Traditional Plant Foods of canadian indigenous peoples, Nutrition, Botany and Use

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CHAPTER 6
Nutrient Values of Traditional Plant Foods

Tables of nutrient composition of foods are useful for (a) the calculation of nutrients in the diets of individuals or groups, (b) the planning of food resources for populations, (c) the planning of individual special dietary recommendations and (d) for teaching and research. Food composition tables are difficult and tedious to prepare, and are one of the weak links in field studies of dietary status, since computed dietary intakes can be no more reliable than the composition tables from which they are computed.

Problems common to the preparation of food composition tables relate to compilation of data from diverse sources, often when different methods of analysis are used and sample sizes are small (Southgate, 1974). Notwithstanding these problems, tables of nutrient composition of foods are essential tools in understanding the quality of human food intake. Some data, however limited they may be, are better than no data at all.

A compilation of published nutrient values for traditional plant foods of Indigenous Peoples of Canada is given in this chapter to provide further understanding of the nutritional properties of subsistence diets provided from the natural environment. A search of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted over several years. The list of plant foods in Chapter 5 was submitted by genus and species to computer searchers on three data bases: Agricola, Chemistry Abstracts and Biosis. References were compiled and data were systematically tabulated from them. Information on each species and part of the plant used was kept separately. Data tabulated included botanical name, common name, geographic origin, sampling site, number of samples, state of samples and the method of nutrient analyses. Published data were included from species taken in geographic areas outside Canada as long as the species were identified as also present in Canada. A resource was not used if there was no documentation of a reliable method of nutrient analysis. When needed, data were converted to a fresh weight basis using reported moisture values, and data were compiled to average values when more than one citation was located. A resource was not used if nutrients were given on a zero-moisture basis without moisture values. Of more than 1,000 plant foods searched, approximately 550 or 50% had no nutrient data available. The tables included in this chapter include only those species where some data were available, since it would have been pointless to list the species without any data at all. The literature searches are as complete as possible, and up to date within about five years.

It needs to be stated that a great deal of judgement goes into selecting which published data to use. First of all, it was essential to screen the peer-review nature of the journals cited, and to use only data where the methods of analysis were reported and which were reasonably current and reliable. Sources that gave unpublished data were usually not used, unless contact with the author ensured they had been peer-reviewed and/or were in press at the time. Exceptions to this were the USDA Agricultural Research Service tables, the National Canadian nutrient tables and FAO sponsored tables. All data are given using conventional styles of reporting significant figures.

The ranges and/or standard deviations of values for particular species were not compiled due to space limitations as well as to limited available data. Since the reference sources of the nutrient data are given for each plant species and part used, the reader can refer to the original research reports for further clarification, if needed.

In general, published research on nutrient composition of indigenous plant food resources is sparse, and research questions on nutrient composition are not always easily answered to the satisfaction of laboratory-based scientists. Difficulties include accurate field identification of wild plant foods by knowledgeable Indigenous People, and then confirmation of taxonomic identifications by a botanist. Collection of samples for analysis in remote regions requires careful handling and transportation. It is routinely difficult to get a substantial number of independent samples, but it is usually the case for plant samples to combine multiple numbers of plants or plant parts into a single sample of 500 grams, or more, for analysis. A sample of 500 grams or more is needed for a battery of analyses, and this quantity may require tedious field work with the cooperation of indigenous consultants. Another hazard is that once a sample is collected and prepared to be edible, it is all too tempting for the sample to be eaten, and thus, it never gets to the laboratory (Kuhnlein, 1986).

In the tables given in this chapter, only single species items are reported where possible, and no multi-ingredient reciped items are included. If samples were reported "cooked," data were used only if the cooking was simply done (roasting, baking, boiling in water) without added ingredients.

The tables are divided into two major sections for presentation of the data. The A Tables (1A to 7A) present data for energy, proximate composition and vitamins. The B Tables (1B to 7B) present data on mineral contents for the identical species of the A Tables. The tables are further divided by plant parts as noted:

number of pages

1 A/B. bark, cambium, sap, juice

2

2 A/B. flowers

4

3 A/B. roots

10

4 A/B. stems, leaves, shoots

58

5 A/B. seeds, nuts, grains, legumes

20

6 A/B. fruits

28

7 A/B. other parts

2

Within each table, listings are given in alphabetical order by genus and species with family name, common name, part used and reference citations.

As stated, the published data were used to report nutrients per 100 grams fresh weight (ie: non-dessicated) of the plant food. Occasionally, when plant foods were preserved by drying by indigenous groups, fresh and dried samples are reported. This style of reporting facilitates computation with dietary records.

When available, multiple data sources were taken into consideration for reporting a particular value. However when energy content and complete proximate composition (water, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrate) were given in a literature source, these were reported as an intact group in the A tables, because these values are usually intercomputed to provide carbohydrate-by-difference and energy. Vitamin A values reported in the literature were assumed to be as B-carotene and were converted as such to retinol equivalents (RE), usually from International Units of vitamin A. Mineral data, as reported in the B tables were the most universally available data; this is understandable because plant tissues are easily dried in the field without loss of these nutrients, and are therefore a less problematical subject of research.

For further information and understanding of nutrient contents of the species reported here, the reader is referred to three other sources of information:

(1) Duke and Atchley (1986) present a compilation of proximate composition of higher plants that has been published in twenty-two references, including several international tables of food composition. There is a particular emphasis on seeds in this resource, and it covers species known in all parts of the world.

(2) Medical Services Branch of Health and Welfare Canada (1985) have published a handbook which includes composition of several nutrients for many traditional foods of Canadian Indigenous People. The handbook relies primarily on American and Canadian National food nutrient tables, but also includes other published and unpublished values.

(3) The new USDA nutrient composition handbooks (8-2, 8-8, 8-9, 8-11, 8-12, 8-16) present the most comprehensive list of nutrients in plant foods commercially available in North American markets. The foods included in the USDA tables which are parallel to indigenous species reported in this book are shown in Table 6-1. The values presented in these tables have been added where appropriate.

Table 6-1. Commercial Species of Plant Foods Which are Similar to Traditional Species Reported in the USDA Handbook 8 Series, and the National Canadian Nutrient Table

FRUITS

Blackberries

Rubus spp.

Blueberries

Vaccinium spp.

Boysenberry

Rubus ursinus

Crabapples

Malus spp.

Cranberry

Vaccinium macrocarpon

Currants, black

Ribes spp.

Currants, red and white

Ribes spp.

Currants, zante (grape)

Vitis vinifera

Elderberries

Sambucus spp.

Gooseberries

Ribes spp.

Grapes

Vitis spp.

Ground cherries

Physalis spp.

Loganberry

Rubus ursinus

Mulberries

Morus spp.

Prickly pear cactus

Opuntia spp.

Raspberries

Rubus spp.

Strawberries

Fragaria spp.

VEGETABLES

Amaranths

Amaranthus spp.

Arrowhead or wapato

Sagittaria latifolia

Beans, navy

Phaseolus vulgaris

Burdock root

Arctium lappa

Butterbur (coltsfoot)

Petasites japonicus

Com (maize)

Zea mays

Dandelion greens

Taraxacum officinale

Docks

Rumex spp.

Fiddlehead ferns

(not given)

Jerusalem artichoke

Helianthus tuberosus

Kale

Brassica oleracea

Lambsquarters

Chenopodium album

Mustard greens

Brassica juncea

Mustard spinach

Brassica rapa

Pumpkin flowers

Cucurbita spp.

Pumpkin leaves

Cucurbita spp.

Purslane

Portulaca oleracea

Seaweed

Porphyra laciniata

Seaweed (kelp)

Laminaria spp.

Squash

Curcurbita maxima

Watercress

Nasturtium officinale

NUTS AND SEEDS

Acorns

Quercus spp.

Beechnuts

Fagus spp.

Black walnut

Juglans nigra

Butternut

Juglans cinerea

Chestnut

Castanea sativa

Hazelnuts

Corylus spp.

Hickory nuts

Carya spp.

Oat

Avena sativa

Pine nut

Pitms edulis

Simflower seed

Helianthus annuus

Wild-rice

Zizania aquatica


Table 1A. Nutritional constituents of plants: bark, cambium, sap, juice. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name

(References)

Part

Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water

g

Protein

g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate

g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash

g

Thiamine

mg

Riboflavin

mg

Niacin

mg

Vit.C

mg

Vit.A

RE

Acer saccharum

Aceraceae

sugar maple

(38,91)

sap

-

96

0.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Acer saccharum

Aceraceae

sugar maple

(19,38,73)

syrup

348

35

0.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Alnus crispa

Betulaceae

mountain alder

(1)

bark

270

50

4.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Betula glandulosa

Betulaceae

scrub birch

(11)

inner bark

-

43

3.1

-

14.0

-

-

-

-

-

11.0

-

Populus balsamifera

Salicaceae

balsam poplar

(1)

bark

230

49

1.9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Populus tremuloides

Salicaceae

trembling aspen

(177,180)

bark

-

41

1.3

-

-

31.7

1.6

-

-

-

-

-

Populus trichocarpa

Salicaceae

cottonwood

(323)

inner bark

27

92

0.2

0.5

6.3

1.5

0.8

-

-

-

-

-

Tsuga heterophylla

Pinaceae

western hemlock

(122)

cambium

103

70

2.3

0.6

25.9

-

1.1

-

-

-

-

-



Table 1B. Nutritional constituents of plants: bark, cambium, sap, juice. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name

(References)

Part

Used

Calcium

mg

Phosphorus

mg

Sodium

mg

Potassium

mg

Magnesium

mg

Copper

mg

Zinc

mg

Iron

mg

Manganese

mg

Molybdenum

mg

Chloride

mg

Acer saccharum

Aceraceae

sugar maple

(38,91)

sap

0.3

<0.1

-

0.1

0.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

Acer saccharum

Aceraceae

sugar maple

(19,38,73)

syrup

107

8.7

7.7

163

17.5

0.1

2.9

4.2

-

-

17.3

Alnus crispa

Betulaceae

mountain alder

(1)-

bark

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Betula glandulosa

Betulaceae

scrub birch

(11)

inner

bark

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Populus balsamifera

Salicaceae

balsam poplar

(1)

bark

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Populus tremuloides

Salicaceae

trembling aspen

(177,180)

bark

684

17

1.8

130

53.1

0.5

8.3

4.4

1.2

-

-

Populus trichocarpa

Salicaceae

cottonwood

(323)

inner

bark

10

39

-

-

8.0

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.1

-

-

Tsuga heterophylla

Pinaceae

western hemlock

(122)

cambium

202

-

-

-

11.6

-

1.6

2.5

-

-

-



Table 2A. Nutritional constituents of plants: flowers. (per l00g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name

(References)

Part

Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water

g

Protein

g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate

g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash

g

Thiamine

mg

Riboflavin

mg

Niacin

mg

vit.c

mg

Vit.A

RE

Barbarea species

Brassicaceae

winter cress

(124)

flowers

-

84

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

163

202

Cucurbita species Cucurbitaceae

pumpkin

(4)

flowers

15

95.2

1.0

0.1

3.3

0.6

0.5

0.04

0.08

0.7

28.0

195

Helianthus annuus

Asteraceae

common sunflower

(163)

flowers

-

-

11.4

1.7

-

-

10.8

-

-

-

-

-

Hemerocallis fulva

Liliaceae

day lily

(73)

flowers

42

-

2.0

0.4

-

-

-

0.2

0.2

0.8

83.0

300

Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus

Liliaceae

day lily

(33)

flowers

42

87

2.0

0.4

9.6

1.2

0.8

0.2

0.2

0.8

88.0

Picris echioides

Asteraceae

bristly oxtongue

(203)

blossoms

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1700

Rosa canina

Rosaceae

dog rose

(227)

flowers

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

350

Salix phylicifolia

Salicaceae

tea-leaved willow

(11)

flower-buds

-

65

7.7

-

5.6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Salix richardsonii

Salicaceae

Richardson's

willow

(11)

flower-buds

-

68

39

-

8.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Taraxacum

officinale

Asteraceae

dandelion

(162,227)

flowers

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

9.2

Trifolium pratense

Fabaceae

red clover (162)

flowers

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Typha
species

Typhaceae

cattail

(45)

pollen

-

-

-

-

44.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 2B. Nutritional constituents of plants: flowers. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name

(References)

