Charles H. Hocutt1
Roger L. Kaesler2
Michael T. Masnik
John Cairns, Jr.
Department of Biology
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061
Fish have certain disadvantages as indicators of stress conditions in aquatic systems. They are mobile and can migrate to and from stressed areas at will if not so drastically affected that movement is curtailed. Furthermore, data gathering may be highly qualitative and not easily interpreted. The public, however, more often focuses its attention on fish than other aquatic organisms and is not fully satisfied about the health of an aquatic system unless fish information is available. This study provides data on fish collected during the summers 1971 and 1972 from the New River in the vicinity of a synthetic fibres plant, Pearisburg, Virginia. These data were analysed by two methods and contrasted: the diversity index (d) of Wilhm and Dorris (1968) and the Jaccard (1908) similarity coefficient (Sj). The former is a method currently used in monitoring aquatic ecosystems and is a function of the numbers and kinds of species found. The latter analyses only presence or absence data at each station. Sj was easily adapted to this investigation, provided a more critical method of analysing data, especially where data were redundant, and is recommended as a method for the biological assessment of water quality.
Les poissons ont certains inconvénients en tant qu'indicateurs de conditions défavorables des systèmes aquatiques. Ils sont mobiles et peuvent passer d'une zone défavorable à une autre à volonté, s'ils ne sont pas affectés de telle façon que leur mouvement soit empêché. En outre, les données rassemblées peuvent être qualitativement supérieures et difficiles à interpréter. Le public, néanmoins, porte plus souvent son attention sur le poisson que sur d'autres organismes aquatiques et n'est satisfait de la santé du système aquatique que si des renseignements concernant le poisson sont disponibles. Cette étude fournit des données sur le poisson rassemblé au cours des étés 1971 et 1972 dans le fleuve “New River” aux abords d'un complexe de fibres synthétiques, à Pearisburg, Virginie. Ces données ont été analysées au moyen de deux méthodes et se sont avérées discordantes: l'indice de diversité(d) de Wilhm et Dorris (1968) et le coefficient de similarité (Sj) de Jaccard (1908). La première est une méthode utilisée couramment pour la surveillance des écosystèmes aquatiques en fonction du nombre et types d'espèces trouvées. La seconde analyse seulement la présence ou l'absence de données à chaque station. Sj a été facilement adapté à cette étude, avec l'adjonction d'une méthode d'analyse plus critique des données, en particulier, lorsque les données étaient excessives et on la recommande en tant que méthode d'évaluation biologique de la qualité de l'eau.
1 Environmental Research and Technology
Lexington, Massachusetts 02173
2 Department of Geology University of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas 66044
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Evidence based on fish data is often mandatory to convince the public of the condition of an aquatic system. However, fish are mobile, difficult to collect and the resultant data highly qualitative. The purpose of this report is to explore the use of a method which appears satisfactory for evaluating data of this kind. The method was tested using results of fish data collected during the summer months, 1971 and 1972, in the vicinity of a synthetic fibres plant located on the New River at Pearisburg, Virginia.
Plant consumption of water from New River (and minor ground water sources) averages 2.9 m3/sec, most of which (2.6 m3/sec) is utilized for cooling purposes and returned at temperatures 10–20°C above ambient river conditions. Chemical loading can produce a BOD5 of 11 000 kg, but daily dissolved oxygen concentration in New River do not fall below 4 mg/1 after adequate waste treatment. Treatment facilities consist of a 18.9 × 106 m3 lagoon with eight 75 hp aerators and two-day retention time. Flyash produced by burning 1 300 tons of coal per day enters New River via a tributary, Stillhouse Branch, that receives seepage and overflow waters from storage lagoons. Growths of the bacterium Sphaerotilus natans occur along the right shoreline in the immediate vicinity of the plant and are stimulated by nutrient enrichment and high discharge temperatures.
New River at the study area has an average summer discharge near 70 m3/sec, with annual discharges approaching 130 m3/sec. It is characterized by the large volume of water, rapids, and rugged substrate conditions (Hocutt, Hambrick and Masnik, 1973). Width averages 125 m and depth 2.5 m for most localities. Daily discharge may fluctuate as much as 40 m3/sec during normal summer conditions and 120 m3/sec during normal winter/spring conditions due to hydroelectric operations of Claytor Lake Dam located 80 km upstream.
