greens

Polygonum scandens

False climbing buckwheat

Populus alba

Polygonaceae

I

White poplar

N

greens

Salicaceae

inner bark

Polygonum viviparum

E

Alpine bistort

Populus balsamifera

Polygonaceae

Populus trichocarpa

N

leaves

E

Cottonwood

rhizomes

Balsam poplar

Salicaceae

Polygonum spp.

N

inner bark

E

Knotweeds

Polygonaceae

Populus deltoides

N

greens

E

Cottonwood

N

bulbs

Salicaceae

buds, fruit

Populus grandidentata

E

Large-toothed aspen

Porphyra spp.

Salicaceae

E

Seaweed

inner bark

Red laver, nori

Algae

Populus nigra

fronds

I

European black poplar

Salicaceae

Portulaca oleracea

cambium

E

Purslane

Fortulacaceae

Populis tremuloides

N

greens

E

Trembling aspen

N

seeds

Quaking aspen

Salicaceae

Potamogeton natans

N

bark

Floating-leaved pondweed

N

cambium dry

N

Zosteraceae

ashes, condiment

roots

bark, tea

Potamogeton pectinatus

Populus trichocarpa

Sago pondweed

(see Populus balsamifera)

Zosteraceae

tuberous roots

Poria obliqua

Potentilla anserina

Potentilla pacifica

Potentilla egedii

E

Silverweed

Porphyra abbottiae

Cinquefoil

E

Laver

Rosaceae

Algae

N

rhizomes

fronds

N

rhizomes, steamed

Porphyra perforata

Potentilla fruticosa

E

Laver

E

Shrubby cinquefoil

Black seaweed

Rosaceae

Algae

N

leaves, dried (for tea)

N

fronds, dried

fronds

Potentilla glandulosa

E

Sticky cinquefoil

Porphyra pseudolanceolata

Rosaceae

E

Laver seaweed

leaves for tea

Algae

fronds

Potentilla nivea

Snow cinquefoil

Porphyra torta

Rosaceae

E

Laver seaweed

N

leaves, dried

Algae

fronds

Potentilla pacifica

(see Potentilla anserina)

Primula veris

Prunus pensylvanica

I

Cowslip primrose

Prunus emarginata

Cowslip

E

Pin cherry

Primulaceae

Rosaceae

N

greens

N T

fruit

Proboscidea louisianica

Prunus persica

I

Common unicorn plant

I

Peach

Martyniaceae

Rosaceae

fruit, pickled

N T

fruit

Prunella vulgaris

Prunus serotina

IE

Self-heal

E

Rum cherry

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

American cherry

flowers, leaves, tea

Black cherry

Rosaceae

Prunus americana

N

fruit

E

Wild plum

American plum

Prunus spinosa

Rosaceae

I

Sloe plum

(T)

fruit

Rosaceae

(T)

fruit

Prunus avium

I

Sweet cherry

Prunus tomentosa

Rosaceae

I

Manchu cherry

N (T)

fruit

Rosaceae

fruit

Prunus demissa

(see Prunus virginiana)

Prunus virginiana

Prunus demissa

Prunus domestica

E

Choke cherry

I

Garden plum

Rosaceae

Dawson plum

N (T)

fruit

Rosaceae

bark, tea

N (T)

fruit

Prunus spp.

Prunus mahaleb

E

Wild cherries and plums

I

Mahaleb cherry

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

(T)

fruit

(T)

fruit

Pseudotsuga menziesii

Prunus nigra

Pseudotsuga taxifolia

E

Canada plum

E

Douglas-fir

Rosaceae

Pinaceae

T

fruit

N

needles

N

sugar

Prunus padus

seeds

I

European bird cherry

Rosaceae

(T)

fruit

Psoralea esculenta

Pycnanthemum virginianum

E

Prairie turnip

E

Mountain-mint

Indian breadroot

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

condiment

N

roots

Pyrola asarifolia

Psoralea physodes

E

Bog wintergreen

California tea

Ericaceae

Fabaceae, Leguminosae

leaves, tea

leaves for tea

Pyrola virens

Ptelea trifoliata

Wintergreen

Hop tree

Ericaceae

Wafer ash

leaves

Rutaceae

beverage, condiment

Pyrus arbutifolia

E

Red and black chokeberry

Pteridium aquilinum

Rosaceae

E

Bracken fern

(T)

fruit

Polypodiaceae

N (T)

rhizomes

Pyrus baccata

N T

rhizomes, dry

I

Siberian crabapple

greens

Rosaceae

(T)

fruit

Pterygophora spp. (?)

