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ANIMAL PRODUCTS

Honey and beeswax

Forest honey in Viet Nam is produced mainly by Apis dorsata. Some quantities are produced by Apis cerana, Apis florea and Apis trigona. About 200 to 400 tonnes of forest honey per year are marketed and pure forest honey has a much better price on the domestic market because of its good taste and the medicinal qualities that are ascribed to it (de Beer 1993). Some honey has been produced by raising the European honey bee (Apis melifera).

According to Viet Nam’s Central Bee Company (VCBC), Viet Nam has around 350 000 bee hives, mainly in the Central Highlands and also in a number of northern and southern provinces. They yield around 8 000 tonnes of honey and hundreds of tonnes of wax annually. During the first half of 2001 the VCBC exported more than 4 000 tonnes of honey (an increase of 1 000 tonnes compared to the previous year). The price for the honey exported is 10 percent higher than during 2000. Exports of honey have increased compared to the export levels of 1995. Viet Nam’s honey is exported to the European Union, Japan, the United States, ASEAN countries and Taiwan (Vietnam News 2001).

 

Table 15. Exports of honey

Importing country

Volume (kg)

Value (US$

Product code

Year

Japan

534 860

340 290

0409. 00

1995

USA

20 400

12 036

0409.00.0064

1994

European Union

389

323 299

0409.00.00

1995

Total

55 649

675 625

   

Source: VFFSCP (1997)

Living animals/bushmeat

The value of trade in wildlife in Viet Nam from 1992 to 1993 was estimated to have been approximately US$24 million. It is remarkable that 11 of the 79 species of birds and 10 of 77 species of mammals traded in Viet Nam have been declared rare or endangered (Le Dien Duc 1997). The hunting and poaching of any animal without a permit has been banned since 1973 and species threatened with extinction have been recommended to be banned from commercial trade (Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment [MOSTE] 1992). Another law was passed in 1992 prohibiting the sales and export of 45 species and restricting the trade in another 15 species (Donovan 1998).

Medicines

In the central coastal province of Ha Tinh, farmers have for many decades raised spotted deer Cervus nippon (local name huong sao) to sell its antlers for Chinese medicine. The antlers, which can be harvested annually, earn D2.5 million (US$250) per set. Keeping a male deer is therefore as profitable as cultivating one hectare of rice. Deer breeding can generate more profits but requires a heavy initial investment (a three-month-old deer costs D25 million (US$2 500).

Other non-edible animal products

Lac (trade name shellac or sticklac, local name canh kien do) is the resinous secretion obtained from the body of the insect, Laccifer lacca. Before the 1990s, lac resin had the potential to generate income for minorities in the northwest of Viet Nam. The amount of lac exported annually is about 350 tonnes (Chu 1996).

There are two seasons for harvesting lac resin: autumn (March to September) and spring (September to March). The host trees can be found in the wild, in home gardens and in plantations. Host trees suitable for lac cultivation in Viet Nam include co phen (Protium ceratum), cay sung (Ficus glomerata), cay coi (Pterocarya tonkinsis), cay ban xe (Albizzia lucida), cay dau thieu (Cajapus cajan) and Dalbergia hupeana.

 

REFERENCES

Bay, An Van. 1985. Anh huong dieu kien khi hau voi chu ky mat mua trong san xuat canh.

Bieu, Tran Gia. 1981. Tong ket nghien cuu 20 nam bien phap ky thuat gay trong rung thong nhua vung Quang Ninh. (Overview for 20 years [1957–1977] technical planting pine resin in Quang Ninh Province.) Hanoi, Viet Nam, Ministry of Forests.

BirdLife International. 2001. Sourcebook of existing and proposed protected areas in Vietnam. Vietnam Programme and the Forest Inventory and Planning Institute (with financial support from the European Union).

Chu, Ha Chu. 2001. Mot vai y kien ve che bien lam dac san. Thong tin chuyen de Khoa Hoc, Cong nghe va Kinh te. Trung Tam Thong Tin, Bo Nong Nghiep va Phat trien Nong Thon. So 2 nam 2001. (Some ideas on processing NTFPs in Vietnam.) Viet Nam, MARD.

Chu, Ha Chu. 2000. Situation of non-wood forest products – production and utilization in Vietnam. Proceedings of the International Symposium on NTFP in China, Laos, and Vietnam. Simao, Yunnan Provincial FCCDP Office.

Doan Bong. 1995. Report on utilization of rattan and bamboo-technology for paper pulping in Vietnam (1991–1994). Viet Nam, Forest Scientific Institute of Viet Nam (FSIV).