To determine the longitudinal impact of the plant's wastes, five stations were located in New River as follows (Figure 1): Station 1, end of county road 641, 1.9 km N of junction of U.S. 460 and U.S. 100, Pearisburg, Va.; (2) A.E. Shumate bridge, U.S. 460, Pearisburg, Va., 1km above plant outfalls; (3) Mouth of Stillhouse Branch, 0.5 km N of radio station WNRV and just downstream of all industrial releases; (4) Mouth of Wolf Creek to mouth of Piney Creek, Narrows, Va., 5 km downstream of the plant; and, (5) the “Island Station”, 9.5 km downstream of the plant. Station 3 was divided into right (Station 3R) and left (Station 3L) substations to determine the extent of channelization of the effluents. Data analysis indicated that the fauna from the left shore (3L) was similar to upstream stations, thus it was considered as a control station for statistical interpretations. In effect, three reference stations (1, 2, and 3L), one station below the outfalls (3R), and two recovery stations (4 and 5) were established.
Fishes were collected by 3 to 8 m seines and by rotenone. Physical conditions of New River interfere with seining and efficiency is low. For this reason, rotenone collections (Hocutt et al., 1973) were made to supplement seine data.
Data were analysed by two methods and the results contrasted, the diversity index of Wilhm and Dorris' (1968) and Jaccard's (1908) similarity coefficient. The latter was employed because fish data are often highly qualitative and not readily analysed by diversity indices. Other indices for examining fish populations have recently been compared by McErlean and Mihursky (1968).
The Jaccard coefficient may be expressed by the equation:
where a, b, and c are notations from a standard 2 × 2 contingency table (Figure 2).
In comparing Station 1 with Station 2, variable a denotes the number of species that occur at both stations; b,the number of species found at Station 2, but not Station 1; and, c, the number of species occuring at Station 1, but not Station 2. Variable d, or the number of negative matches, is a factor coefficients (e.g., Kaesler, 1966) but is not considered by the Jaccard coefficient. Cairns and Kaesler (1969) discussed variable d and compared the Jaccard with other similarity coefficients.
Diversity (d (Wilhm and Dorris, 1968) was calculated by a FORTRAN IV computer programme using methods outlined by Cairns and Dickson (1971). A computer procedure for calculating Sj is presented here:
|DIMENSION SJ (10,10)|
|INTEGER*2 JX(10,80), AREG, BREG, CREG, DREG, Q(10)|
|C||PRINT PROGRAM HEADING.|
|10||FORMAT (1H1,10X,33HSIMILARITY COEFFICIENT SJ PROGRAM)|
|C||READ NUMBER OF SPECIES.|
|READ 9, M|
|C||READ NUMBER OF SITES.|
|C||READ PRESENCE OR ABSENCE DATA FOR EACH SPECIES AT EACH SITE.|
|READ 11, ((JX(J,K),K=1,80),J=1,N)|
|C||PRINT OUT DATA MATRIX HEADING.|
|C||PRINT PRESENCE OR ABSENCE MATRIX FOR EACH SPECIES AT EACH SITE.|
|PRINT 30, ((JX(J,K),K=1,80),J=1,N)|
|C||SEQUENCE EACH SPECIES AGAINST ALL OTHER SPECIES.|
|C||SEQUENCE EACH STATION.|
|DO 14 J=1,M|
|C||DETERMINE VALUES FOR EACH SQUARE OF THE CONTINGENCY TABLE.|
|IF (JX(I,J).EQ.1) GO TO 15|
|IF (JX(K,J).EQ.1) GO TO 16|
|GO TO 17|
|GO TO 14|
|GO TO 14|
|15||IF (JX(K,J).EQ.1) GO TO 18|
|GO TO 19|
|GO TO 14|
|C||CONVERT TO REAL NUMBERS|
|C||ORDER THE SJ VALUE IN ARRAY SJ.|
|C||START OF PRINTOUT OF SJ MATRIX.|
|DO 21 I=1,N|
|41||FORMAT (1H1,2X,9HSJ MATRIX)|
|C||PRINT OUR SJ MATRIX.|
|DO 22 I=1,N|
The programme is designed to analyse a maximum of 10 stations and 80 species, but can be easily modified by a competent programmer if the limits are exceeded. The data deck comprises the following cards:
Card 1 - The number of different species (M) in study, integer mode; right justified in column 9 and 10.