Part

Used

Calcium

mg

Phosphorus

mg

Sodium

mg

Potassium

mg

Magnesium

mg

Copper

mg

Zinc

mg

Iron

mg

Manganese

mg

Molybdenum

mg

Chloride

mg

Barbarea species

Brassicaceae

winter cress

(124)

flowers

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cucurbita species

Cucurbitaceae

pumpkin

(4)

flowers

39

49

5

173

24

-

-

0.7

-

-

-

Helianthus annus

Asteraceae

common sunflower

(163)

flowers

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Hemerocallis fulva

Liliaceae

day lily

(73)

flowers

87

178

24

170

-

-

-

1.2

-

-

-

Hemeracallis lilioasphodelus

Liliaceae

day lily

(33)

flowers

87

175

24

170

-

-

-

1.2

-

-

-

Picris echioides

Asteraceae

bristly oxtongue

(203)

blossoms

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Rosa canina

Rosaceae

dog rose

(227)

flowers

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Salix phylicifolia

Salicaceae

tea-leaved willow

(11)

flower-buds

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Salix richardsonii

Salicaceae

Richardson's willow

(11)

flower-buds

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Taraxacum officinale

Asteraceae

dandelion

(162,227)

flower

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Trifolium pratense

Fabaceae

red clover

(162)

flowers

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Typha
species

Typhaceae

cattail

(45)

pollen

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 2A. Nutritional constituents of plants: flowers. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name

(References)

Part

Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water

g

Protein

g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate

g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash

g

Thiamine

mg

Riboflavin

mg

Niacin

mg

Vit.C

mg

Vit A

RE

Viola species

Violaceae

violet

(124)

flowers

-

86

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

150

-



Table 2D.Nutritional constituents of plants: flowers. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name

(References)

Part

Used

Calcium

mg

Phosphorus

mg

Sodium

mg

Potassium

mg

Magnesium

mg

Copper

mg

Zinc

mg

Iron

mg

Manganese

mg

Molybdenum

mg

Chloride

mg

Viola species

Violaceae

violet

(124)

flowers

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 3A. Nutritional constituents of plants: roots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name

(References)

Part

Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water

g

Protein

g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate

g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash

g

Thiamine

mg

Riboflavin

mg

Niacin

mg

Vit.C

mg

Vit.A

RE

Abronia latifolia

Nyctaginaceae

yellow sandverbena

(75)

nuts

-

90

1.1

-

-

-

1.8

-

-

-

-

-

Allium nuttallii

Liliaceae

Nuttall's onion

(73,75)

bulbs

-

64

2.8

0.2

-

-

1.0

0.25

0.08

0.5

15.0

-

Allium tricoccum

Liliacene

wild leek/ wild garlic

(73)

bulbs

-

-

22

0.3

-

-

-

0.11

0.06

0.5

17.0

-

Apios americana

Fabaceae

groundnut

(7,120,313)

tubers

-

81

3.1

0.7

14.9

-

1.0

-

0.03

-

-

-

Arctium lappa

Asteraceae

greater burdock

(4,235)

roots

72

80

1.5

0.2

33.4

1.9

0.9

0.01

0.03

0.3

3.0

0

Asclepias tuberosa

Asclepiadaceae

butterfly weed

(75)

roots

dry

-

9

6.3

-

11.7

-

9.5

-

-

-

-

-

Balsamorhiza

deltoidea

Asteraceae

deltoid

balsamroot

(75)

roots

dry

-

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Balsamorhiza

sagittata

Asteraceae

arrow-leaved

balsamroot

(75)

roots

dry

-

8

4.1

-

-

-

5.5

-

-

-

-

-

Calochortus luteus

Liliaceae

yellow mariposa

lily

(75)

bulbs

-

77

2.1

0.1

4.0

-

1.4

-

-

-

-

-

Camassia

leichtlinii

Liliaceae

great camas

(319)

bulbs

-

82

1.0

0.1

16.4

-

0.9

-

-

-

-

-



Table 3B. Nutritional constituents o£ plants: roots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name

(References)

Part

Used

Calcium

mg

Phosphorus

mg

Sodium mg

Potassium

mg

Magnesium

mg

Copper

mg

Zinc

mg

Iron

mg

Manganese

mg

Molybdenum

mg

Chloride

mg

Alironia latifolia

Nyctaginaceae

yellow sandverbena

(75)

nuts

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Allium nuttallii

Liliaceae

Nuttall's onion

(73,75)

bulbs

29

202

19

529

-

-

-

1.5

-

-

-

Allium tricoccum

Liliaceae

wild leek/

wild garlic

(73)

bulbs

52

50

5.0

347

-

-

-

1.1

-

-

-

Apios americana

Fabaceae

groundnut

(7,313)

tubers

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Arctium lappa

Asteraceae

greater burdock

(4,235)

roots

dry

41

51

5

308

38.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Asclepias tuberosa

Asclepiadaceae

butterfly weed

(75)

roots

dry

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Balsamorhiza deltoirlea

Asteraceae

deltoid

balsamroot

(75)

roots

dry

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Balsamorhiza

sagittata

Asteraceae

arrow-leaved

balsamroot

(75)

roots

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Calochortus luteus

Liliaceae

yellow mariposa

lily

(75)

bulbs

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Camassia

leichtlinii

Liliaceae

great camas

(319)

bulbs

19

49

-

-

8.6

0.1

0.4

0.6

0.3

-

-



Table 3A.Nutritional constituents of plants: roots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name

(References)

Part

Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water

g

Protein

g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate

g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash

g

Thiamine

mg

Riboflavin

mg

Niacin

mg

Vit.C

mg

Vit.A

RE

Camassia quamash

Liliaceae

common camas

(75,93,319)

bulbs

61

83

0.9

0.1

14.8

0.5

0.8

0.07

0.05

-

4.0

-

Cirsium drummondii

Asteraceae

Drummond's

thistle

(75)

roots

-

78

2.9

-

-

-

1.7

-

-

-

-

-

Claytonia lanceolata

Portulacaceae

spring-beauty

(75)

tubers

-

75

2.0

0.2

22.2

-

1.0

-

-

-

-

-

Cyperus esculentus

Cyperaceae

chufa/yellow

nut grass

(35,73,153,262)

tubers

-

90

1.5

7.5

-

0.9

0.2

0.48

0.06

-

-

-

Daucus carota

Apiaceae

wild carrot

(85,187)

roots

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

24.0

-

Dryopteris expansa

Polypodiaceae

spiny wood fern

(320, 323)

roots

steamed

74

81

0.7

0.5

16.5

6.5

1.0

0.06

0.04

0.6

-

0.3

Erythronium grandiflorum

Liliaceae

yellow avalanche

lily

(75)

bulbs

-

21

4.2

-

-

-

2.9

-

-

-

-

-

Fritillaria camschatcensis

Liliaceae

riceroot lily

(75,319,323)

bulbs

98

74

2.9

0.3

21.8

1.9

1.0

0.04

0.04

0.2

29.0

0

Fritillaria pudica

Liliaceae

yellowbell

fritillary

(75,122)

bulbs

64

79

2.3

0.4

13.1

-

1.7

-

-

-

-

-

Glycyrrhiza

lepidota

Fabaceae

wild licorice

(75)

roots

dry

-

6

14.4

1.1

71.9

47.6

8.0

-

-

-

-

-



Table 3B. Nutritional constituents of plants: roots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name

(References)

Part

Used

Calcium

mg

Phosphorus

mg

Sodium

mg

Potassium

mg

Magnesium

mg

Copper

mg

Zinc

mg

Iron

mg

Manganese

mg

Molybdenum

mg

Chloride

mg

Camassia quamash

Liliaceae

common camas

(75,93,319)

bulbs

17

45

-

-

8.6

0.1

0.5

1.6

0.3

-

-

Cirsium drummondii

Asteraceae

Drummond's

thistle

(75)

roots

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Claytonia lanceolata

Portulacaceae

spring-beauty

(75)

tubers

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cyperus esculentus

Cyperaceae

chufa/

yellow nut grass

(35,73,153,262)

tubers

31

108

-

-

-

-

-

2.4

-

-

-

Daucus carota

Apiaceae

wild carrot

(85,187)

roots

<0.1

-

-

-

-

<0.1

<0.1

0.1

-

0.1

-

Dryopteris expansa

Polypodiaceae

spiny wood fern

(320,323)

roots

steamed

34

38

-

-

68.0

0.3

0.3

4.2

0.3

-

-

Erythronium

grandiflorum

Liliaceae

yellow avalanche

lily

(75)

bulbs

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Fritillaria camschutcensis

Liliaceae

riceroot lily

(75,319,323)

bulbs

10

61

18

-

23

0.2

0.7

2.2

0.4

-

-

Fritillaria pudica

Liliaceae

yellowbell

fritillary

(75,122)

bulbs

38

-

-

-

17.7

-

0.4

16.5

-

-

-

Glycyrrhiza lepidota

Fabaceae

wild licorice

(75)

roots

dry

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 3A. Nutritional constituents of plants: roots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name

(References)

Part

Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water

g

Protein

g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate

g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash

g

Thiamine

mg

Riboflavin

mg

Niacin

mg

Vit.C

mg

Vit.A

RE

Hedysarum alpinum

Fabaceae

alpine hedysarum

(28)

roots

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

29.0

-

Helianthus

tuberosus

Asteraceae

Jerusalem

artichoke

(73,75,194,247, 278)

tubers

77

75

2.6

0.5

17.4

0.8

2.5

0.20

0.10

1.3

4.0

2

Lewisia rediviva

Portulacaceae

bitterroot

(122)

roots

dry

343

12

4.0

0.6

81.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lewisia rediviva

Portulacaceae

bitterroot

(93)

roots

frozen

94

76

0.9

0.2

22.1

1.3

1.2

0.10

0.03

-

17.0

-

Lewisia rediviva

Portulacaceae

bitterroot

(93,122)

roots

fresh

94

76

1.6

0.4

21.6

1.5

0.9

0.10

0.02

-

27.0

-

Lomatium cous

Apiaceae

biscuitroot

(93)

roots

boiled

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.03

0.20

-

4.0

-

Lomatium cous

Apiaceae

biscuitroot

(93)

roots

fresh

127

67

1

0.4

30.0

2.6

1.5

0.06

0.07

-

17.0

-

Lomatium cous

Apiaceae

biscuitroot

(93,122)

roots

dry

371

11

3.4

1.2

87.2

7.9

2.9

0.12

0.10

-

8.0

-

Lomatium geyeri

Apiaceae

Geyer's lomatium (122)

roots

101

74

2.7

0.6

21.8

-

1.5

-

-

-

-

-

Lomatium macrocarpum

Apiaceae

desert parsley

(122)

roots

190

51

2.2

1.0

43.5

-

2.0

-

-

-

-

-



Table 3B.Nutritional constituents of plants: roots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc rag

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Hedysarum alpinum

Fabaceae

alpine hedysarum

(28)

roots

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Helianthus tuberosus

Asteraceae

Jerusalem artichoke

(73,75,194,247, 278)

tubers

14

78

-

-

17.0

-

-

3.4

0.1

-

-

Lewisia rcdiviva

Portulacaceae

bitterroot

(122)

roots

dry

168

-

-

-

19.8

-

1.3

5.3

-

-

-

Lewisia rediviva

Portulacaceae

bitterroot

(93)

roots

frozen

22

-

20

85

3.1

0.1

0.7

1.6

-

-

-

Lewisia rediviva

Portulacaceae

bitterroot

(93,122)

roots

fresh

39

-

16

75

10.9

-

1.0

4.9

-

-

-

Lomatium cous

Apiaceae

biscuitroot

(93)

roots

boiled

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lomatium cous

Apiaceae

biscuitroot

(93)

roots

fresh

79

-

-

-

57.2

0.2

0.8

3.6

-

-

-

Lomatium cous

Apiaceae

biscuitroot

(93,122)

roots

dry

88

-

70

200

15.1

0.8

1.9

2.6

-

-

-

Lomatium geyeri

Apiaceae

Geyer's lomatium

(122)

roots

65

-

-

-

17.3

-

0.7

5.9

-

-

-

Lomatium

macrocarpum

Apiaceae

desert parsley

(122)

roots

80

-

-

-

13.0

-

0.8

10.6

-

-

-



Table 3A. Nutritional constituents of plants: roots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name

(References)