Donovan. 1998. Policy issues of transboundary trade in forest products in northern Vietnam, Lao PDR and Yunnan PRC. Workshop proceedings. Honolulu, Hawaii, Program on Environment, East-West Center.

Dung Vu Van. 1996. Plant and develop rattan in Vietnam. Hanoi, Agricultural House. Viet Nam, FIPI.

Dung, Vu Van. 2001. May song va trien vong phat trien o Viet nam. Thong tin chuyen de Khoa Hoc, Cong nghe va Kinh te. Trung Tam Thong Tin, Bo Nong Nghiep va Phat rien Nong Thon. So 2. (Rattan and expect development in Vietnam.) Viet Nam, MARD.

FAO. 1993. Non-wood forest products in Indochina; Focus: Vietnam. Working Paper by Jenne H. De Beer. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Hien Anh. 2001. Reduce poverty base on mushroom cultivation. Great Unity No 22. 2001.

Hien, Nguyen Huu. 1996. Gia tri dac biet cua tram huong va viec tao tram. Thong tin khoa hoc lam nghiep so 2.

Hoang Cau. 2000. Analysis market on cinnamon contribution for strategy development on the north mountain of Vietnam. Viet Nam, MARD.

Hoang Cau. 2000. Tendency of market on cinnamon to contribute to rural development in upland of the north of Vietnam. Viet Nam, MARD.

Hoang, Tran Le. 1996. Ky thuat trong que. Thong tin khoa hoc ky thuat kinh te lam nghiep so 2. (Technical planting of cinnamon.) Viet Nam, MARD.

Huan, Vo Nguyen. 2000. Actual situation of forest product market in Vietnam at present and main approaches for widening the forest product consumption market. Viet Nam, MARD.

Huan, Vo Nguyen. 2000. Some mechanism and policy approaches to production of composite board and special forest products production. Information on Forest Science and Technology Review. Viet Nam, FSIV.

Huong, Phan Thanh. 2000. Dac diem sinh truong mot so xuat su thong Caribe (Pinus caribaea Morelet) duoc khao nghiem tren mot so vung sinh thai o Viet Nam. Luan an thac sy khoa hoc lam nghiep. Dai Hoc Lam Nghiep. (Research characteristics of a number of caribe planted in different eco -zones in Vietnam.)

Huy, Nguyen Huu. 1996. Findings of the survey of chestnut tree (Castaneamollissima blume) in Trung Khanh and Nguyen Binh districts, Cao Bang Province.

Kham, Nguyen Duc. 1986. The ecological population variation of the lac insect (Lacciferidae, Homoptera) and the lac production.

Lauong Van Tien. 1994. Vietnam. In Non-wood forest products in Asia. RAP Publication 1994/28. Bangkok, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

Lecup, I. 1996. Market systems analysis of non-timber forest products in Vietnam: preliminary study. RECOFTC.

MARD. 2000. Forestry development strategy period 2001–2010.

MARD. 2001. 5MHRP partnership, the first draft for discussion. Prepared by Task Force III Report.

Nguyen Tap. 2001. Quan ly va bao ve nguon cay thuoc tren nui da voi o Viet Nam. Thong tin chuyen de Khoa Hoc, Cong nghe va Kinh te. Trung Tam Thong Tin, Bo Nong Nghiep va.

NTFP Project. 1999. Dieu tra lam san ngoai go tai hai tinh Cao Bang Va Bac Kan. (Case study of NTFPs in Bac Kan, Cao bang Province.) Prepared by the RRA team, NTFP project document.

NTFP Project. 1999. Report on a diagnostic survey of conservation problems and development opportunities in Khang Ninh Commune in the buffer zone of Ba Be national park. By John B. Raintree, Le Thi Phi and Nguyen van Duong.

NTFP Project. 1999. Report on a diagnostic survey of conservation problems and development opportunities in Cam Xuyen District in the buffer zone of Ke Go Natural Conserve Area of Ha Tinh Province. By John B. Raintree, Le Thi Phi and Nguyen van Duong.

NTFP Project. 2000. Non-timber forest products sub sector analysis Vietnam. Mission report prepared for IUCN and NTFP-RC by Jenne de Beer, Chu Ha Chu and Tuy Tran Quoc.

Phi, Le Thi. 2001. Thi truong lam san ngoai go-Nhung kho khan va thuan loi. Thong tin chuyen de khoa hoc, cong nghe va kinh te. Bo Nong nghiep Va Phat Trien Nong thon. So 2 nam 2001. (NWFP market opportunity and constraints.) Viet Nam, MARD.

Salter. 2000. Overview of the bamboo industry in Thanh Hoa Province, Vietnam. Prepared for CIDA by International Development Enterprises.