Card 2 - The number of different stations (N) in study, integer mode; right justified in columns 9 and 10.
Cards 3 to N + 2 - Data cards arranged by station in the order in which output is desired and punched with “1” integer mode, to indicate the presence of a given species at that station or left blank to indicate an absence.
It is suggested that the first data card have the number “1” punched in all columns, 1 through M. Each column, 1 through M, corresponds to a particular species and all sub-sequent cards are compared to this “composite” card. Since each species has an equal chance of occurring at each station, natural conditions of the river being equal, the programme will generate information about the normal variations in populations occurring from station to station and indicate areas of stress. If the “composite” card option is invoked, as in this study, then the total number of stations that can be analysed is nine.
A total of 14 507 specimens representing 45 species of fish was collected during the summers of 1971 and 1972 (Table I). Jaccard similarity coefficients showed that stations 4 and 5 were well within the 95 percent confidence interval calculated for control stations 1, 2 and 3L (Table II, Figure 3). Station 3R was outside the confidence interval, thus revealing a stressed situation along the right shoreline resulting from the plant's discharges. It should be noted that there was an unequal sampling effort at each locality, with the least effort expended at Station 3R. A difference of 18 species existed between Station 3R and Station 2, the station with the next lowest number of species collected (30); 12 additional species would be required for Station 3R to be within the 95 percent confidence interval.
Wilhm and Dorris' (1968) diversity index (d) for the same data indicated that Station 3R was stressed, Station 4 marginal and that recovery had not occurred at Station 5 (Table I, Figure 4). This interpretation resulted from the fact that redundancy (r) and diversity (d) are inversely related. This was evident at Station 5 which had a total of 35 species, but a relatively low d (2.96) influenced by a high redundancy; high redundancy was governed by large numbers of Campostoma anomalum (2 033 specimens) and Pimephales notatus (1 058) collected at the station.
A total of 41 species was collected from the survey area in 1971. Similarity coefficients (Table III, Figure 5) and d (Table IV, Figure 6) were calculated with data based on unequal sampling effort. Sj indicated stress conditions at Station 3R, incomplete recovery at Station 4, and complete recovery at Station 5.
Diversity (d) was marginal at Station 3R (2.45), though outside the 95 percent confidence interval; marginal (2.54) at Station 4, but within the confidence interval; and showed complete recovery (3.31) at Station 5. The importance of redundancy is emphasized by data from Stations 3R and 4 (Table IV): 11 species 89 specimens, were collected from Station 3R and 26 species, 1 554 specimens, from Station 4.
Similarity coefficients calculated for equal sampling effort in 1971 indicated that Station 3R was indeed stressed, but that recovery was complete by Station 4. Station 4 appeared borderline, but within the 95 percent confidence interval calculated from reference station data. This probably indicated improving environmental conditions downstream from Station 3R. Station 5 exhibited a high sj resulting form highly favourable conditions (Table V, Figure 7).
Conclusions based on the Wilhm and Dorris index (Table IV, Figure 8) conflict with information derived from Sj for equal sampling effort. The index (d) indicated that Station 3R was unstressed and fell well within the 95 percent confidence limits set for reference stations. Again, the basis for this interpretation was the inverse correlation of d with r. From these data it appears that Sj is a more reliable method of comparing fish populations, particularly where the data are highly redundant.
Jaccard coefficients recently were used in cluster analysis for related studies of protozoa (Cairns and Kaesler, 1969), aquatic insects (Roback, Cairns and Kaesler, 1969), algae (Cairns, Kaesler and Patrick, 1970), fish (Cairns and Kaesler, 1971), and other non-insect macroinvertebrates (Kaesler, Cairns and Bates, 1971). Historically, Jaccard coefficients have been used by plant ecologists to quantify, describe and compare floristic similarity of different quadrants (Greig-Smith, 1964). This analysis may be useful if applied to problems encountered in monitoring aquatic environments. Jaccard coefficients are simple to calculate and often the basis for more complex data analysis, e.g., cluster analysis.
