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X. Activities and programs of the organization

A. Review of the work of the technical committees of the conference
B. Introduction
C. Major areas for concentration
D. Salient points in regard to the organization's activities
E. Review of FAO's field activities
F. Review of topics relating to the program of work and budget which were not covered by the technical committees: chapters I, II, IV, V, VI. A(i), VI. D, VI. E., VII, VIII, IX, X, XI
G. Inter-agency relations and consultations on matters of common interest
H. Program of work and budget 1968/69

A. Review of the work of the technical committees of the conference

B. Introduction

214. The Conference reviewed and, subject to the comments below, gave general approval to the activities of the Organization through the biennium 1966/67.

215. It then generally approved the technical content of the Program of Work proposed by the Director-General for 1968/69, as set out in document C 67/3 and Supplements. Particular adjustments and changes in emphasis which the Conference suggested, or decided should be introduced into this Program, are set out below as they relate to the various sectors of the Organization.

216. The Conference also had regard to possible longer-term developments in the several areas of work of the Organization, and recorded its views. In interpreting these views, account of course must be taken of the Conference's ultimate conclusions in regard to what organizational structure can best serve the future responsibilities of FAO.

217. The Conference noted the way in which the work on the Indicative World Plan for Agricultural Development had already begun to give direction to the activities of all sectors of the Organization, and was contributing to the integration of the regular and field programs. It also noted that the first draft of the World Soil Map at 1:5 million scale was expected to be ready in 1968 which in its turn should help show the way to higher agricultural production.

218. The other main trend distinguished was the extent to which the Organization's field programs were growing in comparison to Regular Program activities This must have a marked bearing on the scope and depth of the Organization's future work under the Regular Program.

219. The Conference expressed some apprehension that there was inadequate provision of travel funds for some sectors of the Organization in the 1968/69 Program of Work and Budget to enable staff outputted in the regions to respond quickly to requests for assistance from member countries and to permit senior headquarters officers to make frequent visits to developing countries to offer on-the-spot advice and become familiar with national problems.

220. The Conference singled out for special mention certain matters relating to the five major areas of activity which the Director-General had selected for concentration in 1968/69 (see C 67/3 and C 67/LIM/26).

C. Major areas for concentration

1. Integrated planning for agricultural development
2. Increasing productivity
3. Development of human resources and improvement of institutional framework
4. Investment assistance
5. Creating increased awareness of world food problems

1. Integrated planning for agricultural development

a) Improvement of agricultural statistics
b) 1970 World census of agriculture

a) Improvement of agricultural statistics

221. The Conference considered that there were two main aspects of the long-term endeavour of FAO for the Development of agricultural statistics. The first concerned the increasing rationalization of statistical work within the Organization and the second related to the work of promoting the collection of more and better data in member countries.

222. The aim of work concerned with the first aspect was to establish an integrated set of basic agricultural statistics which could be used uniformly by all units of the Organization and for all the different projects and studies the Organization undertook. A significant step forward had been taken in establishing such statistics for production and utilization for use in the Indicative World Plan and storing them on computer tape. The continuation of working arrangements with other users of the type established for the IWP, together with the installation of the computer in the Organization should expedite this process.

223. The establishment under the auspices of the ACC of a Sub-Committee on Statistical Activities for coordinating the statistical programs of different international agencies should also help.

224. The Conference considered that the establishment of a computerized data pool would facilitate fuller coordination of requests to member countries for statistical data required by the several sectors of the Organization, as instructed by the Thirteenth Session of the Conference. This would also help eliminate duplication in the compilation and processing of statistical data within the Organization. The Conference asked that the progress achieved during 1968/69 in this respect should be reported at its Fifteenth Session.

225. The Conference considered that adequate food consumption statistics were a basic necessity for the work of the Organization. It approved the steps proposed for extending the geographical coverage of the work on food balance sheets. The Conference noted that the available information on the distribution of food by the socio-economic groups within countries in relation to nutritional requirements was very inadequate. Such information, which was used for many purposes including the estimation of income elasticity of demand, could be obtained only through food consumption surveys. The Conference, therefore, urged that efforts to promote such surveys should be intensified along the lines of FAO's Program of Food Consumption Surveys.