Tan, Nguyen Ngoc. 1996. Dac diem sinh ly, sinh thaI va cong nghe gay trong, phat trien rung hoi. Thong tin khoa hoc ky thuat kinh te lam nghiep so 2 nam 1996. (Character of biology and ecology and technical planting on development of anise.) Viet Nam, MARD.

Thu Hanh. 2001. Could be able riches by mushroom cultivation. Economic Vietnam & World, No 63.

Thu Hanh. 2001. Flourishing handicraft sector fulfils its promise as key export industry. Vietnam News March 21, 2001.

Truong Thanh. 1996. Ky thuat nuoI huou, nai. Thong tin khoa hoc, ky thuat, kinh te lam nghiep so 2 nam 1996. (Technical raising of spotted deer.) Viet Nam, MARD.

Tu, Dinh Van. 2000. Cay sa nhan Viet Nam, tai lieu huong dan ky thuat trong cay. (Cardamom in Vietnam.) Viet Nam, FSIV.

VFFSCP (The Vietnam-Finland Forestry Sector Co-operation Programme). 1997. Market opportunities, appropriate technologies and financial viability for demonstration farms. The Department of Agriculture and Rural Development of Bac Kan Province: Technical report No 6, July 1997.

VFFSCP. 1997a. Review on international trade statistics: wood and non-wood forest products imports from Vietnam. The Department of Agriculture and Rural Development of Bac Kan Province (October 1997).

Viet, Tran Quang. 2000. Vien Khoa Hoc Lam Nghiep Viet Nam. (Regeneration of Dipterocarpacaea forest.) Viet Nam, FSIV.

Viet, Tran Quang. 1996. Nghien cuu dac diem sinh thai va ky thuat nham cai thien rung trau cho qua. Luan an pho tien sy khoa hoc nong nghiep. (Research on ecology and practical to improve tung plantation.) Viet Nam, FSIV.

Vietnam News. 2001. Promises of bumper profits fail to bear fruit for Lang Son anise farms. April 2.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This report has been realized within the framework of the EC-FAO Partnership Programme "Sustainable Forest Management in Asia". The contents are based on available information at FAO headquarters in Rome, as well as on a report provided by Mr An Van Bay, Non-Timber Forest Products Research Center, Ha Noi, Vietnam.

The following persons have also contributed to the preparation of the report: Prof Dr Ha Chu Chu, Institute of Ecological Economy, (socio-economy of NWFP); Prof Dr Truong Thanh, Forest Scientific Institute of Viet Nam (deer raising); Prof Dr Vu Dung, Forest Inventory Planning Institute (rattan); Phan van Thang, Non Timber Forest Product Research Centre (bamboo); Dinh Van Tu, Non Timber Forest Product Research Centre (cardamom); Dr Nguyen Cu, Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (wild animals); Phan van Tinh, Forest Scientific Institute of Viet Nam (gecko-gecko); Prof Dr Nguyen Nghia Thin, Viet Nam National University of Ha Noi; (forest vegetables); Doan Bong, Institute of Ecological Economy (fibres); Ha Xuan Hanh, Viet Nam Forest Products Export-Import and Production Corporation (marketing); Bui thi An, Non Timber Forest Product Research Centre (eaglewood); Dong Si Thang, Non Timber Forest Product Research Centre (eaglewood); Prof Dr Do Dinh Sam, Forest Scientific Institute of Viet Nam (NWFP forest policies); Dr Ha Huy Thinh, Forest Scientific Institute of Viet Nam (pine resin select species); Nguyen Ngoc Bach, Non Timber Forest Product Research Centre (pine resin technical planting); Dr Nguyen Van Dinh, Ha Noi Agricultural University (bamboo production); Dr Le Thi Phi, Non Timber Forest Product Research Centre (NWFP marketing); Prof Dr Le Trong Cuc, Centre for Natural Resources and Environmental Studies (NWFP marketing); Tran Quoc Tuy, Non Timber Forest Product Research Centre (essential oil processing); Phan thi Binh, Non Timber Forest Product Research Centre (gum and resin processing); Hoang Cau, Non Timber Forest Product Research Centre (cinnamon technical planting); Dr Phung Huu Chinh, Bee Research and Development Centre (bee keeping and honey marketing).