Part

Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water

g

Protein

g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate

g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash

g

Thiamine

mg

Riboflavin

mg

Niacin

mg

Vit.C

mg

Vit.A

RE

Lupinus nootkatensis

Fabaceae

Nootka lupine

(323)

roots

71

82

2.0

0.4

15.4

7.8

0.8

0.04

0.05

0.1

-

-

Menyanthes trifoliata

Gentianaceae

buckbean

(190)

roots

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nelumbo lutea

Nymphaeaceae

waternut/

duck acorn

(75)

tubers

-

18

8.9

-

-

-

3.8

-

-

-

-

-

Oenanthe sarmentosa

Apiaceae

wild celery/

water parsley

(75)

tubers

-

58

2.4

-

-

-

2.2

-

-

-

-

-

Panax quinquefolius

Araliaceae

American ginseng

(107)

roots

-

50

4.4

0.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pastinaca sativa

Apiaceae

common parsnip

(33,78)

roots

76

79

1.7

0.5

17.5

2.0

1.2

0.08

0.09

0.2

16.0

3

Perideridia gairdneri

Apiaceae

yampah

(93,122)

roots

dry

350

11

6.2

1.7

79.3

-

2.3

0.17

0.34

-

3.0

-

Phalaris canariensis

Poaceae

canary grass

(182)

roots

-

-

4.6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polygonum species Polygonaceae

knotweed

(243)

bulbs

-

-

1.7

0.2

1.8

0.6

0.3

-

-

-

-



Table 3B. Nutritional constituents of plants: roots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name

(References)

Part

Used

Calcium

mg

Phosphorus

mg

Sodium

mg

Potassium

mg

Magnesium

mg

Copper

mg

Zinc

mg

Iron

mg

Manganese

mg

Molybdenum

mg

Chloride

mg

Lupinus nootkatensis

Fabaceae

Nootka lupine

(323)

roots

31

33

123

-

78.0

0.2

0.2

10.4

0.5

-

-

Menyanthes trifoliata

Gentianaceae

buckbean

(190)

roots

7.1

-

53

197

4.2

-

-

-

-

-

58.4

Nelumbo lutea

Nymphaeaceae

waternut/

duck acorn

(75)

tubers

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Oenanthe sarmentosa

Apiaceae

wild celery/

water parsley

(75)

tubers

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Panax quinquefolius

Araliaceae

American ginseng

(107)

roots

125

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pastinaca sativa

Apiaceae

parsnip

(33,78)

roots

50

77

12

541

-

-

-

0.7

-

-

-

Perideridia gairdneri

Apiaceae

yampah

(93,122)

roots

dry

74

-

-

-

80.3

0.1

1.6

7.5

-

-

-

Phalaris canariensis

Poaceae

canary grass

(182)

roots

272

136

181

523

90.7

0.5

4.0

181

8.7

4.2

-

Polygonum species

Polygonaceae

knotweed

(243)

bulbs

11

44

3.8

71

33

-

-

2.3

0.4

-

-



Table 3A. Nutritional constituents of plants: roots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name

(References)

Part

Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water

g

Protein

g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate

g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash

g

Thiamine

mg

Riboflavin

mg

Niacin

mg

Vit.C

mg

Vit.A

RE

Polypodium glycyrrhiza

Polypodiacea

licorice fern

(323)

roots

138

70

0.9

4.6

24.0

8.2

0.9

-

-

-

-

-

Potamogeton natans

Zosleraceae

floating-leaved

pondweed

(190)

roots

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Potentilla pacifica

Rosaccae

silverweed

(317)

roots

-

77

1.6

0.3

19.5

-

1.4

-

-

-

-

-

Potentilla pacifica

Rosaceae

silverweed

roots

steamed

132

66

3.1

0.6

29.5

9.5

0.9

0.01

0.01

2.4

-

0.2

Psoralen esculenta

Fabaceae

Indian breadroot/

Prairie turnip

(34,75)

roots

-

34

6.0

0.8

66.6

3.6

1.6

-

-

-

-

-

Pteridium aquilinum

Polypodiaceae

bracken fern

(132)

roots

dry

-

14

9.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pteridium aquilinum

Polypodiaceae

bracken fern

(132)

roots

fresh

-

68

12.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Sagittaria latifolia

Alismataceae

wapato/arrowhead

(73,120,122)

tubers

103

68

4.7

0.2

20.0

0.8

1.5

1.60

0.25

1.4

5.0

0

Sparganium angustifolium

Spargamaceae

broad-fruited

bur-reed

(204)

roots

-

-

1.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 3B. Nutritional constituents of plants: roots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name

(References)

Part

Used

Calcium

mg

Phosphorus

mg

Sodium

mg

Potassium

mg

Magnesium

mg

Copper

mg

Zinc

mg

Iron

mg

Manganese

mg

Molybdenum

mg

Chloride

mg

Polypodium

glycyrrhiza

Polypodiaceae

licorice fern

(323)

roots

84

37

1.6

-

53

0.7

0.7

4.4

2.6

-

-

Potamogeton natans

Zosteraceae

floating leaved

pondweed

(190)

roots

15

-

53

330

3.4

-

-

-

-

-

243

Potentilla pacifica

Rosaceae

silverweed

(317)

roots

41

53

-

-

49.1

0.2

0.5

9.1

0.9

<0.1

-

Potentilla pacifica

Rosaceae

silverweed

(323)

roots

steamed

37

109

65

-

60.0

1.1

1.1

3.5

0.8

-

-

Psoralen esculenta

Fabaceae

Indian breadroot/

Prairie turnip

(34,75)

roots

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pteridium aquilinum

Polypodiaceae

bracken fern

(132)

roots

dry

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pteridium aquilinum

Polypodiaceae

bracken fern

(132)

roots

fresh

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Sagittaria latifolia

Alismataceae

wapato/arrowhead

(4,73,120,122)

tubers

12

165

22

922

51.0

-

0.7

6.6

-

-

-

Sparganium

angustifolium

Sparganiaceae

broad fruited

bur reed

(204)

roots

46

41

-

126

-

-

-

-

20.0

-

-



Table 3A. Nutritional constituents of plants: roots. (per l00g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name

(References)

Part

Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water

g

Protein

g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate

g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash

g

Thiamine

mg

Riboflavin

mg

Niacin

mg

Vit.C

mg

Vit.A

RE

Tragopogon

pratensis

Asteraceae

goat's beard

(120)

roots

-

80

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.05

-

-

-

Trifolium wormskioldii

Fabaceae

springbank

clover

(317)

roots

-

84

1.8

0.3

-

-

0.9

-

-

-

-

-

Trifolium wormskioldii

Fabaceae

springbank

clover

(323)

roots steamed

74

81

0.7

0.5

16.5

6.5

1.0

0.06

0.04

0.6

-

0.3

Typha angustifolia

Typhaceae

narrow-leaved

cattail

(212)

rhizomes

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Typha latifolia

Typhaceae

common cattail/

cattail

(84)

rhizomes dry

-

9

7.7

4.9

79.1

-

2.5

-

-

-

-

-



Table 3B. Nutritional constituents of plants: roots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Tragopogon pratensis

Asteraceae

goat's beard (120)

roots

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Trifolium wormskioldii

Fabaceae

springbank clover (317)

roots

38

26

-

-

38.6

0.2

0.2

4.6

0.4

<0.1

-

Trifolium wormskioldii

Fabaceae

springbank clover (323)

roots steamed

34

38

-

-

68.0

0.3

0.3

4.2

0.3

<0.1

-

Typha angustifolia

Typhaceae

narrow-leaved

cattail

(212)

rhizomes

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Typha latifolia

Typhaceae

cattail (84)

rhizomes dry

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C

mg

Vit.A RE

Abies balsamea

Pinaceae

Canada balsam/ balsam fir (29,50,68)

greens

-

-

8.8

11.8

21.7

-

-

-

-

243

-

Abies concolor

Pinaceae

white fir (133,242)

needles

-

49

4.1

-

-

-

2.0

-

-

-

-

-

Acer negundo

Aceraceae

Manitoba maple/ box elder (160)

sprouts

-

43

9.7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Acer pensylvanicum

Aceraceae

striped maple/

moosewood

(6)

leaves

-

90

1.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Acer rubrum

Aceraceae

red maple (22,160,173)

sprouts

266

53

2.6

-

-

15.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Acer rubrum

Aceraceae

red maple (6,44,58,71)

leaves

242

53

3.8

-

-

20.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Acer saccharum

Aceraceae

sugar maple (22,160)

sprouts

-

50

2.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Acer saccharum

Aceraceae

sugar maple (6,44)

leaves

-

59

9.4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Achillea millefolium

Asteraceae

subalpine yarrow/

yarrow

(23,104,131,232)

leaves

-

79

3.8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Alaria esculenta

Phaeophyta

kelp/murlins (120)

seaweed fresh

-

75

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Alliaria officinalis

Brassicaceae

garlic mustard/

jack-by-the-hedge

(258)

leaves dry

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

692



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese

mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Abies balsamea

Pinaceae

Canada balsam/ balsam fir (29,50,68)

greens

75

13

-

46

13.0

<0.1

0.5

1.2

8.6

-

1.5

Abies concolor

Pinaceae

white fir (133,242)

needles

197

70

-

577

65.8

-

-

0.1

0.1

-

-

Acer negundo

Aceraceae

box elder maple (160)

sprouts

-

182

-

1075

364

0.3

1.4

19.1

4.7

-

50.2

Acer pensylvanicum

Aceraceae

striped maple/

moosewood

(6)

leaves

158

26

-

175

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Acer rubrum

Aceraceae

red maple (22,160,173)

sprouts

502

37

-

187

176

0.2

1.1

8.4

20.7

-

116

Acer rubrum

Aceraceae

red maple (6,44,58,71)

leaves

554

107

-

380

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Acer saccharum

Aceraceae

sugar maple (22,160)

sprouts

507

60

-

196

226

0.5

2.1

7.9

40.4

-

11.5

Acer saccharum

Aceraceae

sugar maple (6,44)

leaves

548

84

-

409

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Achillea millefolium

Asteraceae

subalpine yarrow/

yarrow

(23,104,131,232)

leaves

225

76

59

645

53.0

0.2

0.7

13.1

4.0

-

-

Alaria esculenta

Phaeophyta

kelp/murlins (120)

seaweed fresh

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Alliaria officinalis

Brassicaceae

garlic mustard/

jack-by-the-hedge

(258)

leaves dry

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash

g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Allium schoenoprasum

Liliaceae

wild chives (73)

greens

27

-

2.7

0.6

-

-

-

0.10

0.06

0.5

32.0

-

Allium tricoccum

Liliaceae

wild leek/ wild garlic (97)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

16.7

-

Allium vineale

Liliaceae

onion grass/ field garlic/ crow garlic (74)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

130

-

Allium
species

Liliaceae

garlic/onion (226)

tops

37

89

1.5

0.8

6.0

1.3

1.2

-

-

0.2

27.0

-

Althaea rosea

Malvaceae

hollyhock (67)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

89.4

-

Amaranthus graecizans

Amaranthaceae

prostrate pigweed (308,314)

greens

43

84

3.7

0.5

-

-

3.5

-

-

1.0

127

-

Amaranthus hybridus

Amaranthaceae

green amaranth/ purple amaranth (149,154,237)

greens

-

86

4.2

-

-

1.1

1.8

0.02

0.13

1.3

62.7

572

Amaranthus palmeri

Amaranthaceae

pigweed/ careless weed (73,76)

leaves

39

-

3.7

0.8

-

-

-

0.05

0.24

1.2

72.5

385

Amaranthus retroflexus

Amaranthaceae

redroot pigweed

(42,77,131,151,

234,255)

greens

33

87

2.6

-

-

2.8

-

-

-

-

56.5

-



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Allium schoenoprasum

Liliaceae

wild chives (73)

greens

83

41

-

-

-

-

-

0.8

-

-

-

Allium tricoccum

Liliaceae

wild leek/ wild garlic (97)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Allium vineale

Liliaceae

onion grass/ field garlic/ crow garlic (74)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Allium
species Liliaceae

garlic/onion (226)

tops

92

10

-

-

-

-

-

6.0

-

-

-

Althaea rosea

Malvaceae

hollyhock (67)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Amaranthus graecizans

