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Anon. 1983. How to farm seaweeds: Lessons from a pilot project in western Malaysia. Bay of Bengal News 12: 19–24.

Asare, S. O. 1980. Seasonal changes in sulphate and 3,6-anhydrogalactose content of phycocolloids from two red algae. Bot. mar. 23:595–598.

Bay of Bengal Programme. 1987. Experimental cultivation of seaweeds (Gracilaria sp.) in Penang, Malaysia. BOBP/WP/52, Bay of Bengal Program, Development of Small-Scale Fisheries, FAO, Madras, India. 41 pp.

Berchez, F. A. S., Pereira, R. T. L., and Kamiya, N. F. 1993. Culture of Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) on artificial substrates attached to linear ropes. Hydrobiologia 260/261: 415–420.

Bird, K. T. 1988. Agar production and quality from Gracilaria sp. strain G-16: Effects of environmental factors. Bot. mar. 31: 33–39.

Bird, K. T., Hanisak, M. D., and Ryther, J. 1981. Chemical quality and production of agars extracted from Gracilaria tikvahiae grown in different nitrogen enrichment conditions. Bot. mar. 24: 441–444.

Chamberlain, A (1998). Culture and shelf-life extension of Caulerpa racemosa. S.Pac.J.Nat.Sci. 16: 11–19.

Chiang, Y-M. 1981. Cultivation of Gracilaria (Rhodophycophyta, Gigartinales) in Taiwan. Proc. Int. Seaweed Symp., 10:569–574.

Christeller, J. T. 1986. The Japanese seaweed industry, particularly agar production and utilisation. Unpubl. travel report, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Zealand. 10 pp.

Christiaen, D., Stadler, T., Ondarza, M., and Verdus, M. C. 1987. Structures and functions of the polysaccharides from the cell wall of Gracilaria verrucosa (Rhodophyceae, Gigartinales). Hydrobiologia 151/152: 139–146.

Connor, J. L. 1983. Phenological studies of some Rhodophyta from Caribbean Panama. J. Phycol. 19: 5.

Cote, G. L. and Hanisak, M. D. 1986. Production and properties of native agars from Gracilaria tikvahiae and other red algae. Bot. mar. 29: 359–366.

Craigie, J. S. and Wen, Z. C. 1984. Effects of temperature and tissue age on gel strength and composition of agar from Gracilaria tikvahiae (Rhodophyceae). Can. J. Bot. 62: 1665–1670.

Craigie, J. S., Wen, Z. C., and van der Meer, J. P. 1984. Interspecific, intraspecific, and nutritionally-determined variations in the composition of agars from Gracilaria spp. Bot. mar. 27: 55–61.

Critchley, A. T. 1993. Gracilaria (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta): an economically important agarophyte. In: M. Ohno and A. T. Critchley (eds), Seaweed cultivation and marine ranching. Kanegawa International Fisheries Training Centre, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). 151 pp.

de Castro, T. R. 1994. Evaluation of agar from three species of Gracilaria from Panay and Guimaras Islands. SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture 16: 5–6.

Durako, M. J. and Dawes, C. J. 1980. A comparative seasonal study of two populations of Hypnea musciformis from the east and west coasts of Florida, USA. I. Growth and chemistry. Mar. Biol. 59: 151–156.

Falshaw R., R.H. Furneaux, T.D. Pickering and D.E. Stevenson, (1999). “Agars from three Fijian Gracilaria species”. Botanica Marina 42: 51–59.

Foscarini, R. and Prakash, J. 1990. Handbook on Eucheuma seaweed cultivation in Fiji. South Pacific Aquaculture Development Project, FAO, Suva, Fiji. GCP/RAS/116/JPN. 42 pp.

Friedlander, M. and Lipkin, Y. 1982. Rearing of agarophytes and carrageenophytes under field conditions in the eastern Mediterranean. Bot. mar. 24: 595–598.

Friedlander, M. and Zelikovich, N. 1984. Growth rates, phycocolloid yield and quality of the red seaweeds, Gracilaria sp., Pterocladia capillacea, Hypnea musciformis, and Hypnea cornuta, in field studies in Israel. Aquaculture 40: 57–66.