Additional information on NWFP in Viet Nam would be appreciated and duly acknowledged

CONTACTS

Mr An Van Bay

Non- Timber Forest Products Research Center, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

8 Chuong Duong Do, Hoan Kiem, Ha Noi, SRV.

Tel. (84-4) 9 320 970

Fax: (84-4) 9 320 996

E-mail: [email protected] hn.vnn.vn

 

ANNEX 1. FOREST SERVICES

Special-Use Forests play an important role in forest protection and biodiversity conservation of Viet Nam, and cover an area of more than 1 million ha. The system extends protection to a variety of different ecosystems, and endangered plant and animal species (Nguyen Huy Phon 2000). The Vietnamese Red Data Book has been published by the Government of Viet Nam in two volumes. The first is devoted to presenting 347 endangered animal species and the second to some 350 rare and endangered plant species.

Annually these areas receive more than 80 000 visitors. Popular tourist destinations include:

Cuc Phuong National Park in Ninh Binh Province receives around 40 000 visitors per year, most of whom are domestic tourists. Cuc Phuong National Park is an important site for biological research and for training scientists. Many undergraduate and graduate students visit the national park on field courses.

Hoang Lien Son-Sa Pa Nature Reserve in Lao Cai Province contains many species of plants that are used as medicines, ornaments, food or for timber.

Dao Cat Ba Proposed Marine Protected Area and Cat Ba National Park in Quang Ninh Province.

Muong Phang Cultural and Historical Site belongs Lai Chau Province. The site currently attracts about 50 visitors per month, including both domestic and foreign tourists.

Ba Vi National Park in Ha Tay Province is an import source of forest products for local communities. Medicinal plant collection is among the major economic activities in the area. In 1997/1998, around 250 tonnes of medicinal plants were extracted from the national park.

Bach Ma National Park in Hua Thien Hue Province.

Cat Tien National Park in Dong Nai, Lam Dong Province receives a growing number of domestic tourists. The national park has gained popularity among foreign birdwatchers (BirdLife International 2001).

QUANTITATIVE NWFP DATA OF VIET NAM

Product

Resource

Economic value

 

Category

Import-ance

Trade name

Generic term

Species

Part used

Habitat

Source

Desti-nation

Quantity, value

Remarks

References

 

1, 2, 3

     

F, P, O

W, C

N, I

     

Plants and plant products

Food

1

Mushrooms

Ganoderma lucidum

Auricularia auricula

Lentinus edodes

Ganoderm lucidim

pl

 

F, P

W, C

N, I

1995: export of 896 192 kg

(US$1 881 963)

Export of 40 000 MT + p/a

2000: value of mushroom exports: US$8 million

Demand in Ha Noi City p/a: 300 MT of fresh mushrooms Domestic demand for mushrooms p/a:

160 000 MT

Bach 2000;

Hung 1999;

VFFSCP 1997;

Tuong 2001

2

Chestnut

Castanea mollissima

fr

F, P

W, C

N. I

Production of 70–134 MT p/a

Cao Bang Province has 2 000 ha of chestnut trees

Huy 1996;

de Beer 1993

Medicines

1

Anise star

Illicium verum

fr, fl

F, P

W, C

N, I

2000: export of 3 000 MT (D70 billion –US$5 million)

Plantations of more than 9 000 ha in Lang Son Province

Tan 1999;

Vietnam News 2001

2

Cardamom

Amomum xanthioides

Anomum villosum

Anomum longiligulare

fr

F, P

W, C

N, I

Export of 10 MT at US$7/kg

1995: export of 17 800 kg (US$143 880)

More than 80% is gathered from the wild. Price for fruits at domestic markets: D5 000–6 000

(US$ 0.3–0.4/kg)

FAO 1993;

VFFSCP 1997; Tu 2000;

Tu 1990;

VFFSCP 1997; de Beer 1993

1

Medicinal plants

F, P

W, C

N, I

30–114 MT p/a

1995: export of 855 912 kg (US$1 733 967)

Estimated: registr’d production accounts for only 30% of the actual production

Tinh 1999;

Lecup 1996;

VFFSCP 1997;

Chi 1995;

NAFORIMEX 1998;

Medicinal Institute 2000;

Tap 2001

1

Cynara scolymus L.

le

P

C

N, I

Lao Cai Province: export of 100 MT (US$13 700) in 2000

Exported to Japan

Medicinal Institute 1998

2

Camphor

Cinnamomum camphora

ro

F, P

W, C

N

100 MT p/a (US$5/kg)

Medicinal Institute 2000;

Tap 2001;

de Beer 1993

2

Zanthoxylum rhetsa

ro

F, P

W, C

N

Price: US$1 500 p/a

Medicinal Institute 2000;

Tap 2001;

de Beer 1993

2

A. tsao kwa

Amomum costatum Roxb.

fr

F, P

W, C

N, I

153 MT in 1986 and 19 MT in 1988 (US$1–2.5/kg)

FAO 1993;