Eastern Arctic kelp

Pyrus communis

Algae

I

Pear

N

greens

Rosaceae

N (T)

fruit

Pycnanthemum incamum

Mountain-mint

Pyrus coronaria

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

E

Wild crabapple

condiment

Garland crabapple

Rosaceae

Pycnanthemum pilosum

(T)

fruit

Mountain-mint

Labiatae, lamiaceae

Pyrus fusca

condiment

Malus fusca

E

Pacific crabapple

Pycnanthemum tenuifolium

Wild crabapple

Mountain-mint

Rosaceae

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

N (T)

fruit

condiment

Pyrus malus

Pycnanthemum verticillatum

I

Cultivated apple

Mountain-mint

Rosaceae

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

fruit

condiment

Pyrus prunifolia

Quercus prinus

I

Plum-leaf crabapple

I

Chestnut oak

Rosaceae

Fagaceae

(T)

fruit

N T

acorns

Pyrus spp.

Quercus robur

Crabapples

I

English oak

Rosaceae

Fagaceae

N (T)

fruit

T

acorns

02/02/2009

Quercus alba

Quercus rubra

E

White oak

Red oak

Fagaceae

Fagaceae

N T

acorns

T

acorns

Quercus bicolor

Quercus velutina

E

Swamp white oak

Black oak

Fagaceae

Fagaceae

T

acorns

T

acorns

Quercus borealis

Quercus spp.

Red oak

Oaks

Fagaceae

Fagaceae

N T

acorns

N T

acorns

Quercus ellipsoidalis

Ranunculus bulbosus

Northern pin oak

I

Bulbous buttercup

Fagaceae

Ranunculaceae

acorns

N T

greens, cooked

N T

seed meal

Ranunculus ficaria

Quercus garryana

I

Pilewort

E

Garry oak

Ranunculaceae

Fagaceae

T

roots, cooked

N T

acorns

Ranunculus pallasi

Quercus macrocarpa

E

Pallas buttercup

E

Bur oak

Ranunculaceae

Mossy-cup oak

N T

greens, cooked

Fagaceae

acorns

Ranunculus repens

N T

seed meal

I

Creeping buttercup

Ranunculaceae

Quercus prinoides

N T

greens, cooked

Dwarf chestnut oak

Chinquapin oak

Fagaceae

T

acorns

Ranunculus reptans

Rhododendron albiflorum

Creeping spearwort

E

White rhododendron

Ranuncukceae

Ericaceae

N T

roots

T

leaves

Ranunculus sceleratus

Rhododendron lapponicum

I

Celery-leaved buttercup

Lapland rhododendron

Ranunculaceae

Ericaceae

N T

greens

T

leaves for tea

Ranunculus spp.

Rhus aromatica

Buttercups

Skunkbush

Ranunculaceae

Anacardiaceae

N T

greens, cooked

fruit

Raphanus raphanistrum

Rhus copallina

I

wild radish

Dwarf sumac

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Shining sumac

N

greens

Anacardiaceae

greens, cooked

N

fruit

Raphanus sativum

Rhus glabra

I

Garden radish

E

Smooth sumac

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Anacardiaceae

N

greens

N (T)

fruit

(T)

shoots

Reseda lutea

seeds

I

Yellow cut-leaved mignonette

Resedaceae

Rhus typhina

greens

E

Staghorn sumac

Lemonade tree

Rhamnus purshiana

Anacardiaceae

Cascara

N (T)