As Wilhm and Dorris (1968) discussed for macroinvertebrate communities, a high redun dancy, low information per individual, and consequent low index of diversity often occur in stressed areas where a few species dominate. Conversely, unstressed communities can be expected to contain more species, fewer individuals per species, a lower redundancy and more information per individual, this being reflected in a higher diversity index. Accordingly this and other information indices are frequently used for comparing stable, unstressed communities with those affected by adverse environmental conditions. Data on occurrence and distribution of fishes, however, can be expected to be redundant in many instances. Fish are mobile and can migrate to and from stressed areas at will unless deleteriously affected. Individuals of a given species will congregate in a preferred habitat, and juveniles of many species are especially gregarious.
Diversity indices are based on the assumption that community structure is influenced and governed by environmental conditions, natural or unnatural. For water quality assessment programmes, one must distinguish natural community changes, e.g., longitudinal distribution, from those caused by unnatural stress, e.g., pollution. Stations should be selected to minimize natural physiochemical variables and all available habitats sampled for their characteristic fauna. These factors must be considered in calculating Jaccard coefficients as well.
The Jaccard coefficient is based entirely on the presence or absence of species at the locality. It is therefore essential that effort be expended at each station to collect a representative qualitative sample.
The results of this study indicate that the plant had a localized adverse effect on the fish fauna of New River, particularly at Station 3R. However, complete recovery occurred by Station 4, and Station 5 appeared unaffected. Station 3L was unaffected and provided habitat for 37 species of fish. This is especially significant since the channelization of the discharges can be identified. This investigation was conducted during periods of low summer discharge; therefore it is evident that adult fishes could easily avoid outfalls and retain normal migratory patterns.
Fish distribution in the vicinity of the plant was probably directly related to two factors: high discharge termperatures and large growths of the bacterium Sphaerotilus natans during summer conditions. Both were channelized along the right shoreline (Station 3R) and influenced environmental conditions. Temperature is a physical parameter considered by most physiologists as the single most important controlling factor of animal activity. Most fish species have a preferendum temperature near the temperature to which they are acclimated. Temperature fluctuations are easily sensed and fish will avoid large-scale rapid changes. Since the thermal plume averages 2.6 m3/sec of water per day at temperatures often exceeding normal river conditions by 10–20°C, fish probably avoided Station 3R for this reason.
Abundant growth of S. natans was significant as well. This bacterium thrives in water of high organic load, e.g., at the synthetic fibres plant where increased levels of BOD and temperature act synergistically to exclude various aquatic flora (Hydroscience, 1966, 1967 and 1968). Treatment facilities installed in 1970 eliminated much of the Sphaerotilus problem; however it continued to exist and greatly modified substrate conditions during the period of this survey. Various minnow and darter species were probably eliminated from preferred rubble habitats by lack of suitable, Sphaerotilus-free substrate. This view conflicts with the Hydroscience (1966) report which concluded that fish were only indirectly affected by S. natans via modification of the food chain.
Neither temperature nor Sphaerotilus appeared to be a problem at Station 4 where the number of species was significantly higher than at Station 3R. New River had a large discharge in comparison to the volume of the industrial wastes and showed great assimilative power. The organic load was diluted afterthorough mixing; the thermal plume was dissipated within 1 km of the plant under most adverse summer conditions.
Cairns et al., (1970) emphasized the necessity of developing rapid methods for the assessment of biological data; lag time between collection and interpretation is usually slow. The method presented herein is recommended to aquatic biologists as a procedure for rapidly evaluating fauna (and flora) during instream monitoring investigations.
Advantages of the Jaccard similarity coefficient as a method for assessing biological conditions of aquatic habitats are: (1) it is simple to compute; (2) it reflects species shifts and trends between stations; (3) it is applicable at low population densities or sample size; (4) it can be adapted to qualitative data; (5) it minimizes the effects of seasonal or annual variation on population trends; and (6) its use eliminates problems associated with redundancy. Disadvantages of Sj appear to be: (1) the effects of physiochemical factors causing longitudinal distribution; (2) that specimens must be identified to taxa (as compared to the Sequential Comparison Index of Cairns et al. (1968) and Cairns and Dickson (1971); (3) its dependence on sampling effort to obtain a representatives qualitative collection; and (4) that it does not recognize redundancy as a factor in certain important situations, e.g., where the organisms studied may not be capable of active migration to and from stressed areas.