Amaranthaceae

prostrate pigweed (308,314)

greens

292

72

1.8

36

231

-

-

-

-

-

-

Amaranthus hybridus

Amaranthaceae

green amaranth/ purple amaranth (149,154,237)

greens

334

77

10

622

210

0.2

2.0

6.0

4.2

-

24.7

Amaranthus palmeri

Amaranthaceae

pigweed/ careless weed (73,76)

leaves

362

74

-

411

-

-

-

4.5

-

-

-

Amaranthus retroflexus

Amaranthaceae

redroot pigweed

(42,77,131,151,

234,255)

greens

215

58

24

641

150

0.2

0.6

6.8

1.2

-

-



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash

g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Amarnthus spinosus

Amaranthaceae

pigweed (33,308,314)

greens

56

80

6.0

0.9

-

-

4.7

0.01

0.03

1.6

63.2

665

Amaranthus species Amaranthaceae

amaranth (4,77,124)

leaves

36

87

3.5

0.5

6.5

1.3

2.6

0.08

0.16

1.4

43.3

292

Andromeda glaucophylla

Ericaceae

bog rosemary (22)

greens dry

-

-

3.8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Anethum graveolens

Apiaceae

common dill (276)

greens

-

83

3.4

-

-

-

3.3

-

-

-

11.2

-

Angelica archangelica

Apiaceae

angelica (139)

stems dry

-

-

7.6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Anthoxanthum odoratum

Poaceae

sweet vernal

grass

(310)

greens

-

-

46

-

-

3.9

2.2

-

-

-

-

376

Anthoxanthum odoratum

Poaceae

sweet vernal

grass

(23)

greens dry

-

-

10.4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Anthriscus cerefolium

Apiaceae

common chervil (324)

greens dry

237

7

23.2

3.9

49.1

11.3

16.6

-

-

-

-

-

Aralia nudicaulis

Araliaceae

wild sarsaparilla (63)

leaves

-

-

0.4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name
Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium

mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Amaranthus spinosus

Amaratithaceae

pigweed (33,308,314)

greens

377

90

27

71

461

-

-

2.2

-

-

-

Amaranthus species Amaranthaceae

amaranth (4,77,124)

leaves

267

67

20

611

55.0

0.2

0.9

3.9

-

-

-

Andromeda glaucophylla

Ericaceae

bog rosemary (22)

greens dry

330

50

-

330

90.0

26.0

2.2

13.8

53.1

<0.1

16.1

Anethum graveolens

Apiaceae

common dill (276)

greens

161

-

-

-

-

-

-

14.4

-

-

-

Angelica archangelica

Apiaceae

angelica (139)

stems dry

840

260

-

1320

210

-

-

-

-

-

-

Anthoxanthum odoratum

Poaceae

sweet vernal

grass

(310)

greens

140

90

-

-

60.0

0.3

-

13.0

1.7

-

-

Anthoxanthum odoratum

Poaceae

sweet vernal

grass

(23)

greens dry

630

252

240

1570

200

0.3

2.7

51.8

15.8

-

-

Anthriscus cerefolium

Apiaceae

common chervil (324)

greens dry

1346

450

83

4740

-

-

-

32.0

-

-

-

Aralia nudicaulis

Araliaceae

wild sarsaparilla (63)

leaves

182

22

-

79

46.0

0.1

2.7

3.9

28.8

-

-



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Aralia nudicaulis

Arahaceae

wild sarsaparilla (22)

greens

-

90

1.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Aralia racemose Araliaceae

spikenard (22)

greens

-

90

0.8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Arctium lappa

Asteraceae

greater burdock (73)

stalks

89

-

2.5

0.1

-

-

-

0.25

0.03

<0.1

2.0

-

Arctium minus

Asteraceae

lesser burdock (97)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

15.0

-

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Ericaceae

bearberry/

kinnikinnick

(68)

greens

-

49

1.7

3.1

-

4.2

1.0

-

-

-

-

2.1

Arenaria peploides

Caryophyilaceae

seabeach-sandwort (28)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

42.5

575

Artemisia gnaphalodes

Asteraceae

wormwood

(31)

greens dry

-

7

10.8

3.8

-

25.3

9.6

-

-

-

-

6.0

Artemisia vulgaris

Asteraceae

common mugwort (33,73)

leaves

35

87

5.2

0.8

4.5

2.2

-

0.15

0.16

3.0

72.0

-

Asclepias amplexicaulis

Asclepiadaceae

milkweed (22)

greens

-

-

2.7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Asclepias incarnata

Asclepiadaceae

swamp milkweed (22)

greens

-

-

2.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Aralia nudicaulis

Araliaceac

wild sarsaparilla (22)

greens

97

30

-

225

34.0

0.1

0.4

1.5

6.0

0

2.4

Aralia racemosa

Araliaceae

spikenard (22)

greens

85

29

-

361

36.0

0.1

0.4

1.8

1.3

0

3.9

Arctium lappa

Asteraceae

greater burdock (73)

stalks

50

58

30

180

-

-

-

1.2

-

-

-

Arctium minus

Asteraceae

lesser burdock (97)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Ericaceae

bearberry/

kinnikinnick

(68)

greens

221

39

-

-

-

-

-

12.7

0.6

-

-

Arenaria peploides

Caryophyllaceae

seabeach-sandwort (28)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Artemisia gnaphalodes

Asteraceae

wormwood (31)

greens dry

859

177

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Artemisia vulgaris

Asteraceae

common mugwort (33,73)

leaves

82

40

-

-

-

-

-

1.5

-

-

-

Asclepias amplexicaulis

Asclepiadaceae

milkweed (22)

greens

195

41

14

166

232

0.2

0.9

4.5

0.7

<0.1

148

Asclepias incarnata

Asclepiadaceae

swamp milkweed

(22)

greens

194

46

1.7

251

92.0

0.1

0.4

1.8

3.3

-

78.3



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water

g

Protein g

Fat g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash

g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Asclepians syriaca

Asclepiadaceae

common milkweed

(22,73,97,98,

120,151)

greens

-

80

2.0

0.5

54.4

-

-

-

0.04

-

391

1210

Asclepias tuberosa

Asclepiadaceae

butterfly weed (75)

greens dry

-

6

9.6

-

-

-

8.9

-

-

-

-

-

Asclepias verticillata

Asclepiadaceae

whorled milkweed (22)

greens

-

-

2.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Asparagus officinalis

Liliaceae

asparagus (73,124)

shoots

-

92

2.4

0.2

5.0

0.7

0.6

0.16

0.18

1.4

29.0

90

Aster conspicuus

Asteraceae

showy aster (90)

greens

-

90

2.3

-

-

1.5

1.3

-

-

-

-

-

Aster laevis

Asteraceae

smooth aster (9,94)

leaves

-

90

1.7

-

-

1.3

1.2

-

-

-

-

-

Aster macrophyllus

Asteraceae

large-leaved

aster

(22)

greens

-

90

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Aster sericeus

Asteraceae

silky aster (22)

greens

-

90

0.9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Aster simplex

Asteraceae

smallblue aster (22)

greens

-

90

0.6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Astragalus serotinus

Fabaceae

timber milkvetch (90)

leaves

90

2.0

2.2

0.8

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Asclepias Syriaca

Asclepiadaceae

common milkweed

(22,73,97,98,

120,151)

greens

437

146

21

619

194

0.4

0.8

6.3

1.8

<0.1

154

Asclepias tuberose

Asclepiadaceae

butterfly weed

(75)

greens dry

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Asclepias verticillata

Asclepiadaceae

whorled milkweed (22)

greens

204

28

1.1

240

108

0.1

0.8

2.2

1.4

<0.1

36.0

Asparagus officinalis

Liliaceae

asparagus (73,124)

shoots

22

56

1.0

267

-

-

-

0.8

-

-

-

Aster conspicuus

Asteraceae

showy aster (90)

greens

68

72

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Aster laevis

Asteraceae

smooth aster (9,94)

leaves

11

42

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Aster macrophyllus

Asteraceae

large-leaved

aster

(22)

greens

130

26

0.4

511

29.0

0.1

0.6

1.5

-

-

17.4

Aster sericeus

Asteraceae

silky aster (22)

greens

121

90

0.6

141

34.0

0.1

0.6

0.1

0.6

<0.1

9.8

Aster simplex

Asteraceae

smallblue aster

(22)

greens

54

17

0.2

92

46.0

0.1

0.4

0.5

0.3

-

23.7

Astragalus serotinus

Fabaceae

timber milkvetch (90)

leaves

72

27

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate

g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash

g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Athyrium filix-femina

Polypodiaceae

lady fern (296)

greens

34

91

3.2

0.2

4.9

-

0.6

-

0.25

2.0

8.9

134

Atriptex nuttallii

Chenopodiaceae

salt sage (94)

leaves

-

90

2.3

0.3

5.1

1.2

2.4

-

-

-

-

204

Atriplcx patula

Chenopodiaceae

common orache (120)

leaves

-

92

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.13

-

-

-

Balsamorhiza sagittata

Asteraceae

arrow-leaved balsamroot (110)

stems

-

-

0.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Balsamorhiza sagittata

Asteraceae

arrow-leaved

balsamroot

(90,122,127)

greens

-

-

1.6

0.3

-

1.9

1.5

-

-

-

13.8

-

Barbarea species Brassicaceae

winter-cress

(124)

greens

-

87

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

152

507

Bellis perennis

Asteraceae

English daisy (232)

greens

-

87

3.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Betula glandulosa

Betulaceae

dwarf birch/ scrub birch/ bog glandular birch (11)

leaves

-

58

8.1

-

8.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Betula lenta

Betulaceae

black birch/ cherry birch/ sweet birch (6)

leaves

-

90

1.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Athyrium filix-femina

Polypodiaceae

lady fern (296)

greens

2.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.8

-

-

-

Atriplex nuttallii

Chenopodiaceae

salt sage (94)

leaves

106

48

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Atriplex patula

Chenopodiaceae

common orache (120)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Balsamorhiza sagittata

Asteraceae

arrow-leaved

balsamroot

(110)

stems

241

47

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Balsamorhiza sagittata

Asteraceae

arrow-leaved

balsamroot

(90,122,127)

greens

173

43

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Barharea species Brassicaceae

winter-cress (124)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Bellis perennis

Asteraceae

English daisy (232)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Betula glandulosa

Betulaceae

dwarf birch/ scrub birch/ bog glandular birch (11)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Betula lenta

Betulaceae

black birch/ cherry birch/ sweet birch (6)

leaves

110

20

-

179

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat g

Carbohydrate g

Crude Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Betula papyrifera

Betulaceae

common paper

birch

(68,160)

twigs/ leaves

-

48

4.9

5.5

-

11.6

1.6

-

-

-

-

157

Betula pumila

Betulaceae

bog birch (22)

shoots

-

-

1.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Betula tortuosa

Betulaceae

birch (139)

twigs

-

-

4.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Betula
species Betulaceae

birch (11)

leaves/ stems

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

58.0

-

Brasenia schreberi

Nymphaeaceae

watershield (33,169)

greens

10

93

0.7

0.2

1.8

0.1

4.7

0.03

0.03

0.3

-

-

Brassica juncea

Brassicaceae

Indian mustard (4,308)

greens

26

91

2.7

0.2

4.9

1.1

1.4

0.08

0.11

0.8

70.0

530

Brassica kaber

Brassicaceae

wild mustard (42)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Brassica napus

Brassicaceae

rape (236,280)

greens

61

83

2.5

1.0

11.2

19

1.2

0.08

0.15

0.5

120

134

Brassica nigra

Brassicaceae

black mustard (78)

greens

31

90

3.0

0.5

5.6

1.1

1.4

0.11

0.22

0.8

97.0

-

Brassica oleracea

Brassicaceae

cabbage (202,219,237,251)

greens

45

90

1.6

0.8

-

1.2

1.1

0.04

0.03

0.4

77.4

5.8

Brassica oleracea

Brassicaceae

kale

(4)

leaves

50

85

3.3

0.7

10.0

1.5

1.5

0.11

0.13

1.0

120

890

Brassica rapa

Brassicaceae

bird rape mustard (4,43,73,113, 228,291)

greens

22

92

2.2

0.3

3.9

1.0

1.4

0.12

0.29

1.1

130

990



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Betula papyrifera

Betulaceae

common paper

birch

(68,160)

twigs/ leaves

434

118

-

-

-

-

-

7.3

10.5

-

-

Bctula pumila

Betulaceae

bog birch (22)

shoots

62

11

0.2

40

44.0

0.1

1.6

0.9

5.0

-

0.1

Betula
species Betulaceae

birch (11)

leaves/ stems

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Betula tortuosa

Betulaceae

birch (139)

twigs

230

80

-

160

5.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

Brasenia schreberi

Nymphaeaceae

watershield (33,169)

greens

15

21

18

16

2.2

0.5

4.5

11.0

18.5

-

-

Brassica juncea

Brassicaceae

Indian mustard (4,308)

greens

103

43

25

354

32.0

-

-

1.5

-

-

-

Brassica kaber

Brassicaceae

wild mustard (42)

greens

0.2

<0.1

-

0.2

0.1

1.0

6.2

40.7

4.1

-

-

Brassica napus

Brassicaceae

rape (236,280)

greens

133

46

-

27

-

-

-

4.6

-

-

-

Brassica nigra

Brassicaceae

black mustard (78)

greens

183

50

32

377

-

-

-

3.0

-

-

-

Brassica oleracea

Brassicaceae

cabbage (202,219,237,251)

greens

163

34

-

362

42.0

0.1

-

2.0

-

-

-

Brassica oleraceae

Brassicaceae

kale (4)

leaves

135

56

43

447

34.0

0.3

0.4

1.7

0.8

-

-

Brassica rapa

Brassicaceae

bird rape mustard

(4,43,73,113,228, 291)

greens

252

62

-

-

-

-

-

3.0

-

-

-



Table4A.Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Brassica
species Brassicaceae

mustard (73,120)

greens

23

85

2.2

0.4

-

-

-

0.80

0.26

0.6

48.0

570

Butomus umbellatus

Butomaceae

flowering rush (221)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cakile edentula