fruit

Rhamnaceae

(T)

fruit

Ribes americanum

E

Wild black currant

Rheum rhaponticum

Grossulariaceae

IE

Garden rhubarb

N

fruit

Polygonaceae

N T

stalks

Ribes aureum

E

Golden currant

Rhexia virginica

Grossulariaceae

E

Meadow-beauty

fruit

Melastomataceae

leaves, beverage

Ribes bracteosum

Ribes hudsonianum

E

Grayberry

E

Northern black currant

Sunberry

Hudson Bay currant

Blue currant

Grossulariaceae

Stink currant

N

fruit

Grossulariaceae

N

fruit

Ribes irriguum

E

Idaho black gooseberry

Ribes cereum

Grossulariaceae

E

Squaw currant

fruit

Grossulariaceae

fruit

Ribes lacustre

E

Swamp gooseberry

Ribes cynosbati

Swamp black currant

E

Prickly gooseberry

Grossulariaceae

American wild gooseberry

N

fruit

Grossulariaceae

fruit

Ribes laxiflonum

E

Trailing black currant

Ribes diacanthum

wild blue currant

I

Red currant

Grossulariaceae

Grossulariaceae

N

fruit

fruit

Ribes lobbii

Ribes divaricatum

E

Sticky gooseberry

E

Coastal black gooseberry

Gummy gooseberry

Wild black gooseberry

Grossulariaceae

Grossulariaceae

fruit

N

fruit

N

greens, fruit and leaves

Ribes montigenum

Alpine prickly gooseberry

Ribes glandulosum

Grossulariaceae

E

Skunk currant

fruit

Grossulariaceae

N

fruit

Ribes nigrum

I

European Mack currant

Ribes grossularia

Grossulariaceae

I

European gooseberry

fruit

Grossulariaceae

fruit

Ribes odoratum

E

Buffalo currant

Ribes howellii

Golden currant

Currant

Grossulariaceae

Grossulariaceae

fruit

fruit

Ribes oxyacanthoides

Rosa acicularis

E

Canada gooseberry

E

Prickly rose

Smooth gooseberry

Rosaceae

Grossulariaceae

N

fruit rind

N

fruit (green)

petals

N

fruit (purple)