Equipment and funds for this investigation were provided in part by the Department of Biology Research Grant 808368-1, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Financial assistance was also obtained from the Biomedical Sciences Support Grant 4869- 5706-6 and the office of Water Resources Research Grant A-054-Kan from the University of Kansas. The authors wish to recognize Dr. Kenneth L. Dickson, VPI & SU, who critically reviewed the manuscript. Lastly, we wish to thank the various VPI & SU faculty members and graduate students who assisted in the field.
|Percina crassa roanoka||42||2||-||4||1||88||137|
|Station||Unequal Effort||Equal Effort|
Figure 1 Map of the survey area located on the New River, Virginia
Figure 2 A standard 2 × 2 contingency table expressing the Jaccard similarity coefficient (Sj). Hash marks represent hypothetical species present at the particular locality
Figure 3 Similarity (Sj) of each station to the composite “total taxa” collected from all stations, 1971 and 1972 combined. X, L1, and L2 are the mean, lower and upper confidence limits, respectively, determined for a 95 percent confidence interval from control station data.
Figure 4 Diversity (d) by station, calculated for total fishes collected, 1971 and 1972 combined. X, L1, and L2 are the mean, lower and upper confidence limits, respectively, determined for a 95 percent confidence interval from control station data.
Figure 5 Similarity (Sj) of each station to the composite “total taxa” collected from all stations in 1971. X, L1, and L2 are the mean, lower and upper confidence limits, respectively, determined for a 95 percent confidence interval from control station data
Figure 6 Diversity (d) by station, calculated for total fishes collected in 1971. X, L1, and L2 are the mean, lower and upper confidence limits, respectively, determined for a 95 percent confidence interval from control station data.
Figure 7 Similarity (Sj) of each station to the composite “total taxa” collected by equal effort (two seine collections) from all stations in 1971. X, L1, and L2 are the mean, lower and upper confidence limits, respectively, determined for a 95 percent confidence interval from control station data.
Figure 8 Diversity (d) by station, calculated for equal effort (two seine collections) at each locality in 1971. X, L1, and L2 are the mean, lower and upper confidence limits, respectively, determined for a 95 percent confidence interval from control station data.
Barraclough, W.E. and D. Robinson, 1972 The fertilization of Great Central Lake. 3. Effect on juvenile sockeye salmon. Fish. Bull. NOAA/NMFS, 70(1):37–48
Bechtel, T.J. and B.J. Copeland, 1970 Fish species diversity indices as indicators of pollution in Galveston Bay. Contrib. Mar. Sci. Univ. Tex., (15):103-32
Cairns, J. Jr., and K.L. Dickson, 1971 A simple method for the biological assessment of the effects of waste discharges on aquatic bottom-dwelling organisms. J. Water Pollut.Control Fed., 43:755-72
Cairns, J. Jr., and R.L. Kaesler, 1969 Cluster analysis of Potomac River survey stations based on protozoan presence-absence data. Hydrobiologia, 34(3–4):414-32
Cairns, J. Jr., Cluster analysis of fish in a portion of the upper Potomac River. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 100(4):750-56
Cairns, J. Jr., R.L. Kaesler and R. Patrick, 1970 Occurrence and distribution of diatoms and other algae in the upper Potomac River. Not. Nat. (436):12 p.
Cairns, J. Jr., et al., 1968 The sequential comparison index - a simplified method for non-biologists to estimate relative differences in biological diversity in stream pollution studies. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed., 40:755-72
Clemens, W.A., D.S. Rawson and J.L. McHugh, 1939 A biological survey of Okanagan Lake, British Columbia. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can., (56):70 p.
Cochran, W.G., 1963 Sampling techniques. New York, Wiley and Sons, 413 p.
Coulter, G.W., 1970 Gill net selection of Lates mariae Stdr. (Nile perch) in Lake Tanganyika. Vest.Cesk.Spol.Zool., 34(2):81-9
Cucin, D. and H.A. Regier, 1966 Dynamics and exploitation of lake whitefish in southern Georgian Bay. J.Fish.Res. Board Can., 23:221-74
Cushing, D.H., 1952 Echo surveys for fish. J.Cons.Perm.Int.Explor.Mer, 18(1):45–60
Cushing, D.H., 1973 The detection of fish. Oxford, Pergamon Press, 200 p.