226. With regard to the second aspect, namely that of improving agricultural statistics at the source, the Conference recognized the importance of both active promotion of field work for data collection in member countries and FAO help in building up national statistical sources. It asked governments to speed adoption of improved methodology and use of standardized concepts and definitions. Since in the ultimate analysis it rested with the countries themselves to accord appropriate priorities in their Development programs for work on the collection of basic statistics, the Conference recommended that member countries include statistical Development as an integral part of their economic Development plans, and that they make full use of the facilities offered by the UNDP and other international or bilateral aid programs, for the Development of statistics with appropriate priorities.

227. The Conference noted that it was planned to submit to governments the basic agricultural statistics which had been developed in the work for the IWP. The Conference recommended that governments consider these statistics with a view to possible revision of their national statistics.

b) 1970 World census of agriculture

228. The Conference was informed of the steps taken during 1966/67 for the promotion of the 1970 World Census of Agriculture. Regional adaptations of the world program were prepared for Africa, Far East, Near East, Europe and the Americas after appropriate consultations at regional meetings. The Conference noted that the promotion of the Census would remain a major concern of the Organization during 1968/69.

229. The Conference recommended that the Organization explore along with the Government concerned the possibility of continuing until 1970 the census training arrangements made in Washington and Paris. It noted with satisfaction that the United States Government would be happy to continue its co-operation in this connection. The Organization should explore the possibilities of further enlarging the program of census training in Africa and other developing regions.

230. The Conference recommended that full use should be made in the census training centres of the reports on the methodology and on the concepts and definitions followed in the 1960 census.

231. The Conference was informed about offers of equipment, fellowships and technical assistance experts which had been forthcoming under the auspices of the Census Fund. It noted with gratitude the offer of the Spanish Government to provide experts in census taking for Spanish-speaking countries. In addition, small amounts of cash contribution have been pledged under the Fund, mainly from the developing countries themselves. The Conference noted that the Organization proposed to ask the developing countries to use their cash contributions to finance the training centers organized by FAO. As for the offers in kind, FAO could act as central clearing house by bringing to the attention of the developing countries the offers for aid. At the same time, it would bring to the attention of the donor countries the needs of the developing countries.

232. At its last session, the Conference had requested the Director-General to set up a Committee of selected Member Nations to advise on the operations and administration of the Fund. The Conferences noted that, in view of the small size of the Fund, no budgetary provisions had as yet been made for the establishment of such a committee.

233. The Conference emphasized the need for a more timely preparation of the report of the 1970 World Census of Agriculture than had been possible in the case of the 1960 census. It recommended, therefore, that countries expedite the preparation of their national reports.

2. Increasing productivity

a) Increasing availability of food through reduction in losses
b) Pesticides
c) Evaluation, effective utilization and conservation of genetic resources

a) Increasing availability of food through reduction in losses

234. With reference to losses in crops and other agricultural products, the Conference recommended that:

(a) Continuing emphasis be placed on modern techniques to control crop diseases and pests, and that increased attention be given to the efficient use of pesticides, weed control, plant parasitic nematodes and grain-eating birds;

(b) On the basis of the recommendations of the Symposium on Crop Losses, held in Rome, October 1967, high priority be given to the Development of standard methods for the estimation of crop losses;

(c) Increased efforts be devoted to work designed to prevent both pre-harvest and post-harvest losses, particularly in respect to rodent control and storage pests;

(d) Special attention be given to the handling, drying and storage of farm products, methods of crop storage, and also to the design of suitable and cheap storage structures for tropical, semi-tropical and humid conditions, using local materials;

(e) An integrated approach to reduction of losses in crop products must take into account all aspects such as control of crop pests including insects, rodents and micro-organisms; engineering; transport; and processing techniques. Provision for continued co-ordination between the sectors of the Organization concerned with this problem must therefore be ensured;

(f) Full use be made of waste and surpluses for livestock production.