Brassicaceae

American searocket (120)

greens

-

94

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4.4

Calluna vulgaris

Ericaceae

common heather (265)

greens dry

-

-

-

-

-

-

4.7

-

-

-

-

-

Calluna vulgaris

Ericaceae

common heather (104,164,243)

shoots

-

90

0.7

0.7

2.0

1.9

0.3

-

-

-

-

-

Caltha palustris

Ranunculaceae

yellow marsh

marigold

(22,279)

greens

-

90

1.6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cap sella bursa-pastoris

Brassicaceae

shepherd's purse (30,33,73,74,109, 120)

greens

33

87

3.0

0.5

-

3.4

1.5

0.25

0.17

0.4

63.5

327

Ceanothus americanus

Rhamnaceae

New Jersey tea/

butersweet

(22,231,233)

leaves

-

-

1.7

1.0

-

2.6

0.7

-

-

-

-

-

Ceanothus velutinus

Rhamnaceae

snowbrush (68)

greens

-

51

3.0

1.7

-

3.5

0.7

-

-

-

-

30.0

Chamaedaphne calyculata

Ericaceae

leather-leaf (22)

leaves dry

-

-

6.8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Brassica
species Brassicaceae

mustard (73,120)

greens

138

32

18

220

-

-

-

1.8

-

-

-

Butomus umbellatus

Butomaceae

flowering rush (221)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cakile edentula

Brassicaceae

American scarocket (120)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Calluna vulgaris

Ericaceae

common heather (265)

greens dry

0.5

0.2

-

0.5

0.3

-

-

-

0.2

-

-

Calluna vulgaris

Ericaceae

common heather (104,164,243)

shoots

32

10

7.0

4.0

12.0

-

-

2.4

3.8

-

-

Caltha palustris

Ranunculaceae

yellow marsh

marigold

(22,279)

greens

96

37

0.8

587

49.0

<0.1

0.6

1.2

0.8

-

176

Capsella bursa-pastoris

Brassicaceae

shepherd's purse (30,33,73,74,109, 120)

greens

235

81

47

376

19.2

0.1

-

4.8

0.4

80.6

Ceanothus americanus

Rhamnaceae

New Jersey tea/

bittersweet

(22,231,233)

leaves

254

14

1.8

95

50.0

0.2

0.4

3.8

5.8

<0.1

40.4

Ceanothus velutinus

Rhamnaceae

snowbrush (68)

greens

195

43

-

-

-

-

-

2.8

2.7

-

-

Chamaedaphne calyculata

Ericaceae

leather-leaf (22)

leaves dry

410

100

2.0

460

170

0.5

3.2

12.3

64.1

<0.1

53.3



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Chenopodium album

Chenopodiaceae

lambsquarters (78,120)

greens cooked

32

89

3.2

0.7

5.0

1.8

2.2

-

0.75

0.9

37.0

970

Chenopodium album

Chenopodiaceae

lambsquarters

(4,30,42,78,88,

97,98,120,121,

124,232,234,235,

255,262,323)

greens

34

88

3.3

0.6

5.7

1.5

2.3

0.18

0.49

1.4

98.3

1277

Chenopodium ambrosioides

Chenopodiaceae

Mexican tea (73,236)

leaves

42

86

3.8

0.7

7.6

1.3

2.4

0.09

0.28

0.8

11.0

-

Chenopodium bonus-henricus

Chenopodiaceae

good King Henry (232)

greens

-

83

5.7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Chenopodium fremontii

Chenopodiaceae

Freemont's

goosefoot

(76)

greens cooked

32

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

37.0

970

Chenopodium fremontii

Chenopodiaceae

Freemont's

goosefoot

(75)

leaves

43

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

80.0

1160

Chenopodium pumilio

Chenopodiaceae

rough-leaved

goosefoot

(88)

leaves

-

84

3.3

-

-

-

2.9

-

-

-

-

-

Chenopodium

species Chenopodiaceae

goosefoot/

pigweed

(76,98)

greens

43

-

2.4

1.1

-

2.4

0.7

-

-

-

80.0

1160



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Chenopodium album

Chenopodiaceae

lambsquarters (78,120)

greens cooked

258

45

-

-

-

-

-

0.7

-

-

-

Chenopodium album

Chenopodiaceae

lambsquarters

(4,30,42,78,88,

97,98,120,121,

124,232,234,235,

255,262,323)

greens

309

76

-

874

177

0.2

0.7

1.2

1.1

-

-

Chenopodium ambrosioides

Chenopodiaceae

Mexican tea (73,236)

leaves

304

52

-

-

-

-

-

5.2

-

-

-

Chenopodium bonus-henricus

Chenopodiaceae

Good King Henry (232)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Chenopodium fremontii

Chenopodiaceae

Freemont's

goosefoot

(76)

greens cooked

258

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.7

-

-

-

Chenopodium fremontii

Chenopodiaceae

Freemont's

goosefoot

(75)

leaves

309

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.2

-

-

-

Chenopodium pumilio

Chenopodiaceae

rough-leaved

goosefoot (88)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Chenopodium

species Chenopodiaceae

goosefoot/

pigweed

(76,98)

greens

309

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.2

-

-

-



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Chimaphila umbellata

Pyrolaceae

prince's pine/ common western pipsissewa (22)

greens

-

-

0.7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Chrysanthemum balsamita

Asteraceae

costmary (97)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

79.5

-

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum

Asteraceae

Ox-eye daisy (97,120,162)

leaves

-

77

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.39

-

29.3

-

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum

Asteraceae

Ox-eye daisy (120)

leaves cooked

-

93

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.05

-

-

-

Cichorum intybus

Asteraceae

chicory (73,97,124,234)

leaves

24

93

1.8

0.3

3.8

0.8

1.3

0.05

0.10

0.5

28.6

400

Cirsium muticum

Asteraceae

swamp thistle (22)

shoots

-

-

0.9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cladophora rapestris

Unknown

cladophora (130)

kelp dry

-

-

30.5

0.5

-

16.6

29.3

0.19

0.59

2.6

-

-

Clintonia borealis

Liliaceae

corn lily (22,120)

greens

-

90

1.1

-

-

-

-

-

0.18

-

-

-

Cochlearia officinalis

Brassicaceae

scurvygrass (8,28,52)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

111

455



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Chimaphila umbellata

Pyrolaceae

prince's pine/ common western pipsissewa (22)

greens

100

15

-

93

37.0

0.1

0.6

1.0

3.0

-

2.4

Chrysanthemum balsamita

Asteraceae

costmary (97)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum

Asteraceae

Ox-eye daisy (97,120,162)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum

Asteraceae

Ox-eye daisy (120)

leaves cooked

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cichorum intybus

Asteraceae

chicory (73,97,124,234)

leaves

86

40

-

420

-

-

-

0.9

-

-

-

Cirsium muticum

Asteraceae

swamp thistle (22)

shoots

304

13

0.5

69

45.0

<0.1

0.3

0.8

0.4

-

44.3

Cladophora rapestris

Unknown

cladophora (130)

kelp dry

1520

270

2500

3280

730

3.1

9.2

440

126

0.2

6340

Clintonia borealis

Liliaceae

corn lily (22,120)

greens

19

31

1.1

554

28.0

0.1

0.4

4.3

3.2

-

37.0

Cochlearia officinalis

Brassicaceae

scurvygrass (8,28,52)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Commelina communis

Commelinaceae

common dayflower (179)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Commelina species Commelinaceae

dayflower (73)

greens

43

-

1.8

0.4

-

3.3

1.7

-

-

-

-

-

Comptonia peregrina

Myricaceae

sweet fern (63)

leaves

-

-

1.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Coriandrum sativum

Apiaceae

coriander (236)

greens

42

86

3.3

0.7

8.0

1.7

2.0

0.15

0.28

1.6

75.0

160

Cornus stolonifera

Cornaceae

red osier dogwood (160)

twigs

-

48

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cryptotaenia

species Apiaceae

honeywort/ wild chervil (73)

greens

18

-

2.0

0.1

-

-

-

0.15

0.20

0.5

60.0

48

Cucurbita species Cucurbitaceae

pumpkin

leaves raw

19

93

3.2

0.4

2.3

1.0

1.2

0.10

0.13

0.9

11.0

194

Cynoglossum officinale

Boraginaceae

hound's tongue (93)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

20.5

-

Dryas species Rosaceae

mountain avens (243)

leaves

-

-

1.4

0.4

1.7

1.6

0.5

-

-

-

-

-

Epilobium angustifolium

Onagraceae

fireweed/ willowherb (8,28,32,36,52, 109,263)

leaves

-

76

6.5

2.9

1.4

1.8

-

-

-

88.0

22



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Commelina communis

Commelinaceae

common dayflower (179)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Commelina species Commelinaceae

dayflower (73)

greens

210

52

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Comptonia peregrins

Myricaceae

sweet fern (63)

leaves

54

18

0.1

72

18

0.1

1.7

21

11.8

-

-

Corinndrum sativum

Apiaceae

coriander (236)

greens

188

72

-

-

-

-

3.0

-

-

-

-

Cornus stolonifera

Cornaceae

red-osier dogwood (160)

twigs

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cryptotaenia

species Apiaceae

honeywort/ wild chervil (73)

greens

81

45

7

490

-

-

-

1.8

-

-

-

Cucurbita species Cucurbitaceae

pumpkin (4)

leaves raw

39

104

11

436

38

-

-

2.2

-

-

-

Cynoglossum officinale

Boraginaceae

hound's tongue (93)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Dryas
species Rosaccae

mountain avens (243)

leaves

85

17

7.5

40

38.0

-

-

4.1

3.1

-

-

Epilobium angustifolium

Onagraceae

fireweed/

willowherb

(8,28,32,36,52)

leaves

175

132

50

404

70.0

0.2

0.9

2.7

<0.1

<0.1

-



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Epilobium angustifolium

Onagraceae

fireweed/ willow herb (323)

shoots peeled

17

92

0.2

0.3

4.0

0.9

0.5

-

-

-

-

4

Epilobium latifolium

Onagraceae

river beauty dwarf fireweed (28,49,118,120)

leaves

-

78

3.0

0.8

6.3

-

1.6

0.40

0.54

1.4

128

1700

Equisetum arvense

Equisetaceae

commmon horsetail (22,33,36,73)

greens

20

90

1.0

0.2

4.4

1.1

0.7

0

0.07

5.6

50.0

18

Erodium botrys

Geraniaceae

broad leaf

alfilaria

(25)

greens

-

90

2.1

-

-

1.8

-

-

-

-

-

-

Erodium cicutarium

Geraniaceae

red stem

alfilaria

(25,73)

greens

-

90

2.3

-

-

1.6

-

-

-

-

-

700

Erodium moschatum

Geraniaceae

white stem

alfilaria

(25)

greens

-

90

2.6

-

-

1.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

Eruca sativa

Brassicaceae

garden rocket (310)

greens

-

-

1.8

-

-

5.8

1.5

-

-

-

-

-

Foeniculum vulgare

Apiaceae

common fennel (73)

green

31

-

2.9

0.5

-

-

-

0.12

0.15

0.7

34.0

157

Fragaria virginiana

Rosaceae

blueleaf wild

strawberry

(120)

leaves

-

62

-

-

-

-

-

-

3.20

-

-

-

Fragaria species Rosaceae

wild strawberry (124)

leaves

-

67

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

229

-



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Epilobium angustifolium

Onagraceae

fireweed/

willowherb

(323)

shoots peeled

32

31

0.6

-

20.0

0.7

0.7

0.5

0.1

-

-

Epilobium latifolium

Onagraceae

river beauty/ dwarf fireweed (28,49,118,120)

leaves

13

89

-

-

-

-

-

2.1

-

-

-

Equisetum arvense

Equisetaceae

common horsetail (22,33,36,73)

greens

120

54

-

116

101

0.1

0.5

2.9

0.6

<0.1

56.8

Erodium botrys

Geraniaceae

broad leaf

alfilaria

(25)

greens

136

38

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Erodium cicutarium

Geraniaceae

red stem

alfilaria

(25,73)

greens

237

49

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Erodium moschatum

Geraniaceae

white stem

alfilaria

(25)

greens

216

43

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Eruca sativa

Brassicaceae

garden rocket (310)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Foeniculum vulgare

