فيروس كورونا المستجد (كوفيد-١٩)

Keeping food and agricultural systems alive - Analyses and solutions in a period of crises - COVID-19 Pandemic

The current global outbreak of COVID-19 has disrupted agricultural and food systems around the world. Timely and credible information is imperative in avoiding panic-driven reaction that can aggravate these disruptions, deteriorating food and nutrition security of the most vulnerable.

In order to provide such information to its Members, FAO analyzed past experiences and provides a compilation of policy responses with their pros and cons for agricultural and food systems. This list will be continually updated and expanded.

Area:
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Area
Subarea
Potential Disruptions
Smallholder access to markets
Promote financial support to smallholder farmers

Financial disruption of smallholder farmers' businesses. Despite mitigation interventions having been enacted in the countries most affected by the COVID-19 outbreak, the crisis has resulted in substantial disruptions to existing agricultural supply chains, in which smallholder farmers play a crucial role and from which they derive their main source of income.

Smallholder farmers, particularly producers of perishable products, are likely to be heavily impacted due to their inability to sell their produce and buy much needed agricultural inputs, as well as due to the growing unavailability of rural labour, and falling prices. In cases of severe disruptions, the ability to resume production is at considerable risk. The agricultural sector is likely affected by short-term cash flow shortages and diminishing operating capacities, with negative effects on employment and incomes. In the short-term, it is critical to maintain operational capacities to keep the food supply chain in function (cash flow, operational expenses), in order to ensure continuity of income and livelihood support for affected households and agri-MSMEs that play a critical role on the sector’s overall rates of employment, output, export and earnings. 

Note: Women tend to have less access to financial services, women-led SMEs may not be able to benefit from government grants and lessons learned from the West Africa’s Ebola outbreak reveal that women’s earnings recover more slowly than men’s (Oliver Wyman, 2020).

Smallholder access to markets
Ensure physical market access during lock down

Road closures/blockages and checks preventing small holder farmers to sell products or buy inputs, resulting in loss of income, loss of produce and affecting next season cultivation. Reported losses in China, with emphasis on fresh vegetables, livestock and poultry. Road closures/blockages slowing down agricultural services, access to inputs, delivery of goods, and marketing, leading to loss of income and loss or accumulation of produce at farms.

In Kenya: The curfew hours and lockdown have hit those who supply fresh vegetables in local markets. While the transportation of food is allowed at night, the night movement ban affects the market channels for fresh vegetables, as these are typically sold in the evening because of the hot daytime temperatures that may wilt the produce

Trade and markets

Lack of information on market conditions (production, stocks, consumption, trade, prices) and uncoordinated policy interventions by countries, similar to the episode of the 2007-08 global food price crisis.

Trade and markets

Actual or perceived supply shortage in the domestic market and increasing prices (as in 2007-08).

Trade and markets

Actual or perceived supply shortage in the domestic market and increasing prices (as in 2007-08)

Trade and markets

Rising food prices, as in the 2007-08 episode of global food price crisis.

Trade and markets

Rising food prices, as in the 2007-08 episode of global food price crisis.

Trade and markets

Rising food prices, as in the 2007-08 episode of global food price crisis.

Trade and markets

Decreased trade flows due to disease outbreaks

 

Trade and markets

Food shortages due to decreased production and shortage of agricultural labour

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