Greig-Smith, P., 1964 Quantitative plant ecology. London, Butterworth, 256 p.
Hamley, J.M., 1974 On the interpretation of selectivity. (Submitted for publication)
Hamley, J.M. and H.A. Regier, 1973 Direct estimates of gillnet selectivity to walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum). J. Fish.Res.Board Can., 30(6):817-30
Hauser, A. and H.E. Bryant, 1968 Sampling reservoir fish populations using midwater trawls. In American Fisheries Society Reservoir Fishery Resources Symposium, pp. 391–404
Hocutt, C.H., P.S. 1973 Hambrick and M.T. Masnik, Rotenone methods in a large river system. Arch.Hydrobiol., 72(2):245-52
Holling, C.S., 1966 The strategy of building models of complete systems. In Systems analysis In ecology, edited by K.E.F. Watt. New York, Academic Press.
Ivlev, V.S., (Transl. D. Scott), 1961 Experimental ecology of the feeding of fishes. New Haven, Yale University Press, 302 p.
Jaccard, p., 1980 Nouvelle recherches sur la distribution florale. Bull.Soc.Vaud.Sci.Nat., 44:223-70
Kaesler,R.L. 1966 Quantitative re-evaluation of ecology and distribution of recent foraminifera and ostracoda of Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico. Paleont.Contrib.Univ.Kans., (10): 1–50
Kaesler, R.L., 1971 J. Cairns Jr., and J.M. Bates, Cluster analylsis of non-insect macroinvertebrates of the upper Potomac River. Hydrobiologia, 37: 173-81
Larkin, P.A. and T.G. Northcote, 1969 Fish as indices of eutrophication. In Eutrophication: causes, consequences, correctives. Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences. pp. 256-73
Loftus, K.H. and H.A. Regier (Eds), 1972 Proceedings of the 1971 symposium on salmonid communities in oligotrophic lakes. J.Fish.Res.Board Can., 29(6):611–986
Maguire, B. Jr.,1973 Niche response structure and the analytical potentials of its relationship to the habitat. Am.Nat., 107: 213-46
Margalef, R., 1969 Diversity and stability: a practical proposal and a model of interdependence. Brookhaven Symp.Biol., (22): 25–37
McErlean, A.J. and J.A. Mihursky, 1968 Species diversity, species abundance of fish populations: an examination of various methods. Proc.Annu.Conf.Southeast.Assoc.Game Fish Comm., 22:367–72
Northcote, T.G., 1968 Eutrophication and recreation fishes in two large lake basins in British Columbia, In Proceedings of the Symposium on Lakes of Western Canada, Water Resources Centre, University of Alberta, pp. 175-88
Northcote, T.G., 1973a Some impacts of man on Kootenay Lake in its salmonoids. Tech.Rep.Great Lakes Fish.Comm., (25): 46 p.
Northcote, T.G.,T.G. Halsey and S.J. MacDonald, 1972 Fish as indicators of water quality in the Okanagan basin lakes, British Columbia. Prelim.Rep.Okanagan Basin Agreement., (22):78 p.