Apiaceae

common fennel

(73)

green

114

54

-

333

-

-

-

2.9

-

-

-

Fragaria Virginians

Rosaceae

blueleaf wild

strawberry

(120)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Fragaria species Rosaceae

wild strawberry (124)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Fraxinus americana

Oleaceae

white ash (6)

leaves

-

-

1.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Galinsoga parviflora

Asteraceae

small flowered

galinsoga

(73,236)

greens

42

86

3.2

0.5

8.3

1.3

1.9

0.11

0.27

2.1

30.0

112

Galium aparine

Rubiaceae

common bedstraw/

cleavers

(109)

greens

-

-

1.6

-

-

2.1

1.8

-

-

-

-

-

Galium triflorum

Rubiaceae

sweet-scented

bedstraw

(97)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

22.3

-

Galium verum

Rubiaceae

ladies' bedstraw (104)

greens

-

90

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Gaultheria hispidula

Ericaceae

creeping

snowberry

(22)

shoot

-

-

5.9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Gaultheria procumbens

Ericaceae

wintergreen/

teaberry

(22)

shoots

-

-

0.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Gaultheria procumbens

Ericaceae

wintergreen (120,230)

leaves

-

57

2.7

-

-

7.7

2.0

-

-

-

-

7

Glechoma hederacea

Lamiaceae

ground-ivy (124,232,258)

leaves

-

83

6.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

55.0

73

Glyceria borealis

Poaceae

tall manna grass (94)

greens

-

-

0.6

-

-

3.0

1.1

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: steins, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Fraxinus americana

Oleaceae

white ash (6)

leaves

174

24

203

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Galinsoga parviflora

Asteraceae

small flowered

galinsoga

(73,236)

greens

245

45

-

-

-

-

-

7.1

-

-

-

Galium aparine

Rubiaceae

common bedstraw/

cleavers

(109)

greens

145

65

39

517

13.0

0.1

-

3.2

0.7

-

97.0

Galium triflorum

Rubiaceae

sweet-scented

bedstraw

(97)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Galium verum

Rubiaceae

ladies' bedstraw (104)

greens

-

24

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Gaultheria hispidula

Ericaceae

creeping

snowberry

(22)

shoot

640

120

-

680

410

0.5

3.5

26.2

300

<0.1

44.2

Gaultheria procumbens

Ericaceae

wintergreen/ checker berry (22)

shoots

96

9.0

-

60

46.0

<0.1

0.3

1.3

7.0

-

3.8

Gaultheria procumbens

Ericaceae

wintergreen/

teaberry

(120,230)

leaves

549

33

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Glechoma hederacea

Lamiateae

ground-ivy (124,232,258)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Glyceria borealis

Poaceae

tall manna grass (94)

greens

40

16

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Hamamelis virginiana

Hamamelidaceae

witch-hazel (6,63)

leaves dry

-

-

9.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Hemerocallis

species Liliaceae

day lily (124)

buds

-

87

3.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

43.0

98

Heracleum lanatum

Apiaceae

cow-parsnip (75,120,122)

greens

-

91

1.6

-

-

-

1.5

-

0.11

-

-

-

Heracleum lanatum

Apiaceae

cow-parsnip (310,323)

stalks peeled

20

95

0.4

0.2

3.8

0.9

0.6

<0.01

0.12

0.3

3.5

7.5

Hydrophyllum virginicum

Hydrophyllaceae

Indian salad (93)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

24.5

-

Hypochaeris radicata

Asteraceae

common cat's ear (88)

greens dry

-

-

9.4

-

-

-

20.9

-

-

-

-

-

Impatiens biflora

Balsaminaceae

spotted touch-me-not (120)

leaves

-

83

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.60

-

-

-

Impatiens capensis

Balsammaceae

spotted touch me-

not

(223)

greens

-

-

2.2

0.7

-

0.8

1.2

-

-

-

-

-

Isatis linctoria

Brassicaceae

woad (260)

leaves

-

-

22.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Juglans cinerea

Juglandaceae

butternut (22)

greens

-

-

1.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4D.Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Hamamelis virginiana

Hamamelidaceae

witch hazel (6,63)

leaves dry

1607

190

50

1020

240

1.5

15.0

34.0

146

-

-

Hemerocallis

species Liliaceae

day lily (124)

buds

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Heracleum lanatum

Apiaeae

cow-parsnip (75,120,122)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Heraclcum lanatum

Apiaceae

cow-parsnip (310,323)

stalks peeled

28

19

0.5

-

11.7

0.4

04

0.3

0.1

-

-

Hydrophyllum virginicum

Hydrophyilaceae

Indian salad (93)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Hypochaeris radicata

Asteraceae

common cat's ear (88)

greens dry

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Impatiens biflora

Balsaminaceae

spotted touch-me-not (120)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Impatiena capensis

Balsaminaceae

spotted touch-me-not (223)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Isatis tinctoria

Brassicaceae

woad (260)

leaves

-

0.3

19

-

-

1.4

-

-

-

-

-

Juglans cinerea

Juglandaceae

butternut (22)

greens

11

4.4

0.2

8.2

7.2

0.1

0.6

-

-

-

-



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash

g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Juglans nigra

Juglandaceae

black walnut (22)

shoots

-

-

1.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Juncus balticus

Juncaceae

baltic rush (90)

greens

-

-

8.5

-

-

32.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

Juncus effusus

Juncaceae

common rush (192,193)

shoots

-

-

0.9

-

-

-

0.4

-

-

-

-

-

Juniperus virginiana

Cupressaceae

juniper (63,98)

shoots

-

90

0.9

1.5

7.3

3.0

0.3

-

-

-

-

-

Juniperus species Cupressaceae

juniper (14,29)

leaves

-

-

12.8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

167

-

Kochia scoparia

Chenopodiaceae

summer cypress (89)

greens

-

72

5.1

-

-

7.7

4.1

-

-

-

-

-

Lactuca canadensis

Asteraceae

wild lettuce (120,233)

greens

-

85

2.6

0.8

-

1.8

-

-

0.40

-

131

Lactuca scariola

Asteraceae

prickly lettuce (234,312)

greens

31

-

2.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

41.0

-

Laminaria species Algae

kelp (4)

leaves

43

82

1.7

0.6

9.6

1.3

6.6

0.05

0.15

0.5

-

12

Lamium album

Lamiaceae

white dead-nettle (30,124,232,258)

leaves

-

85

6.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

76.0

644

Lamium album

Lamiaeae

white dead-nettle (109,263)

greens

-

-

1.0

-

-

1.9

1.2

-

-

-

58.6

-

Ledum groenlandicum

Ericaceae

common Labrador-tea (11,22,157,323)

leaves dry

-

42

4.2

0.7

-

-

-

0.01

0.40

92.0

98.2

-



Table 4D Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Juglans nigra

Juglandaceae

black walnut (22)

shoots

9.5

5.4

0.2

15

10.1

0.1

0.5

2.9

0.8

-

-

Juncus balticus

Juncaceae

baltic rush (90)

greens

305

165

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Juncus effusus

Juncaceae

common rush (192,193)

shoots

41

20

46

123

11.9

-

-

1.2

-

-

-

Juniperus virginiana

Cupressaceae

juniper (63,98)

shoots

147

23

5

75

24.5

0.1

3.1

2.9

5.0

-

-

Juniperus species Cupressaceae

juniper (14,29)

leaves

500

260

-

1150

180

2.4

-

22.0

5.2

-

-

Kochia scoparia

Chenopodiaceae

summer cypress (89)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lactuca canadensis

Asteraceae

wild lettuce (120,233)

greens

337

67

-

747

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lactuca scariola

Asteraceae

prickly lettuce (234,312)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Laminaria species Algae

kelp (4)

leaves

168

42

233

89

121

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lamium album

Lamiaceae

white dead-nettle (30,124,232,258)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lamium album

Lamiaeae

white dead-nettle (109,263)

greens

76

34

23

411

23.0

0.1

-

3.4

0.3

-

56.0

Ledum groenlandicum

Ericaceae

common Labrador-tea (11,22,157,323)

leaves

215

93

3.7

-

73.0

2.4

2.4

184

45.4

0.2

31.0



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash

g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Ledum palustre

Ericaceae

northern Labrador

-tea

(11,210)

leaves dry

-

47

4.4

-

8.7

-

-

-

-

-

13.8

-

Lepidium sativum

Brassicaceae

garden cress (33,73,78)

greens

32

89

2.6

0.7

5.5

1.1

1.8

0.08

0.26

1.0

69.0

930

Lindera benzoin

Lauraceae

spicewood/

spicebush

(63)

leaves

-

90

1.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lomatium nudicaule

Apiaceae

Indian celery/ barestem lomatium (122)

shoots

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

40.7

-

Lomatium nudicaule

Apiaceae

Indian celery/ barestem lomatium (93)

greens

-

88

-

-

-

-

-

0.02

0.08

-

66.0

-

Macrocystis integrifolia

Phaeophyta

giant kelp (286,287,288)

fronds dry

-

-

10.7

-

-

-

39.4

-

-

-

-

-

Macrocystis integrifolia

Phaeophyta

giant kelp (286,287,288)

fronds fresh

-

87

1.4

-

-

-

5.0

-

-

-

-

-

Malva moschata

Malvaceae

musk mallow (232)

leaves

-

80

6.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Malva neglecta

Malvaceae

dwarf mallow (232)

leaves

-

77

8.6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Malva parviflora

Malvaceae

small-flowered

mallow

(18)

leaves

36

86

4.8

0.2

6.4

1.5

2.3

-

-

-

65.0

-



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Ledum palustre

Ericaceae

northern Labrador

-tea

(11,210)

leaves dry

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lepidium sativum

Brassicaceae

garden cress (33,78)

greens

81

76

14

606

-

-

-

1.3

-

-

-

Lindera benzoin

Lauraceae

spicewood/

spicebush

(63)

leaves

156

23

5.0

155

49.0

-

4.0

5.0

-

-

-

Lomatium nudicaule

Apiaceae

Indian celery/ barestem lomatium (122)

shoots

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lomatium nudicaule

Apiaceae

Indian celery/ barestem lomatium (93)

greens fresh

37

-

-

304

22.3

0.1

0.4

0.7

-

-

-

Macrocystis integrifolia

Phaeophyta

giant kelp (286,287,288)

fronds dry

650

340

4140

13100

540

-

0.3

9.3

-

-

13.7

Microcystis integrifolia

Phaeophyta

giant kelp (286,287,288)

fronds fresh

0.1

<0.1

0.5

1.7

0.1

<0.1

1.2

-

-

-

Malva moschata

Malvaceae

musk mallow (232)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Malva neglecta

Malvaceae

dwarf mallow (232)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Malva parviflora

Malvaceae

small-flowered

mallow

(18)

leaves

324

67



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water

g

Protein g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate g

Crude Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Malva rotundifolia

Malvaceae

small mallow (93)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

82.5

-

Malva sylvestris

Malvaceae

high mallow/ common mallow (33,73,232)

greens

23

79

4.6

1.4

-

-

-

0.17

0.29

0.5

24.0

331

Malva species Malvaceae

mallow (73)

greens

37

-

4.4

0.6

-

-

-

0.13

0.20

1.0

35.0

219

Medicago hispida

Fabaceae

bur-clover (25)

greens

-

90

2.4

-

-

1.8

-

-

-

-

-

-

Medicago polymorpha

Fabaceae

bur-clover (33)

greens

38

87

4.8

0.3

6.7

0.9

1.6

0.18

0.28

0.7

98.0

-

Medicago sativa

Fabaceae

alfalfa (73)

greens

52

83

6.0

0.4

9.5

3.1

2.3

0.15

0.18

0.5

152

341

Mentha piperita

Lamiaceae

peppermint (290)

greens dry

-

-

7.9

2.3

-

30.2

4.6

-

-

-

-

-

Mentha rotundifolia

Lamiaceae

apple mint (95)

greens

-

80

2.8

-

-

-

1.9

-

-

-

-

-

Mentha spicata

Lamiaceae

spearmint (116,124)

leaves

-

82

4.8

0.6

10.0

2.0

1.6

0.05

0.08

0.4

68.0

858

Mentha species Lamiaceae

mint (73,120,213,263)

leaves

39

81

2.9

1.0

7.7

1.1

1.8

0.13

0.25

0.8

64.0

1334

Monotropa uniflora

Pyrolaceae

Indian-pipe (181)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Montia perfoliata

Portulacaceae

miners lettuce (53)

greens fresh

20

92

2.8

0.3

3.2

0.9

1.3

0.08

0.13

0.2

29.4

109



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Malva rotundifolia

Malvaceae

small mallow (93)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Malva sylvestris