Rosa arkansana

Ribes sanguineum

E

Arkansas rose

E

Red-flowering currant

Prairie wild rose

Grossulariaceae

Low prairie rose

fruit

Rosaceae

shoots, young

Ribes setosum

fruit rind

Bristly gooseberry

Grossuiariaceae

Rosa blanda

fruit

Smooth rose

Rosaceae

Ribes sylvestre

shoots, young

I

European currant

fruit rind

Grossulariaceae

fruit

Rosa canina

I

Dog rose

Ribes triste

Rosaceae

E

Wild red currant

N

flowers

Red swamp currant

N

fruit rind

Grossulariaceae

N

fruit

Rosa carolina

Carolina rose

Ribes viscosissimum

Rosaceae

E

Sticky currant

shoots, young

Grossulariaceae

fruit rind

fruit

Rosa centifolia

Ribes watsonianum

I

Cabbage rose

Watson's gooseberry

Rosaceae

Grossulariaceae

shoots, young

fruit

fruit rind

Rorippa amphibia

Rosa cinnamomea

I

Cress

I

Cinnamon rose

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Rosaceae

greens

shoots, young

fruit rind

Rorippa islandica

E

Marsh cress

Marsh yellow cress

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

greens

Rosa eglanteria

Rosa pisocarpa

I

Sweet briar

E

Swamp rose

Rosaceae

Clustered wild rose

shoots, young

Rosaceae

fruit rind

shoots, young

fruit rind

Rosa gymnocarpa

petals

E

Dwarf wild rose

Baldhip rose

Rosa rousseauiorum

Rosaceae

Wild rose

shoots, young

Rosaceae

fruit rind

shoots, young

leaves, twigs, tea

fruit rind

Rosa multiflora

Rosa rugosa

I

Japanese rose

I

Rambling rose

Bramble rose

Rugose rose

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

N

fruit rind

N

fruit

N

fruit pulp, dry

Rosa nitida

Wild rose

Rosa setigera

Rosaceae

Prairie rose

shoots, young

Rosaceae

fruit rind

shoots, young

fruit rind

Rosa nutkana

E

Nootka rose

Rosa spinosissima

Bristly Nootika rose

I

Burnet rose

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

N

fruit

shoots, young

leaves, twigs, tea

fruit rind

flower petals

Rosa virginiana

Rosa odorata

E

Virginia rose

I

Tea rose

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

shoots, young

shoots, young

fruit rind

fruit rind

flower buds

Rosa palustris

Rosa williamsii

Swamp rose

Wild rose

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

N

fruit rind

shoots, young

fruit rind

Rosa woodsii

Rubus enslenii

E

Wood's rose

Dewberry

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

shoots, young

fruit

fruit rind

petals

Rubus flagellaris

E

Northern dewberry

Rosa spp.

Rosaceae

Wild roses

fruit

Rosaceae

N

fruit

Rubus hispidus

Swamp blackberry

Rubus acaulis

Rosaceae

(see also Rubus arcticus)

fruit

E

Dwarf raspberry

Dewberry

Rubus idaeus

Stemless raspberry

E

Wild raspberry

Nagoonberry

American red raspberry

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

fruit

N

fruit

shoots

Rubus allegheniensis

leaves for tea

E

Blackberry

Allegheny blackberry

Rubus illecebrosus

Rosaceae

I

Strawberry-raspberry

N

fruit

Rosaceae

fruit

Rubus arcticus

Arctic raspberry

Rubus laciniatus

Dwarf raspberry

IE

Evergreen blackberry

Dwarf nagoonberry

Cutleaf blackberry

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

N

fruit

fruit

Rubus canadensis

Rubus lasiococcus

E

Canada blackberry

Dwarf bramble

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

fruit

fruit

Rubus chamaemorus

Rubus leucodermis

E

Cloudberry

E

Blackcap

Bakeapple

Black raspberry

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

N

fruit

N

fruit

shoots

Rubus nivalis

Rubus procerus

Snow dewberry

IE

Himalayan blackberry

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

fruit

fruit

Rubus occidentalis

Rubus pubescens

(see also Rubus leucodermis)

E

Dwarf raspberry

E

Black raspberry

Running raspberry

Thimbleberry

Plumboy

Rosaceae

Dwarf red blackberry

N

fruit

Rosaceae

N

greens

N

fruit

shoots

Rubus recurvicaulis

Rubus odoratus

Blackberry

E

Purple-flowering raspberry

Dewberry

Thimbleberry

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

fruit

fruit

Rubus saxatilis

Rubus paracaulis

I

Roeback berry

Dwarf raspberry

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

fruit

fruit

Rubus setosus

Rubus parviflorus

Blackberry

E

Thimbleberry

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

fruit

N

fruit

N

fruit dry

Rubus spectabilis

N

shoots

E

Salmonberry

Rosaceae

Rubus pedatus

N

fruit

E

Trailing wild raspberry

N

fruit, dry

Rosaceae

N

shoots

fruit

N

shoots, peeled

Rubus pensylvanicus

Rubus stellatus

E

Pensylvania blackberry

Alaska nagoonberry

Rosaceae

Rosaceae

fruit

fruit

Rubus phoenicolasius

Rubus strigosis

IE

Winterberry

Wild raspberry

Roseceae

Rosaceae

fruit

N

fruit

Rubus ursinus

Rumex alpinus

E

Trailing wild blackberry

I

Alpine dock

Pacific blackberry

Polygonaceae

Rosaceae

greens

N

fruit

leaves, tea

Rumex arcticus

E

Sourdock

Rubus ursinus

Arctic dock

I

Boysenbercy

Polygonaceae

Rosaceae

N

greens

N

fruit

Rumex crispus

Rubus ursinus

IE

Curly dock

I

Loganberry

Polygonaceae

Rosaceae

N

greens

N

fruit

Rumex longifolius

Rubus vermontanus

I

Long-leaved dock

Vermont blackberry

Polygonaoeae

Rosaceae

greens

fruit

Rumex obtusifolius

Rubus sp.