Northcote, T.G., H.W. Lorz and J.C. MacLeod, 1964 Studies on diel vertical movement of fishes in a British Columbia lake. Verh.Int.Ver.Limnol., 15(2):940-6
Odum, E.P., 1969 The strategy of ecosystem development. Science, Wash., 164: 262-70
Paloheimo, J.E., 1971 On a theory of search. Biometrika, 58:61–75
Paloheimo, J.E., 1971a A stochastic theory of search: implications for predator-prey situations. Math.Biosci., 12:105-32
Patalas, K. and A. Salki, 1973 Crustacean plankton and the eutrophication of lakes in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia. J.Fish.Res.Board.Can., 30(4):519-42
Pielou, E.C., 1966 The measure of diversity in different types of biological collections. J.Theor.Biol., 13: 131-44
Regier, H.A. (Ed.), 1971 Evaluation of fisheries resources in African fresh waters. Afr.J. Trop.Hydrobiol.Fish., 1(1): 69–83
Regier, H.A. (Ed.), 1973, The sequence of exploitation in multi-species fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes. J.Fish.Res.Board.Can., 30(12) pt.2:1992-9
Regier, H.A. (Ed.), Ecology of fish: a sketch of the state of the science and of its application. Mitt.Int.Ver.Limnol. (in press)
Regier, H.A. (Ed.) The dynamics of fish populations and aquatic ecosystems: a framework of alternative approaches. In The population dynamics of fishes, edited by J.A. Gulland. London, John Wiley (in press)
Regier, H.A. and H.F. Henderson, 1973 Towards a broad ecological model of fish communities and fisheries. Trans.Am.Fish.Soc., 102(1): 56–72
Regier, H.A. and D.S.Robson, 1966 Selectivity of gill nets, especially to lake whitefish. J.Fish.Res.Board Can., 23(3): 423-54
Roback, S.S., J. Cairns Jr., and R.L. Kaesler, 1969 Cluster analysis of occurrence and distribution of insect species in a portion of the Potomac River. Hydrobiologia, 34: 484–502
Stockner, J.G.and T.G. Northcote, 1974 Recent limnological studies of Okanagan Basin lakes and their contribution to comprehensive water resources planning. J.Fish. Res.Board Can., 31(5):955-76(Special issue)
Thorne, R.E. 1971 Investigations into the relation between integrated echo voltage and fish density. J.Fish.Res.Board Can., 28(10):1269-73
Wilhm, J.L. and T.C. Dorris, 1968 Biological parameters for water quality criteria. Bioscience, 18(6):477-81
|Papers issued in this series||Documents publiés dans la présente série|
|EIFAC/T1||Water quality criteria for European freshwater fish.Report on finely divided solids and inland fisheries (1964).||EIFAC/T1||Critères de qualité des eaux pour les poissons d'eau douce européens. Rapport sur les solides finement divisés et les pêches intérieures (1964).|
|EIFAC/T2||Fish Diseases. Technical Notes submitted to EIFAC Third Session by Messrs. J. Heyl, H. Mann, C.J. Rasmussen, and A. van der Struik (Austria, 1964).||EIFAC/T2||Maladies des poissons. Notes présentées à la troisième session de la CECPI par J. Heyl,H. Mann, C.J. Rasmussen et A. van der Struik (Autriche, 1964).|
|EIFAC/T3||Feeding in Trout and Salmon Culture. Papers submitted to a Symposium, EIFAC Fourth Session (Belgrade, 1966).||EIFAC/T3||Alimentation dans l'élevage de la truite et du saumon. Communications présentées à un symposium, quatrième session de la CECPI, (Belgrade, 1966).|
|EIFAC/T4||Water quality criteria for European freshwater fish. Report on extreme pH values and inland fisheries (1968).||EIFAC/T4||Critères de qualité des eaux pour les poissons d'eau douce européens. Rapport sur les valeurs extrêmes du pH et les pêches interieures (1968)|
|EIFAC/T5||Organization of inland fisheries administration in Europe, by Jean-Louis Gaudet (Rome, 1968).||EIFAC/T5||Organisation de l'administration des pêches intérieures en Europe, par Jean-Louis Gaudet (Rome, 1968).|
|EIFAC/T6||Water quality criteria for European freshwater fish. Report on water temperature and inland fisheries based mainly on Slavonic Literature (1968).||EIFAC/T6||Critères de qualité des eaux pour les poissons d'eau douce européens. Rapport sur la température de l'eau et les pêches intérieures basé essentiellement sur la documentation slave (1968).|
|EIFAC/T7||Economic evaluation of inland sport fishing, by Ingemar Norling (Sweden, 1968).||EIFAC/T7||Evaluation économique de la pêche sportive dans les eaux continentales, par Ingemar Norling (Suède, 1968).|
|EIFAC/T8||Water quality criteria for European freshwater fish. List of literature on the effect of water temperature on fish (1969).||EIFAC/T8||Critères de qualité des eaux pour les poissons d'eau douce européens. Références bibliographiques sur les effects de la température de l'eau sur le poisson (1969).|