235. With regard to losses in livestock products, the Conference recommended that:

(a) Future programs lay greater emphasis on the establishment of adequate diagnostic services, since early diagnosis was the key to effective control and eradicating animal diseases;

(b) Disease control programs be expanded, with emphasis on the regional approach, and with inter-country cooperation wherever possible;

(c) Priority be given to the control of internal parasitism in livestock, as an important factor in reducing output; the Director-General should establish as soon as possible a Panel of Experts on Internal Parasites of Livestock, to advise the Director-General and Member Governments on all matters pertaining to the prophylaxis, treatment and control of parasitism;

(d) Special efforts be made to improve slaughter facilities as a means for preventing wastage of meat and other valuable livestock products; use should be made of by-products of abattoirs for productive purposes including vaccines.

b) Pesticides

236. The Conference recognized the importance of the availability of efficient pesticides in agricultural production. It requested that new publications should be prepared on fumigation and aerial spraying and that work on insects which had become resistant to insecticides should be given urgent attention (including biological control).

237. Because of possible health hazards the safe use of pesticides would continue to be a cause of great concern and must receive increased attention. The Conference suggested that an international meeting on the impact of pesticides on soil, water, animals and plants should be arranged in due course. The Conference recognized the role of the isotope and radiation techniques in studying the fate of pesticides in plant and animal products, and recommended that work in this field be given prominence.

c) Evaluation, effective utilization and conservation of genetic resources

238. The Conference regretted that, despite a strong recommendation by its Thirteenth Session for a vigorous and comprehensive action program, no significant increases were allocated for this purpose in the Program of Work and Budget for 1968/69. Satisfaction was, however, expressed with the work accomplished in 1966/67 with the means available, on which the co-operation of Member Governments and international or national organizations had fortunately had a multiplying effect.

239. Animal Genetic Resources. The Conference recognized that work in this field could be of importance to all member countries. It recommended that:

(a) FAO should prepare a catalogue indicating the physical and productive characteristics of existing breeds in developing countries under actual environmental conditions;

(b) Advanced countries should be encouraged to undertake research into techniques for the preservation, evaluation and handling of ova and semen, giving specific attention to practical aspects;

(c) FAO should increase collaboration with scientific institutions and animal production societies throughout the world;

(d) Member Nations should evaluate local types and breeds and perpetuate those having distinct potentialities.

240. Plant Genetic Resources. The Conference agreed that the Organization should act as a promotor and coordinator in this field although the actual work involved must necessarily be entrusted to scientific institutions in member countries. It saw problems in undertaking in developing countries the sort of work required because of the shortage of personnel and finance. The matter of how finance could be obtained to assist specialized scientific national institutions needed to be studied since this was difficult through normal channels.

241. The Conference felt that the Development of plant genetic resources programs involved complex problems and required such expensive and skilled servicing that, for the present, efforts should be concentrated on existing centers, so that an immediate impact could be obtained.

242. The recommendations of the FAO Technical Conference on Exploitation, Conservation and Utilization of Plant Gene Resources, 1967, should be considered as a basis for further action by the Organization in this field. The first task should be to continue its preparation of lists of available collections of genetic stocks which existed in many parts of the world. Action should be possible to arrange for the transfer to more secure locations of such stocks as were in danger of not being maintained in any country.

243. The Conference emphasized the importance of FAO's role in promoting and co-ordinating plant exploration expeditions and of establishing for the benefit of all Member Governments international germ plasm centers of wild and cultivated species. It urged Member Governments to evaluate and record the germ-plasm resources of their countries. They could do much on their own initiative and the longer they delayed, the greater the risk of valuable material being lost.

244. Forest Tree Genetic Resources The Conference requested the Director-General to take into account Recommendation No. 62 of document C 67/AG/FO/1, in formulating the Program of Work and Budget for 1970/71. It recognized that as Development proceeds in the less as in the more advanced areas of the world, the reserves of genetic variation stored in the natural forests have been or are being displaced on an increasing scale. Moreover, efforts to explore and collect forest genetic sources were, on a world scale, inadequate and inadequately concerted.

245. The Conference requested the Director-General to establish a panel of experts on Forest Gene Resources to help plan and co-ordinate FAO's efforts to explore, utilize and conserve the gene resources of forest trees and, in particular, help prepare a detailed short-term program and draft a long-term program for FAO's action in this field and to provide information to Member Governments. The Director-General should convene at least one session of the members of the Panel in the biennium 1968/69.

3. Development of human resources and improvement of institutional framework

a) Education and training
b) Increasing the production and use of Edible protein
c) Planning for better family living

a) Education and training

246. The Conference emphasized the importance of education and training in the promotion of efficient agriculture in all its aspects.

