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Chow, K.W., Rumsey, G.L. and Woldroup, P.W. 1980. Linear programming in fish diet formulation. In: Fish Feed Technology. UNDP/FAO/ADCO/REP/80/11. 395 pp.

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Annex 1. Feed classes by composition and use

1Dry fodderStraw, foliage, products with over 18% fibre on a dry basis. These are poor in net energy per unit of weight due to the high fibre content. This includes such by-products as seed hulls, pods, brans, etc…
2Fresh fodderIncludes all forage, whether uncut or green plants and cut and administered fresh forage.
3SilageIncludes only fodder (maize, alfalfa, grass), not animal, cereal or root/tuber silage.
4Energy feedsInclude products with under 20% protein and 18% fibre on a dry basis such as fish, grains and milling by-products.
5Protein feedsInclude products with over 20% protein on dry basis of animal origin (including silage) as well as oilseeds and other materials.
6Mineral supplements 
7Vitamin supplementsIncludes silage yeasts.
8AdditivesInclude other supplements such as antibiotics, dyes, flavourings, hormones and medicaments.

Taken from Harris, 1980

Annex 2. Recommended limits for some undesirable substances in feed ingredients

SubstanceMaterialMaximum content (12% moisture; mg/kg)
ArsenicAll ingredients except:
• Feeds made with dry grass, alfalfa or clover
• Beet pulp or beet molasses
• Phosphates and by-products of fish and other marine animals

FluoridesAll ingredients except:
• Materials of animal origin
• Phosphates
LeadAll ingredients except:
• Grass, alfalfa or clover meal
• Phosphates
• Yeasts
MercuryAll ingredients except:
• Fish and other marine animal by-products
NitritesFish meal60
(as sodium nitrite)
Aflatoxin B1All ingredients0.05
Ricine (Ricinus communis)All ingredients10
Crotalaria spp.All unmilled materials100
Free gossypolAll ingredients except:
• Cottonseed meal or cake
Prussic acidAll ingredients except:
• Linseed
• Linseed meal or cake
• Cassava products and almond cake
Volatile mustard oilAll ingredients except:
• Rapeseed meal or cake
Seeds and fruits containing alka- loids, glucosides or other toxic substances, either alone or- combined, including:
Lolium temulentum
Lolium remotum
Datura stramonium
All ingredients3,000


Taken from Williams, 1987

Annex 3. Some anti-nutrient factors identified in different feed ingredients

Protease inhibitorOilseeds including: Cotton (Gossypium spp.) Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Rape (Brassica campestris) Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Soya (Glycine max)Affects trypsin activity and makes the sulphurated amino- acid deficiency of plant protein more serious. Causes pancreatic hypertrophy associated with loss of endogenous proteins secreted by the pancreas, which are largely made up of cystine-rich enzymes.
 Legumes including: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Kathin/Ipil-Ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) Canavalia (Canavalia spp.) Beans (Phaseolus spp.) Lupin (Lupinus albus) Cereals and their by-productsHeat labile.
PhytohaemagglutininsOilseeds including groundnut, soya Legumes including: Beans Peas (Cicer spp., Vigna spp., Cajanus spp., Pisum spp.) Cereals and their by-productsCause blood clotting. Heat labile.
Phytic acid (phytates)Oilseeds including: Groundnut, rape, soya cotton Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Legumes including beans, peas Cereals and their by-productsForm indigestible complexes with proteins, phosphorous, cal- cium, zinc, copper, magnesium, etc… causing mineral deficiency Not inactivated by heat.
CyanogensOilseeds including linseed (Linum usi- tatissimum) Legumes including beans, peas Cassava meal and sorghumToxicity from cyanide.

Cooking destroys the enzymes that release the toxin and volatilizes the HCN.
Anti-vitamin factors: Anti-vitamin E Anti-vit. B12, D, ASoya, beans, alfalfa SoyaReduce biological availability of vitamins. Destroyed by heat.
Micotoxins: AflatoxinsOilseeds including: Groundnut, rape, soya, sunflower, cotton Legumes including beans, peas Cereals and their by-productsHigh toxicity. Produced by mould (Azpergilus spp.) in im- proper storage conditions: high humidity and temperature. Also found in processed feed- stuffs.
Free amino-acids: Mimosine CanavanineLegumes including: Kathin/Ipil-Ipil Canavalia, sesbania (Sesbania spp.)Toxic at high levels; inhibit growth. Heat stable.

Adapted from FAO, 1983; Tacon and Jackson, 1985; New, 1987.


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