RECYCLING OF ANIMAL WASTES AS A SOURCE OF NUTRIENTS FOR FRESHWATER FISHCULTURE WITHIN AN INTEGRATED LIVESTOCK SYSTEM
TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE PAKISTAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
UNDP/FAO PROJECT PAK/80/019 - COORDINATED NATIONAL
PROGRAMME FOR LIVESTOCK FEED RESOURCES AND NUTRITION
This working paper was prepared by Miss Riaz Kausar, Research Officer (Fisheries), assisted by Dr. Z. O. Muller, Chief Technical Adviser as part of the work of the UNDP/FAO Project PAK/80/019 - Coordinated National Programme for Livestock Feed Resources and Nutrition. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the United Nations or of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The conclusions and recommendations given in the working paper are those considered appropriate at the time of its preparation. They may be modified in the light of further knowledge gained at subsequent stages of the project findings.
The review describes in a comprehensive manner the state of knowledge in the utilization of animal wastes and their feeding to fish. A special attention is being paid to the mechanism of livestock waste recycling and an integrated approach involving livestock species whose manure can be utilized as a sole donor of nutrients for fish farming. The integration describes fish species consuming manures directly or through zooplankton, phytoplankton and macrophytes.
A special chapter is allocated to feeding systems and procedures in nursery ponds using organic and chemical fertilizers as main sources of nutrients.
The suitability of catfish for tropical and sub-tropical fish farming is examplified with particular respect to countries of Southeast Asia. The results of an impressive research carried cut in the sub-tropical part of USA are also presented.
A chapter on carp farming emphasises those specific areas which involve feeding of livestock wastee as a sole source of nutrients for fish via various eco-systems.
The main objectives of integrated fish farming are highlighted with special reference to Pakistan and priorities areas of research undertaken by the PARC, UNDP/FAO Project PAK/80/019 - Coordinated National Programme for Livestock Feed Resources and Nutrition.
The review presents comprehensive list of references.
The author is greatly indebted to Dr. Haleem-ul-Hasnain, Member Animal Sciences, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, for encouragement and support in the preparation of this review.
Special thanks are due to Dr. Z.O. Muller, Chief Technical Adviser, PAK/80/019 - Coordinated National Programme for Livestock Feed Resources and Nutrition, for guidance, providing most of the literature, criticism in evaluating the work during the course of its progress and valuable amendments to this review. The above mentioned FAO Project gave the author all clerical assistance and other administrative support.
Sincere gratitude is also expressed to Dr. A.N. Sheri, Associate Professor, Agricultural University, Faisalabad, who provided much necessary literature.
Last but not least gratitude is expressed to Abdul Aziz, Secretary of the Chief Technical Adviser, FAO Project PAK/80/019 for the typing of this paper.
* Research Officer (Fisheries) Pakistan Agricultural
Research Council, Islamabad - P. O. Box 1031, Pakistan
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2.0 STATE OF THE ART
2.1 The main culturable fishes of Pakistan
2.2 The mode of action of manure recycling to fish
2.3 The integrated approach and experience
2.4 The impact of fertilization
2.5 Cattle fish farming
2.6 The quantity of wastes excreted by livestock and poultry
2.7 Method of manure application
3.0 POULTRY-FISH FARMING
4.0 DUCK-FISH FARMING
4.1 The impact of waste feeding upon the taste and fish meat quality
5.0 FEEDING OF HATCHLINGS AND FRY
6.0 CATFISH FARMING
6.1 Nutritional requirement of catfish
6.2 Double cropping
7.0 CARP FARMING
8.0 THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF INTEGRATED FISH FARMING
T A B L E S
Table 1 Growth of fish in manured ponds
Table 2 Chemical composition of excreta of different farm animals
Table 3 Farm animal waste output and waste composition. TLW represents total live weight
Table 4 The 24-hr biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) for various fish foods and manures used for pond fertilization
Table 5 Annual inputs and returns for 3 integrated mendong (Fimbristylis globusa)-fish farms in Indonesia, excluding depreciation costs
Table 6 Annual inputs and returns for 3 integrated chickenfish farms in Indonesia, excluding depreciation costs
Table 7 Economics of polyculture and duck-fish systems of selected Hong Kong farms of three size categories
Table 8 Supplementary feed ingredients
Table 9 Experimental results of the feeding experiments
Table 10 Growth measurement
Table 11 Proximate composition of different feeds used
Table 12 Protein and fat content of fish fed with different feeds at the end of the experiment
Table 13 Summary of minimum dietary requirements of fishes
Table 14 Ingredients and amount to make a tonne of feed for channel catfish
Table 15 Results from a study in which animal by-product and plant protein sources were substituted on an isonitrogenous basis for corngluten meal in catfish feeds
Table 16 Results from a study in which animal byproduct and plant protein sources were substituted on an isonitrogenous basis for soybean meal in catfish feeds
Table 17 Results of the effect of protein and water temperature on the weight gain and food conversion of fingerling channel catfish
Table 18 Total weight gain of fish fed various diets over an eleven week period starting July 16 and ending October 1, 1968. Values in columns A, B and C reflect gain of fish living at the end of the experiment and gain of fish that died during the experiment
Table 19 Weight gain and feed conversion for channel catfish fed Auburn No. 1 feed mixture in pelleted and meal forms
Table 20 Average percentage weight gains for catfish rations containing various levels of fibre
Table 21 Dates at which various protein densities were fed
Table 22 Formulation of feeds containing different levels of protein
Table 23 Production and cost data calculated on per-acre basis
Table 24 Results of the experiment on larvae Coregonus lavaretus fed with defined amounts of feed
Table 25 Calculation of the optimal density of plankton for Coregonus lavaretus larvae by the method of experimental growth
Table 26 Growth of commercial catfish production
Table 27 Rates of feeding during 15 days in nursery ponds
Table 28 Volume of artificial feeds to be given to fry for 15 days in nursery ponds
Table 29 Rates of reeding during 15 days in nursery ponds
Table 30 Composition of the organic manures used in the experiment
F I G U R E S
Fig. 1 = 1.1 to 1.3 Major Indian Carps
Fig. 2 = 2.1 to 2.5 Exotic fishes
Fig. 3 = 3.1 to 3.6 Catfish
Fig. 4 = Production cycle of fish in fresh water
Fig. 5 = Channel fish