247. The Conference recognized that many developing countries were faced with serious difficulties in procuring materials required to promote the training of technical and scientific personnel, for lack of currencies of worldwide convertibility. It asked the FAO Council to study with the Director-General the several possibilities that there appeared to be for solving these difficulties, and present proposals for further consideration.

248. Discussing animal production and health, the Conference recommended that priority be given to education and training at all levels in all fields but with more emphasis on training at the intermediate or sub-professional field. As regards land and water use, the Conference recommended that particular emphasis should be given to on-the-spot training through field projects, seminars, training centres, manuals and other publications. Pilot projects, while constituting the first stage of productive investment, could also play a basic role in demonstration and training for instance in the use of fertilizers The Conference stressed the need to ensure that adequate attention was given to the collation and dissemination of research data and results, which needed to reach the farmer and must therefore be spread widely among those instructing him. The need for pasture and fodder training courses in Africa featured in the discussions on pastures, and the Conference noted with approval that in 1968 the Organization would be assessing the educational and training needs of that region.

249. When examining the role of atomic energy in food and agriculture, the Conference urged the Organization to continue using advanced institutes for training and emphasized the necessity of having available an adequate number of fellowships.

250. Similar views were expressed during the discussions on Fisheries, Forestry, Nutrition, and Economics. The Conference concurred, therefore, with FAO organizing a World Conference on Agricultural Education and Training in 1969 where all facets could be properly treated, with full participation by other UN agencies concerned.

b) Increasing the production and use of Edible protein

251. The Conference considered that lack of edible protein was one of the most pressing problems in the world today. Its nature varied from country to country and region to region for ecological and other reasons, making it necessary to plan different approaches to its solution in individual situations.

252. The Conference welcomed the Report of the Advisory Committee on the Application of Science and Technology to Development (ACST), entitled "Increasing the Production and Use of Edible Protein" (E/4343), commended its specific proposals, and noted that this Report would be considered by the United Nations General Assembly at its current session. The Conference agreed with ACST in giving the highest priority to increasing protein production by conventional means but noted the emphasis in the report on non-conventional sources such as single cell proteins.

253. The Conference welcomed the ACST proposal to expand the scope and function of the WHO/FAO/ UNICEF Protein Advisory Group and to include persons competent in the production, processing, economics and marketing of foods which could narrow the protein gap. It expressed satisfaction that ECOSOC had requested the UN Agencies to review their present and proposed programs with a view to the possible reallocation of financial resources and reorientation of their programs towards closing the protein gap.

254. The Conference recognized that several sectors of the Organization were involved in solving the protein problem, and was glad to learn that close interdivisional co-operation and, indeed, integration of programs, had already been established on matters related, for instance, to plant breeding techniques, food habits, product Development, food promotion and commercialization and use in the home.

255. In view of the foregoing the Conference adopted the following resolution:

Resolution No. 8/67

Increasing the Production and Use of Edible Protein


Noting that the protein gap is continuously growing and that the world is in a period of daily increasing protein crisis;

Appreciating the work so far accomplished by the Organization in assisting and advising on the Development, production and promotion of protein food products;

Recognizing the leading role of FAO, in co-operation with WHO and UNICEF, in the search and Development of protein-rich foods, both from conventional and non-conventional sources of raw material and the results thus achieved;

Noting with appreciation the report of the UN Advisory Committee on Science and Technology;

Being aware of Resolution 1257 (XLIII) of the UN Economic and Social Council of 2 August 1967;

Requests the Director-General of FAO to:

(i) promote all efforts to fill the protein gap, by maximum use of both conventional (meat, milk, eggs, fish and fish products, grain legumes, cereals) and the exploitation of new sources of proteins (flours from deflated oil seeds, algae, yeast, etc. ) and by enrichment of foodstuffs,

(ii) similarly encourage all efforts to expand the industrial production and commercialization of protein foods directed to the child and the family and at prices acceptable to needy groups of the population,

(iii) seek to enlarge the WHO/FAO/UNICEF Protein Advisory Group along the lines of the abovementioned resolution,

(iv) involve all appropriate sectors of the Organization in this joint endeavor,

(v) seek ways and means to support this activity and particularly the work of the WHO/FAO/ UNICEF Protein Advisory Group,

(vi) seek appropriate means for financing the Development of protein food production and utilization.