|EIFAC/T9||New developments in carp and trout nutrition. Papers submitted to a Symposium, EIFAC Fifth session (Rome, 1968).||EIFAC/T9||Récents développements dans la nutrition de la carpe et de la truite. Communications présentées à un symposium, cinquième session de la CECPI (Rome, 1968).|
|EIFAC/T10||Comparative study of laws and regulations governing the international traffic in live fish and fish eggs, by F. B. Zenny, FAO Legislation Branch (Rome, 1969).||EIFAC/T10||Etude comparée des mesures législatives et administratives régissant les échanges internationaux de poissons vivants et d'oeufs de poisson, par F. B. Zenny, Service de législation de la FAO (Rome, 1969).|
|EIFAC/T11||Water quality criteria for European freshwater fish. Report on ammonia and inland fisheries (1970).||EIFAC/T11||Critères de qualité des eaux pour les poissons d'eau douce européens. Rapport sur l'ammoniaque et les pêches intérieures (Rome, 1970).|
|EIFAC/T12||Salmon and trout feeds and feeding (1971)||CECPI/T12||Ailments du saumon et de la truite et leur distribution (1973).|
|EIFAC/T13||Elements of the theory of age determination of fish according to scales. The problem of validity (1971).||EIFAC/T13||Eléments de la théorie de détermination de l'âge des poissons d'après les écailles. Le problème de validité (1971).|
|EIFAC/T14||EIFAC consultation on eel fishing gear and techniques (Rome, 1971).||EIFAC/T14||Consultation de la CECPI sur les engins et techniques de pêches à l'anguille (Rome, 1971).|
|EIFAC/T15||Water quality criteria for European freshwater fish. Report on monohydric phenols and inland fisheries (1972).||CECPI/T15||Critères de qualité des eaux pour les poissons d'eau douce européens. Rapport sur les phénols monohydratés et les pêches intérieures (1973).|
|EIFAC/T16||Symposium on the nature and extent of water pollution problems affecting inland fisheries in Europe. Synthesis of national reports (1972)||EIFAC/T16||Symposium sur la nature et l'étendue des problèmes de pollution des eaux affectant les pêches continentales en Europe. Synthèse des rapport nationaux (1972).|
|EIFAC/T17||Symposium on the major comunicable fish diseases in Europe and their control. Report (1972).||CECPI/T17||Symposium sur les principales maladies transmissibles des poissons en Europe et la lutte contre celles-ci (1973).|
|EIFAC/T17 Suppl. 1||The major communicable fish disease of Europe and North America: A review of national and international measures for their control (1973).||CECPI/T17 Suppl. 1||Les principales maladies transmissibles des poissons en Europe et en Amérique du Nord: Examen de mesures nationales et internationales sur la lutte contre ces maladies (1973).|
|EIFAC/T17 Suppl. 2||Symposium on the major communicable fish disease in Europe and their control. Panel reviews and their relevant papers (1973).||CECPI/T17 Suppl. 2||Symposium sur les principales maladies transmissibles des poissons en Europe et la lutte contre celles-ci. Exposés des groupes et communications apparentées (1973).|
|EIFAC/T18||The role of administrative action as a tool in water pollution control, by G.K. Moore, FAO Legislation Branch (Rome, 1973).||CECPI/T18||Le rôle instrumental de l'administration dans la lutte contre la pollution des eaux, par G. K. Moore, Sous-division de la législation de la FAO (Rome, 1973).|
|EIFAC/T19||Water quality criteria for European freshwater fish. Report on dissolved oxygen and inland fisheries (1973).||CECPI/T19||Critères de qualité des eaux pour les poissons d'eau douce européens. Rapport sur l'oxygène dissous et les pêches intérieures (1973).|
|EIFAC/T20||Water quality criteria for European freshwater fish. Report on chlorine and freshwater fish (1973).||CECPI/T20||Critères de qualité des eaux pour les poissons d'eau douce européens. Rapport sur le chlore et les poissons d'eau dounce (1973).|
|EIFAC/T21||Water quality criteria for European freshwater fish. Report on zinc and freshwater fish (1973).|
|EIFAC/T23||Symposium on the methodology for the survey, monitoring and appraisal of fishery resources in lakes and large rivers. Report (1974).||CECPI/T21||Critères de qualité des eaux pour les poissons d'eau douce européens. Rapport sur le zinc et les poissons d'eau dounce (1973).|
|EIFAC/T23 Suppl. 1||Symposium on the methodology for the survey, monitoring and appraisal of fishery resources in lakes and large rivers. Panel review and relevant papers (1975).|