Canh 1999;

de Beer 1993

Perfumes, cosmetics

2

Tung oil

Aleurites montana Wils.

fr

F,P

W,C

N

1 000 MT p/a, US$1 700/MT

FAO 1993;

Viet 1996;

de Beer 1993

1

Citral

Litsea cubeba oil

Litsea cubeba Pers.

fr

F, P

W

N, I

Export of 30 MT p/a

Chi 1995

1

Cassia oil

Cinnamomum cassia

pl

F, P

W, C

N, I

Export of 10 MT in the 1980s at US$27/kg

Export of 10 889 MT from 1994–96 (US$17 270 000)

Current plantation area: 16 000 ha

FAO 1993;

Hoang 1996 and 1999;

Hoang Cau 2000;

Statistic Department of Vietnam 1998

1

Pemou oil

Fokienia hodginsii

pl

F, P

W, C

N, I

Export of 50 MT p/a at US$350/MT

FAO 1993;

Canh 1999;

Kham 2000;

de Beer 1993

1

Cajeput oil

Melaleuca leucadendron

pl

F, P

W, C

N, I

Export of 50 MT

Oil Company Ha Noi 1998;

Kham 2000;

de Beer 1993

1

Star anise seed oil

Illicium verum Hook

fr

F, P

W, C

N, I

Export of 200–250 MT at US$7.50–15/kg

Oil Company Ha Noi 1998;

Kham 2000;

de Beer 1993

1

Sassafras

Cinnamomum sp.

ro

F

W

N, I

Export of a few dozen MT p/a at US$7.00/kg

Oil Company Ha Noi 1998;

Kham 2000;

de Beer 1993

1

Eaglewood

Aquilaria crassna

pl

F, P

W, C

N, I

Export of 100 MT + at

US$2 000/kg

1997: export of 34 071 kg (US$6 046 091)

FAO 1993;

VFFSCP 1997; Hien 1996;

Kham 2001;

de Beer 1993

Utensils, handicrafts, construction materials

1

Rattan

Calamus platyacanthus Warb.

Calamus rudentum Lour.

Calamus poilanei Lour.

Calamus tetradactylus hance

C. tonkinensis Becc.

st

F, P

W, C

N, I

1991: export of 50 542 MT (US$26.3 million)

Production of 25 000 MT p/a

Up to 60% of rattan material is imported

Rale 1993;

Dung 1998;

Chu 2000;

Hau 1985;

Can 1985;

Doan Bong 1995;

Saigon Times Daily 2001

Exudates

2

Cham resin

Canarium copaliferum

fr

F, P

W, C

N

Export of 60–150 MT p/a

FAO 1993;

de Beer 1993

1

Pine resin

Pinus merkusii Jungh and Vierse

ba

F, P

W, C

N, I

1999: 7 182 MT

Bieu 1981;

Bao 1981;

Bach 1995;

FAO 1993;

Chu 2001

 

Product

Resource

Economic value

 

Category

Import-ance

Trade name

Generic term

Species

Part used

Habitat

Source

Desti-nation

Quantity, value

Remarks

References

 

1, 2, 3

     

F, P, O

W, C

N, I

     

Animals and animal products

Honey and beeswax

1

Honey

Apis dorsata

Apis mellifera

Apis cerana

Apis trigona

ho, bw

F, P, D

D, W

N, I

About 8 000 MT of honey p/a 200 MT+ of wax p/a

Export of 4 000 MT + during the first half of 2001

Around 350 000 bee hives exist

Chinh 1993;

 

Medicines

2

Spotted deer

Cervus nippon

P

C

N

5 000–7 000 head raised

Used parts: antlers and meat

Thanh 1999;

Phong 1995

Other non-edible animal products

3

Sticklack,

Shellac

Laccifer lacca

W, P

W, C

N, I

89–143 MT p/a in the 1980s Exports declined from 350 MT in 1984 to only 1.5 MT in 2000

FAO 1993;

Kham 1981;

Phi 1996;

Chu 1996; Bay 2000

Importance: 1 – high importance at the national level; 2 – high importance at the local/regional level; 3 – low importance

Parts used: an – whole animal; ba – bark; bw – beeswax; le – leaves; nu – nuts; fi – fibres; fl – flowers; fr – fruits; gu – gums;

ho – honey; la – latex; oi – oil; pl – whole plant; re – resins; ro – roots; sa – sap; se – seeds; st – stem; ta – tannins

Habitat: F – natural forest or other wooded lands; P – plantation; O – trees outside forests (e.g. agroforestry, home gardens)

Source: W – wild, C – cultivated

Destination: N – national; I – international

 

 

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