I

Broad-leaf dock

E

Blackberry

Polygonaceae

Rosaceae

N

greens

N

fruit

Rumex occidentalis

Rubus spp.

E

Western dock

E

Raspberries

"Indian rhubarb"

Rosaceae

Polygonaceae

N

fruit

greens

Rubus spp.

Rumex orbiculatus

E

Wild dewberries

Great water dock

Rosaceae

Polygonaceae

N

fruit

greens

Rumex acetosa

Rumex patientia

I

Common sorrel

I

Spinach dock

Polygonaceae

Polygonaceae

N

leaves

N

leaves

Rumex acetosella

Rumex pseudo alpinus

IE

Sheep sorrel

I

Field dock

Polygonaceae

Polygonaceae

N

greens

N

greens

Rumex spp.

Salix arctophila

Docks

Creeping willow

Polygonaceae

Salicaceae

N

greens cooked

N

leaves

N

greens

stalks

Salix barclayi

Barclay's willow

Ruta graveolens

Salicaceae

I

Common rue-herb of grace

N

greens

Rutaceae

greens

Salix exigua

Sandbar willow

Sagittaria cuneata

Salicaceae

E

Arum-leaved arrowhead

N

leaves

Alismataceae

tubers

Salix phylicifolia

Salix pulchra

Sagittaria latifolia

E

Diamond-leaved willow

E

Arrowhead

Tea-leaved willow

Wapato

Surah

Alismataceae

Salicaceae

N

tubers

N

flower buds

N

greens

N

leaf buds

N

leaves

Salicornia europaea

shoots

Green European glasswort

Chenopodiaceae

Salix reticulata

greens

Arctic net-veined willow

Arctic greens

Salicornia virginica

Okowyot

Salicornia pacifica

Salicaceae

E

American glasswort

N

greens

Beach asparagus

Cheopodiaceae

Salix richardsoni

greens

Richardson's willow

Salicaceae

Salix alaxensis

N

flower buds

E

River willow

N

leaf buds

Felty-leaved willow

N

leaves

Salicaceae

shoots

Salix spp.

buds

Willows

leaves

Salicaceae

N

leaves

Salix arctica

N

buds

Arctic willow

shoots, leaves, tea

Salicaceae

N

leaves

Salsola kali

Sanguisorba canadensis

I

Russian thistle

Canada burnet

Chenopodiaceae

Sitka burnet

N

seeds

Rosaceae

N

greens

greens

Salvia verticillata

Sanguisorba minor

I

Salvia

I

Salad burnet

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

Rosaceae

condiment

greens

Sambucus canadensis

Sassafras albidum

E

American elder

E

Sassafras

Common elder

Lauraceae

Sweet elder

T

bark for tea

Caprifoliaceae

T

roots for tea

N (T)

firuit

Satureja acinos

Sambucus cerulea

I

Basil-thyme

Sambucus glauca

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

E

Blue elderberry

leaves for tea

Caprifoliaceae

condiment

flowers

N (T)

fruit

Satureja douglasii

E

Yerba buena

Sambucus ebulus

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

I

Dwarf elder

leaves for tea

Caprifoliaceae

condiment

flowers

(T)

fruit

Satureja hortensis

I

Summer savory

Sambucus nigra

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

I

European elder

N

greens

Caprifoliaceae

condiment

N (T)

fruit

Satureja vulgaris

Sambucus racemosa

I

Wild basil savory

Sambucus pubens

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

E

Red elderberry

leaves for tea

Caprifoliaceae

condiment

N T

fruit

Saxifraga cernua

Sambucus spp.