(Adopted 22.11. 67)

c) Planning for better family living

256. The Conference agreed on the need at the same time to increase food production and to educate families in better utilization of available foods. Delegations, however, expressed diverse opinions about the need to limit population growth in all parts of the world. Agreement was reached on the general nature of a program to be undertaken by the Organization, directed essentially towards the countries already heavily populated and where the food supplies cannot keep pace with population increase. The Conference understood that the nature of the program would be educational and that any field activities would be undertaken only on governmental request. The establishment of a unit within the Organization on "Planning for Better Family Living", was accordingly approved.

257. The Conference noted that economic and social Development was impeded in some countries by rapid population growth and that in Asia and the Far East some Governments had accepted that population control was vital to long-term Development and had already started successful programs.

258. The Conference recognized the need to help families achieve, through appropriate policies and programs, conditions that would increase well-being and would contribute to national Development. It also recognized that home economics and agriculture through their established extension programs, specialized programs for women and youth, and applied nutrition programs provided excellent channels through which to reach the family. It agreed that the education and training activities which support national programs to improve the levels of family living through better utilization of resources and improved nutrition were within the competence of FAO. The Conference stressed the need, however, to collaborate with the United Nations and its Specialized Agencies and with non-governmental bodies whose governing bodies had adopted policies and programs in the field of population stabilization.

259. The Conference suggested that for Asia and the Far East the possibility be explored of forming a working party on home economics to study this problem and assist with developing programs.

260. The Conference recommended that the Director-General increasingly involve the Organization in a study of the food/population dilemma. It also recommended that, on governmental request, FAO be prepared to provide assistance in the organization of educational programs aiming at helping populations in their search for well-balanced family life.

4. Investment assistance

a) FAO/IBRD co-operative program
b) Co-operation with area banks

a) FAO/IBRD co-operative program

261. The Conference reviewed the progress made in FAO's co-operative activities with the World Bank and noted that since the inception of the Program, the total amount of IBRD loans and IDA credits for projects identified, prepared or appraised with FAO assistance has been of the order of $330 million, and the pipeline of projects which await consideration for financing is well over this figure. In all, the Program has been involved in more than 120 agricultural projects in the fields of credit, area Development, irrigated farming, land settlement, co-operatives, livestock, commercial tropical crops, fisheries, forestry, storage, seeds, communications and agricultural education. Nearly 70 of these projects were developed directly by the Program and in the others it played a participant role. The varied composition of projects reflects the part that the Program has played in bringing about a diversification of the Bank's interest in lending towards agricultural projects.

262. Increasingly close working relations have been established between Bank staff and FAO staff working on the Cooperative Program which have led to a better appreciation by the Program staff of the Bank's working methods and criteria for appraisal of projects, and, in turn, greater familiarity with FAO operations on the part of the Bank. While the Program's major area of responsibility is to identify and help prepare projects which might be considered by the World Bank Group for financing, the Program staff has increasingly participated in the bank's economic review, appraisal and end-use supervision missions which has enabled more systematic follow-through of projects.

263. An important aspect of the work has been to follow up, on a much larger scale than hitherto, FAO field activities, especially UNDP projects, with the purpose of helping orient them to investment opportunities. To this end, arrangements within the Program to carry on close and continuous review of UNDP projects in consultation with subject-matter divisions have been streamlined and a series of reviews of Special Fund projects of potential interest to the Bank and the Program has been initiated under FAO auspices with Bank and UNDP participation. The first review in this series, held in June 1967, examined about 40 projects and agreement was reached on the next steps to be taken by subject-matter divisions of FAO, the Program and the Bank to follow them through towards early investment.

264. The Conference recognized the usefulness of the document on project outlines and the provisional draft of a descriptive brochure, and noted that the information and statistics, including a list of approved projects, given in these documents and in the Review of FAO's Field Work (C 67/26) reflected the position of both FAO and the Bank in these matters. Some delegates requested that everything should be done to expedite submission of reports of missions and follow-up actions.

265. The Conference noted the growth of the Program during the last biennium, and indicated that there was still scope for expansion of operations, especially in certain regions and countries, and hoped that the efforts to extend adequate assistance to Member Governments in the identification and preparation of projects would be intensified in the next biennium. It recognized that further expansion of the Program and of its budgetary resources as well as of possible lending by the Bank Group for agriculture would depend on the continued success of operations as well as on the level of replenishment of the resources of the International Development Association, negotiations on which were in progress. If these were successful, and if the Bank agreed, the Conference recognized that some further expansion of FAO activity under the Program within the biennium was desirable, provided the necessary savings could be found.