Friedlander, M., Shalev, R., Ganor, T., Strimling, S., Ben-Amotz, A., Klar, H., and Wax, Y. 1987. Seasonal fluctuations of growth rate and chemical composition of Gracilaria cf. conferta in outdoor culture in Israel. Hydrobiologia 151/152: 501–507.

Garbary, D. J., Oliveria, J. C., Scagel, R. F., and Villeneuve, S. 1991. Notes and distribution records for the marine algae of Fiji. Micronesica 24: 249–260.

Guist, G. G., Dawes, C. J., and Castle, J. R. 1982. Mariculture of the red seaweed, Hypnea musciformis. Aquaculture 28: 375–384.

Hanisak, M. D. 1987. Cultivation of Gracilaria and other macroalgae in Florida for energy production. In: Seaweed Cultivation for Renewable Resources. K. T. Bird and P. H. Bensen (eds.). Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.

Humm, H. J. and Kreuzer, J. 1975. On the growth rate of the red alga, Hypnea musciformis, in the Caribbean Sea. Carib. J. Sci. 15: 1–4.

Hurtado-Ponce, A. Q. and Umezaki, I. 1988. Physical properties of agar gel from Gracilaria (Rhodophyta) of the Philippines. Bot. mar. 31: 171–174.

Kallaperumal, N., Kalimuthu, S., Ramalingam, J. R., and Selvaraj, M. 1986. Experimental field cultivation of Acanthophora spicifera in the nearshore area of Gulf of Mannar. Indian J. Fish. 33: 476–478.

Kasahara, H. 1985. Marine green and red algae collected at Viti Levu and Ndravuni Islands of Fiji. M. Ag. Thesis, Kyoto University, Japan. 83 pp.

Kilar, J. A. and McLachlan, J. L. 1986. Ecological studies of the alga, Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl) Boerg. (Ceramiales: Rhodophyta): Vegetative fragmentation. J. exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol 104: 1–21.

Luxton, D. M., Robertson, M., and Kindley, M. J. 1987. Farming of Eucheuma in the South Pacific Islands of Fiji. Hydrobiologia 151/152: 359–362.

McLachlan, J. 1993. Seaweed aquaculture research and development study: South Pacific. Unpubl. Report, Marine Studies Programme, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji. 51 pp.

McLachlan, J. and Bird, C. J. 1986. Gracilaria (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) and productivity. Aquat. Bot. 26: 27–49.

McLachlan, J., G. Rao and G.R. South (1993). A selected bibliography on seaweed aquaculture research and development in the tropical Pacific. Marine Studies Programme Technical Report Series #1993(6), The University of the South Pacific (USP) Library, Suva, Fiji. 42 pp.

Miller, I. J. and Furneaux, R. H. 1987. Chemical characteristics of the galactans from the forms of Gracilaria secundata from New Zealand. Bot. mar. 30: 427–435.

Mollion, J. 1983. Exploitation of algal carrageenans: Global situation and perspectives in Senegal. In: Marine Chemistry for Development. JM Kornprobst (ed.). pp 84–95.

Nelson, S. G. and Tsutsui, R. N. 1981. Browsing by herbivorous reef-fishes on the agarophyte Gracilaria edulis (Rhodophyta) at Guam, Mariana Islands. Proc. Fourth Int. Coral Reef Symp., Manila, 2: 503–506.

N'Yeurt, A. D. R. 1993. A floristic survey of the intertidal and shallow benthic marine algae of Rotuma. Unpubl. Masters thesis, Marine Studies Programme, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji.

Parekh, R. G., Doshi, Y. A., and Chauhan, V. D. 1989. Polysaccharides from marine red algae Acanthophora spicifera, Grateloupia indica and Halymenia porhyroides. Indian J. mar. Sci. 18: 139–140.

Prakash, J. 1990. Fiji. In: Proceedings of the regional workshop on seaweed culture and marketing. (Adams, T, and Foscarini, R, eds.). South Pacific Aquaculture Development Project, FAO. 42 pp.

Pickering, T. D. 1990. Growth, phenology, agar quality and food quality for abalone of the red seaweed Gracilaria sordida. Unpubl. PhD thesis, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington. 318 pp.