Nodding saxifrage

Elder

Saxifragaceae

Caprifoliaceae

N

leaves

N T

fruit

Saxifraga oppositifolia

Scirpus microcarpus

Purple mountain saxifrage

E

Small-flowered bulrush

Saxifragaceae

Cyperaceae

N

greens

shoots

rootstocks

Scxifraga pensylvanica

pollen

Marsh saxifrage

fruit

Saxifragaceae

greens

Scirpus robustus

Alkali bulrush

Saxifraga punctata

Cyperaceae

Brook saxifrage

shoots

Salad greens

Saxifragaceae

Sedum acre

greens

I

Goldmoss stonecrop

Crassulaceae

Saxifraga spicata

(T)

leaves

Spiked saxifrage

Saxifragaceae

Sedum divergens

greens

E

Stonecrop

Spreading stonecrop

Scandix pecten-veneris

Crassulaceae

I

Shepherd's needle

(T)

leaves

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

greens

Sedum lanceolaium

Lance-leaved stonecrop

Scirpus lacustris

Crassulaceae

Scirpus acutus

(T)

leaves

Scirpus validus

E

Tule

Sedum oreganum

Roundstem tule

E

Stonecrop

Roundstem bulrush

Crassulaceae

Great viscid bulrush

(T)

leaves

American great bulrush

Cyperaceae

Sedum purpureum

N

shoots

I

Live-forever

rhizomes

Crassulaceae

N (T)

greens

Scirpus maritimus

N

greens, frozen

E

Prairie bulrush

Alkali bulrush

Sedum roseum

Cyperaceae

Rhodiola rosea

N

shoots

E

Roseroot E

rhizomes

Crassulaceae

N (T)

leaves

roots

Sedum rupestre

Silene acaulis

I

St. Vincent's rock stonecrop

Moss campion

Crassiilaceae

Caryophyallaceae

(T)

leaves

greens

roots

Sedum telephium

I

Orpine

Silene cucubalus

Crassulaceae

Silene vulgaris

(T)

leaves

I

Bladder campion

Caryophyllaceae

Setaria italica

(T)

greens

I

Foxtail millet

Gramineae, Poaceae

Silphium laciniatum

N

greens

I

Mexican campion

Asteraceae, Compositae

Setaria lutescens

chewing gum

I

Yellow foxtail

Gramineae, Poaceae

Silybum marianum

N

greens

I

Milk-thistle

Asteraceae, Compositae

Setaria viridis

greens

I

Green foxtail

Poaceae, Gramineae

Sisymbrium altissimum

N

greens

IE

Hedge mustard

Tall tumble mustard

Shepherdia argentea

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

E

Silver buffaloberry

greens

Thorny buffaloberry

Elaeagnaceae

Sisymbrium loeselii

fruit

I

Loesel's tumble mustard

Brassicaceae, Cruciferae

Shepherdia canadensis

greens

E

Soapberry

Russet buffaloberry

Sisymbrium officinale

Soopolallie

I

Common tumble mustard

Elaeagnaceae

Brassicaceae, Cruiferae

N

fruit

greens

Sicyos angulatus

Sium suave

Bur-cucumber

E

Water-parsnip

Cucurbitaceae

"Swamp parsnip"

(T)

greens

Apiaceae, Umbelliferae

(T)

shoots, young

(T)

roots

Smilacina racemosa

Sonchus arvensis

E

False Solomon's-seal

I

Rough perennial sow-thistle

False spikenard

Compositae, Asteraceae

Liliaceae

N

greens

N

fruit

(T)

greens

Sonchus asper

(T)

rhizomes, condiment

I

Prickly sow-thistle

Compositae, Asteraceae

Smilacina stellata

greens

E

Star-flowered false Solomon's-seal

Liliaceae

Sonchus oleraceus

fruit

I

Common sow-thistle

(T)

greens

Annual sow-thistle

Compositae, Asteraceae

Smilacina trifolia

N

greens

E

Three-leaved Solomon's-seal

Liliaceae

Sorbus americana

fruit

E

Mountain-ash

Rosaceae

herbacea

fruit

Greenbrier

Carrionflower

Sorbus aucuparia

Liliaceae

I

European mountain-ash

N

fruit, air dried

Rowan

shoots

Rosaceae

rootstocks

N (T)

fruit

rotundifolia

Sorbus decora

Horsbier

(see Sorbus scopulina)