266. The Conference was informed that the activities and effectiveness of the Program were being periodically reviewed and evaluated jointly by FAO and the World Bank, and that in the course of such evaluation the FAO view in favor of increasing financial support for agricultural Development was taken into consideration. The Conference recorded its interest in being kept adequately informed of the progress of operations under the Program, and recommended that the way in which such reporting could best be done might be considered by the Council.

b) Co-operation with area banks

267. The Conference took note of the discussions being held with the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), with a view to concluding more systematic arrangements than those in force under the agreement concluded in 1965, and tacitly renewed in 1967. It emphasized the desirability of seeking in these negotiations ways and means of making FAO cooperation more effective in respect of IDB's operations in the field of agriculture. It also took note of the discussions going on with the Central American Bank for Economic Integration (CABEI), and hoped that these would lead to the satisfactory conclusion of an agreement setting forth the ways in which FAO might best help this institution.

268. While the Conference noted that provision had been made in the Program of Work and Budget for co-operative activities with the different area banks, doubt was expressed as to whether the allocation made for this purpose was adequate. In this connection, it was noted that the expansion of FAO's activities with the financing institutions would require not only supervision arrangements at Headquarters for each area bank program, but also co-ordination of the different programs as well as overall coordination with the FAO/IBRD Program. The Conference authorized the Director-General to take early steps to establish adequate arrangements for such supervision and co-ordination at Headquarters and requested him to make proposals for a more long-term solution for examination by the ad hoc Committee on Organization.

5. Creating increased awareness of world food problems

a) The "FAO review"

269. The Conference noted that in accordance with the decision of its Thirteenth Session, a first issue of a FAO magazine had been produced under the title of "FAO Review". This review would absorb and replace the Freedom from Hunger Magazine, but it was not the intention of the Director-General that it should absorb other FAO periodicals having a high proportion of technical content and which had acquired considerable specialized readership.

270. Anxious to see the FAO Review successful and produced in accordance with the wishes expressed at its Thirteenth Session, the Conference considered how provision could best be made to ensure that the guidance and advice of Member Governments would be available to the Editorial Board of the magazine. After giving the matter much attention and having considered and rejected the possibility of setting up an advisory working party, the Conference recommended that the FAO Council should keep the magazine under review to ensure that it conformed to the precepts of the Conference.

271. To this end the Conference also recommended, in view of the need for the Council to be informed of the reactions of Member Governments, that the Director-General should circulate to them a questionnaire after the publication of the fourth issue, and should report to the Council on the comments so obtained.

272. The Conference stressed the importance of fair distribution, in keeping with the demands of different language groups, and that the principal aim of the FAO Review should be to open up and maintain a frank dialogue among Member Nations in different phases of Development.

273. In view of the importance and impact of various information activities, especially for the developing countries, and considering on the other hand the substantial workload connected with the Development of the new FAO Review, the Conference recommended that caution and flexibility should be exercised in implementing the Organization's public information work program in 1968/69.

274. The Conference was given information supplementary to that in C 67/3 on new posts and the use to be made of the receipts from the sale of publications. It noted that the additional posts required for the distribution of the FAO Review were located in the Publications Division, although the authorship and editorial work on the periodical was located in the Public Information Division. It agreed that it was undesirable to undertake the various activities related to the distribution of publications in different parts of the Organization.

275. The Conference endorsed the recommendation of the Council that the cost of additional print runs and reproduction of advertisements could be covered up to an amount of $43,740 from the estimated income of $120,400 accruing during the biennium from the sale of advertising and of the magazine to the Publications Revolving Fund, and that the employment of personnel to be paid from the income of advertisements and sales would be subject to prior approval by the Council. This was an interim measure, and the Conference expected the FAO Review to be fully budgeted under the Regular Program when sufficient experience had been gained realistically to estimate income from advertising and sales.

276. The Conference agreed that, within the limitations of the approved budget and specified number of personnel, the Director-General was free to deploy the magazine's staff in such manner as he judged to be most appropriate for its efficient operation.

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