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Annex 1. Feed classes by composition and use
|1||Dry fodder||Straw, foliage, products with over 18% fibre on a dry basis. These are poor in net energy per unit of weight due to the high fibre content. This includes such by-products as seed hulls, pods, brans, etc…|
|2||Fresh fodder||Includes all forage, whether uncut or green plants and cut and administered fresh forage.|
|3||Silage||Includes only fodder (maize, alfalfa, grass), not animal, cereal or root/tuber silage.|
|4||Energy feeds||Include products with under 20% protein and 18% fibre on a dry basis such as fish, grains and milling by-products.|
|5||Protein feeds||Include products with over 20% protein on dry basis of animal origin (including silage) as well as oilseeds and other materials.|
|7||Vitamin supplements||Includes silage yeasts.|
|8||Additives||Include other supplements such as antibiotics, dyes, flavourings, hormones and medicaments.|
Taken from Harris, 1980
Annex 2. Recommended limits for some undesirable substances in feed ingredients
|Substance||Material||Maximum content (12% moisture; mg/kg)|
|Arsenic||All ingredients except:|
• Feeds made with dry grass, alfalfa or clover
• Beet pulp or beet molasses
• Phosphates and by-products of fish and other marine animals
|Fluorides||All ingredients except: |
• Materials of animal origin
|Lead||All ingredients except: |
• Grass, alfalfa or clover meal
|Mercury||All ingredients except: |
• Fish and other marine animal by-products
(as sodium nitrite)
|Aflatoxin B1||All ingredients||0.05|
|Ricine (Ricinus communis)||All ingredients||10|
|Crotalaria spp.||All unmilled materials||100|
|Free gossypol||All ingredients except:|
• Cottonseed meal or cake
|Prussic acid||All ingredients except:|
• Linseed meal or cake
• Cassava products and almond cake
|Volatile mustard oil||All ingredients except: |
• Rapeseed meal or cake
|Seeds and fruits containing alka- loids, glucosides or other toxic substances, either alone or- combined, including:|
|All ingredients||3,000 |
Taken from Williams, 1987
Annex 3. Some anti-nutrient factors identified in different feed ingredients
|Protease inhibitor||Oilseeds including: Cotton (Gossypium spp.) Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Rape (Brassica campestris) Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Soya (Glycine max)||Affects trypsin activity and makes the sulphurated amino- acid deficiency of plant protein more serious. Causes pancreatic hypertrophy associated with loss of endogenous proteins secreted by the pancreas, which are largely made up of cystine-rich enzymes.|
|Legumes including: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Kathin/Ipil-Ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) Canavalia (Canavalia spp.) Beans (Phaseolus spp.) Lupin (Lupinus albus) Cereals and their by-products||Heat labile.|
|Phytohaemagglutinins||Oilseeds including groundnut, soya Legumes including: Beans Peas (Cicer spp., Vigna spp., Cajanus spp., Pisum spp.) Cereals and their by-products||Cause blood clotting. Heat labile.|
|Phytic acid (phytates)||Oilseeds including: Groundnut, rape, soya cotton Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Legumes including beans, peas Cereals and their by-products||Form indigestible complexes with proteins, phosphorous, cal- cium, zinc, copper, magnesium, etc… causing mineral deficiency Not inactivated by heat.|
|Cyanogens||Oilseeds including linseed (Linum usi- tatissimum) Legumes including beans, peas Cassava meal and sorghum||Toxicity from cyanide.|
Cooking destroys the enzymes that release the toxin and volatilizes the HCN.
|Anti-vitamin factors: Anti-vitamin E Anti-vit. B12, D, A||Soya, beans, alfalfa Soya||Reduce biological availability of vitamins. Destroyed by heat.|
|Micotoxins: Aflatoxins||Oilseeds including: Groundnut, rape, soya, sunflower, cotton Legumes including beans, peas Cereals and their by-products||High toxicity. Produced by mould (Azpergilus spp.) in im- proper storage conditions: high humidity and temperature. Also found in processed feed- stuffs.|
|Free amino-acids: Mimosine Canavanine||Legumes including: Kathin/Ipil-Ipil Canavalia, sesbania (Sesbania spp.)||Toxic at high levels; inhibit growth. Heat stable.|
Adapted from FAO, 1983; Tacon and Jackson, 1985; New, 1987.