Common greenbrier

Liliaceae

Sorbus sambucifolia

shoots

E

Moimtain-ash

rootstocks

Rosaceae

(T)

fruit

tamnoides

Greenbrier

Sorbus scopulina

Liliaceae

E

Western mountain-ash

N

shoots

Rosaceae

rootstocks

N (T)

fruit

Solanum triflorum

Sorbus sitchensis

Cut-leaved nightshade

E

Sitka motmtain-ash

Solanaceae

Rosaceae

(T)

fruit, ripe

(T)

fruit

Sparganium angustifolium

Stellaria humifusa

E

Broad-fruited bur-reed

Salt marsh starwort

Sparganiaceae

Caryophyllaceae

N

rootstocks

N

greens

stems

Stellaria media

Spergula arvensis

I

Chickweed

I

Common corn spurry

Common starwort

Caryophyllaceae

Caryophyllaceae

seeds for meal

N

leaves

N

seeds

Spiraea alba

E

Narrow-leaved meadowsweet

Sticta amplissima

Rosaceae

E

Tree lichen

leaves for tea

Lichens

(T)

thallus

Spiraea tomentosa

Spiraea

Streptopus amplexifolius

Rosaceae

E

Cucumberroot twisted-stalk

leaves for tea

Wild cucumber

Liverberry

Spiraea spp.

Watermelonberry

Spiraeas

Scootberry

Rosaceae

Liliaceae

leaves, tea

(T)

fruit

(T)

greens

Sporobolus cryptandrus

E

Sand dropseed

Streptopus roseus

Poaceae, Gramineae

Simple-stemmed twisted-stalk

N

grains

Liliaceae

(T)

fruit

Stachys cooleyae

E

Cooley's hedge-nettle

Streptopus streptopoides

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

Small twisted-stalk

shoots

Liliaceae

flower nectar

(T)

fruit

Stachys palustris

Suaeda maritima

Swamp hedge-nettle

Pursh's sea-blite

Lamiaceae, Labiatae

Chenopodiaceae

shoots

greens, cooked

Staphylea trifolia

Suaeda occidentalis

Bladder-nut

Western sea-blite

Staphyleaceae

Chenopodiaceae

seeds

greens, cooked

Symphoricarpos albus

Taraxacum hyparcticum

E

Waxberry

Wild dandlion

Snowberry

Asteraceae, Compositae

Caprifoliaceae

roots

T

fruit

rootcrowns

leaves

Symphytum officinale

Taraxacum lacerum

I

Common comfrey

Wild dandelion

Boraginaceae

Asteraceae, Compositae

N (T)

leaves

roots

rootcrowns

Symplocarpos foetidus

leaves

E

Eastern skunk-cabbage

Araceae

Taraxacum laevigatum

T

roots

I

Red-seeded dandelion

T

shoots

Asteraceae, Compositae

roots

Tanacetum vulgare

rootcrowns

I

Common tansy

leaves

Asteraceae, Compositae

T

leaves for condiment

Taraxacum latilobum

Wild dandelion

Taraxacum ambigens

Asteraceae, Compositae

Wild dandelion

roots

Asteraceae, Compositae

rootcrowns

roots

leaves

rootcrowns

leaves

Taraxacum laurentianum

Wild dandelion

Taraxacum ceratophorum

Asteraceae, Compositae

Homed dandelion

roots

Asteraceae, Compositae

rootcrowns

roots

leaves

rootcrowns

leaves

Taraxacum officinale

IE

Common dandelion

Taraxacum dumetorum

Asteraceae, Compositae

Wild dandelion

N

greens

Asteraceae, Compositae

N

buds

roots

N

flowers (for wine)

rootcrowns

N

greens, cooked

leaves

Taraxacum phymatocarpum

Thuja plicata

Wild dandelion

E

Western red-cedar

Asteraceae, Compositae