Malvaceae

high mallow/ common mallow (33,73,232)

greens

90

42

-

-

-

-

-

3.7

-

-

-

Malva species Malvaceae

mallow (73)

greens

249

69

-

-

-

-

-

12.7

-

-

-

Medicago hispida

Fabaceae

bur-clover (25)

greens

125

35

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Medicago polymorpha

Fabaceae

bur-clover (33)

greens

133

62

-

314

-

-

-

5.1

-

-

-

Medicago sativa

Fabaceae

alfalfa (73,236)

greens

690

110

110

650

-

-

0.9

5.4

-

-

-

Mentha piperita

Lamiateae

peppermint (290)

greens dry

1670

340

9

2540

410

-

2.0

21.5

3.2

-

-

Mentha rotundifolia

Lamiaceae

applemint (95)

greens

326

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Mentha spicata

Lamiateae

spearmint (116,124)

leaves

200

80

-

-

-

-

-

15.6

-

-

-

Mentha species Lamiateae

mint (73,120,213,236)

leaves

166

45

2.0

179

-

-

-

5.3

-

-

-

Monotropa uniflora

Pyrolaceae

Indian-pipe (181)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Montia perfoliata

Portulacaceae

miners lettuce (53)

greens fresh

52

79

18

317

40.0

-

-

2.9

-

-

-



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Montia perfoliate

Portulacaceae

miners lettuce (53)

greens cooked

20

30

2.8

0.3

3.2

0.9

1.3

0.08

0.13

0.2

29.4

109

Nasturtium officinale

Brassicaceae

common watercress

(4,73,124,172,

289)

greens

19

93

2.2

0.3

3.0

0.7

1.2

0.08

0.16

0.9

44.6

490

Nepeta cataria

Lamiaceae

catnip/ catmint (124)

leaves

-

82

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

83.0

-

Nuphar advena

Nymphaeaceae

yellow pond-lily (169)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nuphar variegatum

Nymphaeaceae

bullhead lily/ yellow pond-lily (105,169)

greens

-

90

1.6

0.3

-

2.3

0.1

-

-

-

-

-

Nymphaea tuberosa

Nymphaeaceae

tubrous water

lily

(105,169)

greens

-

90

2.0

0.2

7.7

1.6

0.1

-

-

-

-

-

Onoclea struthiopteris

Polypodiaceae

ostrich fern (120,158)

fiddle-heads

20

80

3.0

0.0

3.0

-

-

0.00

0.21

-

10.0

4

Oxalis corniculata

Oxalidaceae

wood-sorrel yellow oxalis (73,226)

greens

49

86

2.3

0.8

8.2

0.9

-

-

-

0.6

78.0

-

Oxyria digyna

Polygonaceae

mountain-sorrel (8,28,301)

leaves

-

87

3.8

0.9

7.6

-

1.3

-

-

-

40.0

890

Palmaria palmata

Rhodophyta

red algae/

dulse

(87,282,296)

fronds dry

323

7

19.9

0.6

59.5

-

12.8

0.23

0.76

5.4

4.8

2



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Montia perfoliata

Portulacaceae

miners lettuce (53)

greens cooked

52

79

18

317

40.1

-

-

2.9

-

-

-

Nasturtium officinale

Brassicaceae

common watercress (73,124,172,289)

greens

151

54

52

282

21.0

-

-

1.7

-

-

-

Nepeta cataria

Lamiaceae

catnip/ catmint (124)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nuphar advena

Nymphaeaceae

yellow pond-lily (169)

greens

7.4

3.3

0.8

32

1.5

0.2

0.7

9.1

3.4

-

-

Nuphar variegatum

Nymphaeaceae

bullhead lily/ yellow pond-lily (105,169)

greens

31

13

31

97

97.1

0.2

0.5

7.6

5.7

0.1

-

Nymphaea tuberosa

Nymphaeaceae

tubrous water

lily

(105,169)

greens

145

8.5

18

95

23.2

0.3

0.5

7.5

5.0

0.1

-

Onoclea struthiopteris

Polypodiaceae

ostrich fern (120,158)

fiddle-heads

6

-

1.5

232

-

-

-

1.0

-

-

-

Oxalis corniculata

Oxaltdaceae

wood-sorrel/ yellow oxalis (73,226)

greens

150

78

-

-

-

-

-

8

-

-

-

Oxyria digyna

Polygonaceae

mountain-sorrel (8,28,301)

leaves

116

87

18

-

75.0

0.1

0.6

3.2

1.7

<0.1

-

Palmaria palmata

Rhodophyta

red algae/

dulse

(87,282,296)

fronds dry

375

360

1740

7000

450

4.0

71.1

11.0

4.5

-

7500



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein

g

Fat g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Palmaria palmata

Rhodophyta

red algae/

dulse

(87,282)

fronds

-

87

1.8

-

6.1

-

3.6

0.63

0.51

0.2

38.0

285

Pedicularis hirsuta

Scrophulariaceae

hairy lousewort (49)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

22.5

-

Petasites japonicus

Asteraceae

butterbur

leaves

14

95

0.4

0.1

3.6

1.3

1.5

0.02

0.02

0.2

32.0

5

Phragmites australis

Poaceae

reed grass (116)

shoots dry

-

5

5.2

0.9

89.0

32.0

5.8

-

-

-

-

-

Phytolacca americana

Phytolaccaceae

pokeweed/

pokeberry

(73)

shoots

23

-

2.6

0.4

-

-

-

0.80

0.33

1.2

136

870

Picea allies

Pinaceae

common spruce (29,44,242)

needles

-

58

4.7

-

-

-

1.8

-

-

-

174

-

Picea mariana

Pinaceae

black spruce (11,50)

needles

-

49

2.5

-

11.8

-

-

-

-

-

120

-

Picea rubens

Pinaceae

red spruce (50)

needles

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

168

-

Pinus ponderosa

Pinaceae

ponderosa pine (68)

needles

-

52

3.1

4.5

39.9

14.1

1.0

-

-

-

-

385

Pinus strobus

Pinaceae

white pine (50)

needles

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

31.5

-

Plantago decipiens

Plantaginaceae

goosctongue (120)

greens

-

93

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.11

-

-

338



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Palmaria palmata

Rhodophyta

red algae/

dulse

(87,282)

fronds

48

-

-

-

60.1

0.2

0.8

-

0.6

<0.1

1306

Pedicularis hirsuta

Scrophulanaceae

hairy lousewort (49)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Petasites japonicus

Asteraceae

butterbur (4)

leaves

103

12

7.0

655

14.0

-

-

0.1

-

-

-

Phragmites australis

Poaceae

reed grass (116)

shoots dry

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Phytolacca americana

Phytolaccaceae

pokeweed/

pokeberry

(73)

shoots

53

44

-

-

-

-

-

1.7

-

-

-

Picea allies

Pinaceae

common spruce (29,44,242)

needles

289

85

-

313

-

-

-

10.8

-

-

-

Picea mariana

Pinaceae

black spruce (11,50)

needles

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Picea rubens

Pinaceae

red spruce (50)

needles

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pinus ponderosa

Pinaceae

ponderosa pine (68)

needles

166

68

-

-

-

-

-

6.8

1.6

-

-

Pinus strobus

Pinaceae

white pine (50)

needles

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Plantago decipiens

Plantaginaceae

goosetongue (120)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Plantago decipiens

Plantaginaceae

goosetongue (120)

greens boiled

-

91

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.11

-

-

-

Plantago major

Plantaginaceae

broad leaved

plantain

(109,162,263)

greens

-

-

1.6

-

-

1.6

1.7

-

-

-

33.3

-

Plantago major

Plantaginaceae

greater plantain (33,232)

leaves

61

84

2.5

0.3

14.6

-

1.2

-

0.28

0.8

8.0

252

Plantago rugelii

Plantaginaceae

Rugel's plantain (234)

greens

29

-

1.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polygonum aviculare

Polygonaceae

common knotweed (93,263)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

77.9

-

Polygonum bistorta

Polygonaceae

mountain bistort (52)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

158

-

Polygonum convolvulus

Polygonaceae

wild buckwheat (93)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

86.0

-

Polygonum pensylvanicum

Polygonaceae

Pennsylvania smartweed (42,98,120,131, 151)

greens

-

84

1.3

0.5

8.6

2.6

0.3

-

0.04

-

-

-

Polygonum pensylvanicum

Polygonaceae

Pennsylvania

smartweed

(120)

greens cooked

-

90

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.01

-

-

-

Polygonum persicaria

Polygonaceae

lady's thumb

smartweed

(120)

greens cooked

-

89

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.18

-

-

-



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum

mg

Chloride mg

Plantago decipiens

Plantagmaceae

goosetongue (120)

greens boiled

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Plantago major

Plantaginaceae

broad-leaved

plantain

(109,162,263)

greens

241

41

25

382

22.0

0.1

-

5.6

0.4

-

191

Plantago major

Plantaginaceae

greater plantain (33,232)

leaves

184

52

16

277

-

-

-

1.2

-

-

-

Plantago rugelii

Plantaginaceae

Rugel's plantain (234)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polygonum aviculare

Polygonaceae

common knotweed (93,263)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polygonum bistorta

Polygonaceae

mountain bistort (52)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polygonum convolvulus

Polygonaceae

wild buckwheat (93)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polygonum pensylvanicum

Polygonaceae

Pennsylvania smartweed (42,98,120,131, 151)

greens

122

467

3.2

322

95.6

0.2

0.5

3.1

1.7

-

-

Polygonum pensylvanicum

Polygonaceae

Pennsylvania

smartweed

(120)

greens cooked

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polygonum persicaria

Polygonaceae

lady's thumb

smartweed

(120)

greens cooked

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4A.Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (perr 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Polygonum persicaria

Polygonaceae

ladies thumb smartweed (93,120)

leaves

-

80

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.33

-

60.0

12

Polygonum sachalinense

Polygonaceae

giant knotweed (93)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

259

-

Polygonum scandens

Polygonaceae

false climbing

buckwheat

(98)

greens

-

90

1.0

0.3

8.6

0.9

0.2

-

-

-

-

-

Polygonum viviparum

Polygonaceae

alpine bistort (28)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

158

-

Polygonum species

Polygonaceae

knotweed (73,243)

greens

-

-

3.3

0.4

1.4

1.1

0.7

-

-

-

-

-

Pontederia cordata

Pontederiaceae

common

pickeretweed

(169,191,212)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Porphyra laciniata

Algae

seaweed

leaves

35

85

5.8

0.3

5.1

0.3

3.8

0.10

0.45

1.5

39.0

520

Porphyra perforata

Rhodophyceae

laver/black

seaweed

(296,300,323)

fronds dry

279

10

24.4

1.4

58.0

25.2

16.1

0.37

1.79

6.7

11.6

263

Portulaca oleracea

Portulacaceae

purslane (4,73,74,76,83, 93,120,124,131, 137)

greens

24

91

1.7

0.4

4.3

0.9

1.7

0.04

0.14

0.5

26.2

550

Potentilla fruticosa

Rosaceae

shrubby

cinquefoil

(32)

leaves dry

-

-

-

-

-

9.6

0.5

-

-

-

-

-

Potentilla nivea

Rosaceae

snow cinquefoil (49)

leaves dry

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

314

-



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Polygonum persicaria

Polygonaceae

ladies thumb

smartweed

(93,120)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polygonum sachalinense

Polygonaceae

giant knotweed (93)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polygonum scandens

Polygonaceae

false climbing

buckwheat

(98)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polygonum viviparum

Polygonaceae

alpine bistort (28)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Polygonum species Polygonaceae

knotweed

(73,243)

greens

99

50

2.8

240

80.0

-

-

4.1

0.7

-

-

Pontederia cordata

Pontederiaceae

common

pickerelweed

(169,191,212)

greens

9.8

4.5

-

39

2.0

0.2

0.5

10.8

-

-

-

Porphyra laciniata

Algae

laver seaweed (4)

leaves

70

58

48

356

2.0

0.3

1.1

1.8

0.9

-

-

Porphyra perforata

Rhodophyceae

laver/black

seaweed

(296,300,323)

fronds dry

230

474

3300

3140

623

1.7

1.7

10.5

1.6

-

-

Portulaca oleracea

Portulacaceae

purslane (4,73,74,76,83, 93,120,124,131, 137)

greens

120

35

45

698

560

0.1

0.3

4.2

-

-

-

Potentilla fruticosa

Rosaceae

shrubby

cinquefoil

(32)

leaves dry

520

190

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Potentilla nivea

Rosaceae

snow cinquefoil (49)

leaves dry

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4A.Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Primula veris

Primulaceae

cowslip primrose (176)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pseudotsuga menziesii