Raj, R. A. 1993. A floristic study of mangrove-associated algae in Fiji. Unpubl. Masters thesis, Marine Studies Programme, University of the South Pacific.

Ram, V. 1991. The seaweed industry in Fiji with specific reference to Eucheuma (Rhodophyta). University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji. Marine Studies Programme Technical Report 1991/2. 19 pp.

Rao, K. R. 1977a. Species of Gracilaria and Hypnea as potential sources of agar. Seaweed Res. Util. 2: 95–101.

Rao, K. R. 1977b. Studies on Indian Hypnaceae. II. Reproductive capacity in the two species of Hypnea over the different seasons. Bot. mar. 20: 33–39.

Rotem, A., Roth-Bejerano, N., and Arad, S. M. 1986. Effect of controlled environmental conditions on starch and agar contents of Gracilaria sp. (Rhodophyceae). J. Phycol. 22: 117–121.

Santilices, B. and Doty, M. S. 1989. A review of Gracilaria farming. Aquaculture 78: 95–133.

Schenkman, R. P. F. 1989. Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta): ecological influence on growth. J. Phycol. 25: 192–196.

Singh, A., Booth, W., Raj, U., Zucher, W. H., and Nielsen, S. A. 1975. Investigation of marine plants: Progress report: School of Natural Resources, the University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji. 22 pp.

Solly, R. K. and Booth, W. E. 1977. Seaweed colloids from the South Pacific. SPC, Ninth Regional Technical Meeting on Fisheries, Noumea, New Caledonia, 24–28 January 1977. Working Paper 10. 14 pp.

South, G. R. 1991. Benthic marine algae from Dravuni Island, Astrolabe Islands, Kadavu. University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji. Marine Studies Programme Technical Report Series 5. 13 pp.

South, G. R. 1992. Contributions to a catalogue of the marine algae of Fiji. I. Halimeda (Chlorophyceae). University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji. Marine Studies Programme Technical Report 5. 15 pp.

South, G. R. 1993a. An ethnobotanical study of edible seaweeds in Fiji. Bot. mar. 36: 335–349.

South, G. R. 1993b. Seaweeds. In: Nearshore marine resources of the South Pacific. A. Wright and L. Hill (eds.) Institute of Pacific Studies (Suva), Forum Fisheries Agency (Honiara), International Centre for Ocean Development (Canada). 710 pp.

South, G. R. and Kasahara, H. 1992. A preliminary checklist of the benthic marine algae of the Fiji Islands, South Pacific. Micronesica 25: 47–70.

South, G. R. and N'Yeurt, A. D. R. 1994. Contributions to a catalogue of the marine algae of Fiji II. Caulerpa and Caulerpella (Chlorophyta). Micronesica 26: 107–136.

Tanaka, H, (in prep.). Note on culture viability of red algae Meristotheca procumbens in Rotuma, Fiji. FAO SPADP-II Field Document No. 7.

Thomas, P. C. and Subbaramaiah, K. 1994. Seasonal variations in growth and phycocolloid content in Hypnea pannosa J. Agardh (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from Mandapam region. Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad. B. Biol. Sci 60: 93–98.

Trono, G. C. 1988. Manual on seaweed culture: 2. Pond culture of Caulerpa and 3. Pond culture of Gracilaria. ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project, Manila, Philippines. ASDAN/SF/88/Manual No. 3. 20 pp.

Tsuda, R. T. 1982. Seasonality in Micronesian seaweed populations and their biogeography as affecting wild crop potential. In: RT Tsuda and YM Chiang (eds.) Proceedings of Republic of China-United States Cooperative Science Seminar on Cultivation and Utilisation of Economic Algae. University of Guam Marine Laboratory, Mangilao, Guam.

Wallner, M., Lobo, S., Boccanera, N., and Mendes-da-Silva, E. 1992. Biomass, carrageenan yield and reproductive state of Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta: Gigartinales) under natural and experimental cultivated condition.

Whyte, J. N. C., Englar, J. R., and Hosford, S. P. C. 1981. Factors affecting texture profile evaluation of agar gels. Bot. mar. 27: 63–69.

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