NACA/TR/85/13September 1985
Training Manual
Biology and Culture of Sea Bass (Lates calcarifer)
Table Of Contents


P. Kungvankij1, L.B. Tiro, Jr.,2 B.J. Pudadera, Jr.,2 and I.O. Potesta2

Regional Lead Centre in the Philippines
Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center

1 Food and Agriculture Orginations of the United Nations

2 Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center

Bangkok, Thailand
September 1985

Hyperlinks to non-FAO Internet sites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided. The sole purpose of links to non-FAO sites is to indicate further information available on related topics.

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software. FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.

Table Of Contents

I. Introduction

II. Biology

Morphology and Distinction Characters

Geographic Distribution
Ecological Distribution

Life History
Feeding Habit
Sex Determination
Sexual Maturity
Fecundity and spawning
Embryonic Development

III. Hatchery Design

Criteria in the selection of sites for seabass hatchery

Seawater supply
Availability of power source

Hatchery Size

Holding tank
Floor space requirement

Seawater System

IV. Seed Production and Hatchery Technique

Broodstock development

Wild Broodstock collection
Gill net
Seine net
Hook and line

Conditioning of Wild Broodstock
Broodstock Maintenances

Conrete Tanks

Feed and feeding
Spawning and Fertilization

Selection of Spawners
Care of Spawners in Pre-spawning tank

Spawning of Seabass

Artificial Fertilization
Induce Spawning

Induce spawning by hormone manipulation
Induce spawning by environmental manipulation

Eggs Collection and Incubation
Larval rearing

Rearing environment
Feed and Feeding

Larval Feed

Phytoplankton Culture
Rotifer culture


V. Culture of Seabass

Culture Techniques

Nursery in Pond

Nursery Pond Design
Pond preparation
Nursery Pond Management

Nursery in Net cages

Net cage design
Cage management


Cage culture

Design and construction of net cage

Floating cage
Stationary cage

Cage Culture management and Techniques
Feed and Feeding
Fish cage management

Pond Culture


Criteria in the selection of site for seabass culture

Water supply
Tidal fluctuation

Pond Design and Construction
Pond preparation
Pond management
Feed and Feeding

VI. Financial Analysis of Seabass Culture Industry

VII. Conclussion

List of Figures

Figure 1 Geographical Distribution of Seabass (Lates calcarifer)

Figure 2 Migration Pattern of Lates Calcarifer

Figure 3 Adult male and female seabass

Figure 4a & 4b Development of seabass eggs

Figure 5 Broodstock development/spawning tank

Figure 6 An incubation tank

Figure 7 Larval rearing tanks

Figure 8 Lay-out of seabass hatchery

Figure 9 Seawater intake thry sumpit

Figure 10 Waterflow (Q) and pump Hp vs size and length of intake line.

Figure 11 Flow charge of seabass culture

Figure 12 Floating cages for seabass broodstock development

Figure 13 Possibility of hormone injection time interval of seabass

Figure 14 The response of seabass to various type of hormone dosages and time interval

Figure 15 Egg collection

Figure 16 Egg collection by seine net

Figure 17 Feeds and Feeding scheme followed in the rearing of the seabass larvae

Figure 18 Feed production flowchart

Figure 19 Gradding vessel for gradding of seabass fry

Figure 20 Floating nursery cage for seabass

Figure 21 Floating cages

Figure 22 Stationary cages

Figure 23 Pond lay-out

Figure 24 The cost and return of seabass hatchery base on Thailand condition

Figure 25 Comparison of cost and return between pond and cages culture in Thailand

List of Tables

Table 1 Relationship between size of fish and number of eggs from the gonad of seabass (Latis calcarifer Bloch)

Table 2 Embryonic development of seabass eggs

Table 3 Age, average body weight and length of seabass under tank condition

Table 4 Tank facilities and capacity used in seabass hatchery

Table 5 Space requirement of finfish hatchery with a production capacity of 2 million 10 days old larvae

Table 6 Monthly seabass eggs production and hatching rate through environmental manipulation at Satul Fisheries Station

Table 7 Type and size of larval feed.

Table 8. The choice of netting mesh size to the size of fish for cage culture

Table 9 Monthly growth of seabass at different stocking densities in cages

Table 10 Combination of feed stuff

Table 11 Combination of moist feed

Table 12 Comparison of growth rate of seabass (Latis calcarifer) in pond between wild fry and hatchery bred fry at stocking density of 3/m2