Pinaceae

Douglas-fir (103,242,245)

needles

-

-

2.8

-

-

-

1.4

-

-

-

-

-

Pteridium aquilinum

Polypodiaceae

bracken fern (300)

shoots

20

93

2.4

-

3.1

-

-

-

-

-

15.0

-

Pteridium aquilinum

Polypodiaceae

bracken fern (120)

greens

-

64

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1250

Pterygophora

species (?) Algae

Eastern Arctic

kelp

(301)

greens

-

78

2.0

0.9

14.7

-

4.1

-

-

-

-

-

Ranunculus bulbosus

Ranunculaceae

bulbous buttercup (109)

greens

-

-

2.0

-

-

1.5

1.6

-

-

-

-

-

Ranunculus pallasii

Ranunculaceae

pallas buttercup (118)

greens

-

89

2.5

0.6

6.3

0.9

1.3

0.04

0.69

1.2

36.0

-

Ranunculus repens

Ranunculaceae

creeping

buttercup

(279)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ranunculus sceleratus

Ranunculaceae

celery-leaved

buttercup

(199,211)

greens

-

-

1.3

-

-

1.5

0.6

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Primula veris

Primulaceae

cowslip primrose (176)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pseudotsuga menziesii

Pinaceae

Douglas-fir (103,242,245)

needles

272

78

-

264

612

-

-

11.4

42.0

-

-

Pteridium aquilinum

Polypodinceae

bracken fern (300)

shoots

5.0

-

2.0

221

-

-

-

0.8

-

-

-

Pteridinm aquilinum

Polypodiaceae

bracken fern

(120)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pterygophora

species (?) Algae

Eastern Arctic

kelp

(301)

greens

149

80

618

-

128

<0.4

0.2

0.3

0.1

<0.1

-

Ranunculus bulbosus

Ranunculaceae

bulbous buttercup (109)

greens

108

63

64

561

22.0

0.2

-

-

0.8

-

138

Ranunculus pallasii

Ranunculaceae

pallas buttercup (118)

greens

11

-

-

-

-

-

-

2.9

-

-

-

Ranunculus repens

Ranunculaceae

creeping

buttercup

(279)

greens

-

-

-

-

1.2

0.2

0.3

1.9

-

-

-

Ranunculus sceleratus

Ranunculaceae

celery-leaved

buttercup

(199,211)

greens

78

215

65

300

65.0

0.1

0.3

5.9

70.0

<0.1

130



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Raphanus raphanistrum

Ranunculaceae

wild radish (120)

greens

-

93

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.92

-

-

-

Raphanus sativus

Brassicaceae

garden radish (236)

greens

52

86

2.8

0.5

9.9

1.3

1.2

0.14

0.26

0.6

122

165

Rheum rhaponticum

Polygonaceae

garden rhubarb (78)

stalks raw

16

95

0.6

0.1

3.7

0.7

0.8

0.03

0.07

0.3

9.0

10

Kubus occidentalis

Rosaceae

black raspberry (22)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Rubus parviflorus

Rosaceae

thimbleberry (122,323)

shoots peeled

22

93

0.6

0.4

5.5

1.0

0.6

0.01

0.09

0.3

5.9

41

Rubus spectabilis

Rosaceae

salmonberry (122,323)

shoots peeled

26

93

0.5

0.6

5.8

1.0

2.3

0.01

0.02

0.2

7.5

-

Rumex acetosella

Polygonaceae

sheep sorrel

(49,73,120,230,

232,263,323)

greens

43

88

1.1

0.6

9.6

1.1

0.9

0.02

0.12

0.4

33.5

560

Rumex arcticus

Polygonaceae

Arctic dock/

sourdock

(118)

greens

-

90

2.3

0.7

6.5

1.1

0.8

0.90

0.54

1.1

-

-

Rumex crispus

Polygonaceae

curly dock

(73,93,120,124,

291)

greens

24

89

2.6

0.3

5.5

0.8

1.1

0.06

0.20

0.4

88.3

1014

Rumex obtusifolius

Polygonaceae

broad-leaf dock (93,109,120)

greens

-

87

3.3

-

-

1.7

1.3

-

0.24

-

143

-

Rumex patientia

Polygonaceae

spinach dock (291,293)

greens

-

-

0.6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

25.4

-



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron

mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Raphanus raphanistrum

Ranunculaceae

wild radish (120)

greens boiled

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Raphanus sativus

Brassicaceae

garden radish (236)

greens

238

44

-

-

-

-

-

2.8

-

-

-

Rheum rhaponticum

Polygonaceae

garden rhubarb (78)

stalks raw

96

18

2.0

251

-

-

-

0.8

-

-

-

Rubus occidentalis

Rosaceae

black raspberry (22)

greens

82

24

0.4

195

40.0

0.1

0.4

1.4

1.4

-

0.7

Rubus parviflorus

Rosaceae

thimbleberry (122,323)

shoots peeled

24

26

1.0

-

29.0

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.2

-

-

Rubus spectabilis

Rosaceae

salmonberry (122)

shoots peeled

8.0

27

2.5

-

17.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

732

-

-

Rumex acetosella

Polygonaceae

sheep sorrel

(49,73,120,230,

232,263,323)

greens

57

45

2.3

-

31.0

1.2

1.2

2.3

0.9

-

-

Rumex arcticus

Polygonaceae

Arctic dock/

sourdock

(118)

greens

2.0

55

-

-

-

-

-

0.8

-

-

-

Rumex crispus

Polygonaceae

curly dock

(73,93,120,124,

291)

greens

72

44

-

370

56.9

-

-

3.6

-

-

-

Rumex obtusifolius

Polygonaceae

broad-leaf dock (93,109,120)

greens

108

69

43

416

33.8

0.1

-

2.3

0.4

-

160

Rumex patientia

Polygonaceae

spinach dock (291,293)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein g

Fat g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Rumex pseudonatronatus

Polygonaceae

field dock (60)

greens

-

-

1.3

0.2

-

2.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Rumex

species Polygonaceae

dock (4,73,78,128)

greens

28

91

2.1

0.3

5.6

0.8

1.1

0.09

0.22

0.5

48.0

400

Sagittaria latifolia

Alismataceae

wapato/arrowhead (169)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Salix arctica

Salicaceae

Arctic willow (32)

leaves

-

-

6.9

-

-

-

2.0

-

-

-

-

-

Salix arctophila

Salicaceae

creeping willow (28)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

332

1787

Salix harclayi

Salicaceae

Barclay's willow (90)

greens

-

-

5.4

-

-

5.9

2.2

-

-

-

-

-

Salix reticulata

Salicaceae

Arctic willow/

okowyot

(301)

leaves

-

67

3.8

2.0

25.9

-

1.7

-

-

-

-

-

Salix richardsonii

Salicaceae

Richardson's

willow

(11)

leafbud

-

43

3.7

-

11.8

-

-

-

-

-

95.8

-

Salix richardsonii

Salicaceae

Richardson's

willow

(11)

leaves

-

64

5.8

-

6.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Salix
species Salicaceae

willow

(1,8,36,41,49,52,

94)

leaves

-

66

5.1

-

28.0

3.3

2.8

0.09

0.19

-

41.0

1830

Salix
species Salicaceae

willow (11,49)

buds

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

24.0

-



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus mg

Sodium mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc

mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Rumex pseudonatronatus

Polygonaceae

field dock (60)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Rumex
species Polygonaceae

dock (4,73,78,128)

greens

44

63

4.0

390

103

-

-

2.4

-

-

-

Sagittaria latifolia

Alismataceae

wapato/arrowhead (169)

greens

6.5

5.7

15

49

2.8

0.4

0.9

-

17 3

-

-

Salix arctica

Salicaceae

Arctic willow (32)

leaves

170

190

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Salix arctophila

Salicaceae

creeping willow (28)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Salix barclayi

Salicaceae

Barclay's willow (90)

greens

260

150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Salix reticulata

Salicaceae

Arctic willow

okowyot

(301)

leaves

267

89

15

-

167

0.2

3.5

5.7

5.0

<0.1

-

Salix richardsonii

Salicaceae

Richardson's

willow

(11)

leafbud

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Salix richardsonii

Salicaceae

Richardson's

willow

(11)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Salix
species Salicaceae

willow

(1,8,36,41,49,52,

94)

leaves

268

127

-

472

-

0.2

2.9

<0.1

-

-

Salix
species Salicaceae

willow (11,49)

buds

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name

(References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water

g

Protein g

Fat

g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin mg

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Salsola kali

Chenopodiaceae

Russian thistle (110,200)

greens

-

90

-

1.5

6.2

0.2

2.3

-

-

-

-

-

Satureja hortensis

Lamiaceae

summer savory

(276)

greens

-

87

2.6

-

-

-

2.3

-

-

-

0.5

74

Saxifraga cernua

Saxifragaceae

nodding saxifrage (49)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

86.6

-

Saxifraga oppositifolia

Saxifragaceae

purple mountain saxifrage

(49)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

54.0

-

Scirpus lacustris

Cyperaceae

tule/roundstcm

bulrush

(208,210)

shoots

42

-

-

-

-

-

0.9

-

-

-

-

-

Scirpus maritimus

Cyperaceae

Prairie bulrush (208)

shoots

43

-

-

-

-

-

1.0

-

-

-

-

-

Sedum purpureum

Crassulaceae

live forever (120)

greens

-

93

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.12

-

-

510

Sedum purpureum

Crassulaceae

live-forever (120)

greens frozen

-

94

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.06

-

-

283

Sedum rosea

Crassulaceae

roseroot (8,41,52,118,141)

leaves

-

89

1.7

1.1

8.3

0.7

0.5

0.07

0.28

0.8

64.0

518

Smilax tamnoides

Liliaceae

greenbrier (233)

greens

-

-

1.4

0.4

-

2.3

0.9

-

-

-

-

-

Sonchus arvensis

Asteraceae

rough perennial

sow-thistle

(93)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

38.5

-



Table 4B. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Calcium mg

Phosphorus

mg

Sodium

mg

Potassium mg

Magnesium mg

Copper mg

Zinc mg

Iron mg

Manganese mg

Molybdenum mg

Chloride mg

Salsola kali

Chenopodiaceae

Russian thistle (110,200)

greens

206

18

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Satureja hortensis

Lamiateae

summer savory (276)

greens

160

-

-

-

-

-

-

23.8

-

-

-

Saxifrage cernua

Saxifragaceae

nodding saxifrage (49)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Saxifraga oppositifolia

Saxifragaceae

purple mountain

saxifrage

(49)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Scirpus lacustris

Cyperaceae

tule/roundstem

bulrush

(208,210)

shoots

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Scirpus maritimus

Cyperaceae

Prairie bulrush (208)

shoots

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Sedum purpureum

Crassulaceae

live-forever (120)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Sedum purpureum

Crassulaceae

live-forever (120)

greens frozen

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Sedum rosea

Crassulaceae

roseroot (8,41,52,118,141)

leaves

132

20

-

-

-

-

-

0.6

-

-

-

Smilax tamnoides

Liliaceae

greenbrier (233)

greens

87

16

-

244

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Sonchus arvensis

Asteraceae

rough perennial

sow-thistle

(93)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



Table 4A. Nutritional constituents of plants: stems, leaves, shoots. (per 100g fresh weight)

Scientific name

Family name

Common name (References)

Part Used

Food

Energy

kcal

Water g

Protein S

Fat g

Carbohydrate g

Crude

Fiber

g

Ash g

Thiamine mg

Riboflavin rag

Niacin mg

Vit.C mg

Vit.A RE

Sonchus oleraccus

Asteraceae

common sow-thistle (18,73,118,120)

greens

20

88

1.9

0.3

-

-

-

0.70

0.96

0.4

5.0

869

Stellaria humifusa

Caryophyllaceae

salt marsh

starwort

(49)

greens

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

59.1

-

Stellaria media

Caryophyllaceae

chickweed/ common starwort (30,79,93,109, 116,120,131)

leaves

-

90

1.6

0.2

5.3

1.8

1.3

0.02

0 14

0.5

34 8

613

Symphytum officinale

Boraginaceae

common comfrey (93,258,279)

leaves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

19.0

42

Taraxacum officinale

Asteraceae

common dandelion

(4,8,52,73,77,78,

93,109,120,124,

131,141,162,

235)

greens

45

85

2.7

0.7

9.2

1.6

1.8

0.19

0.28

-

35.0

1400

Taraxacum officinale

Asteraceae

common dandelion (16,124)

buds

-

86

3.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

30.0

80

Thlaspl arvense

Brassicaceae

field pennycress/

stinkweed

(116,120)

greens cooked

-

93

7.7

-

4.7

-

-

-

0.07

-

270

-

Thlaspi arvense

Brassicaceae

field pennycress/

stinkweed

(120)

greens

-

91

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.23

-

-

-