Asia Industrial and Institutional Stove Compendium
Arecop-RWEDP Publ. 2001 - English Edition
This publication was co-financed between Regional Wood Energy Development Programme (RWEDP) and Asia Regional Cookstove Program (ARECOP)
All right reserved. This publication could be reproduced with prior
written permission from ARECOP and RWEDP
PO Box 19 Bulaksumur
Juruksari Jl. Kaliurang Km. 7 Yogyakarta-INDONESIA
e-mail : [email protected]
|Drawings||:||lbnoe Marsanto, Edwin Sudjarwo, Haryoto|
|Layout||:||Edwin Sudjarwo, Arif Muslax|
|Printed by||:||Cahaya Timur, Yogyakarta|
|Editors||:||Regional Wood Energy Development Programme (RWEDP)|
|Asia Regional Cookstove Program (ARECOP)|
The Compendium on Small-scale Industrial and Institutional Stoves contains a wealth of information on a sector which generally does not receive much attention from outsiders including policy makers. That is unfortunate, as the small scale industrial sector, in particular those based in rural areas, provides an opportunity for local people to process local raw materials. It creates thereby opportunities to add value to these local products while at the same time generating employment - all important issues for rural development.
Unfortunately, these small scale industries generally have to operate in a competitive environment, not only at the local level but, probably more important, with larger scale industries both in rural and urban areas. The larger sized industries, in comparison to their small scale competitors, generally have a better access to information, production systems, more advanced technologies, markets, financing, technical assistance and so on.
It is in this context that a decision was made to compile information on various of these small scale industrial applications located in the member countries of the Regional Wood Energy Development Programme (RWEDP) as well as of the Asian Regional Cookstove Programme (ARECOP). It is expected that by making this information available to those both directly and indirectly involved, a better understanding and awareness can be created on the problems being faced by this sector.
The Asian Regional Cookstove Programme, having been instrumental in collecting and compiling of the information contained in this compendium, are to be thanked for putting in a tremendous amount of work and efforts in order to bring this compendium to its present shape. We hope, by making the compendium on industrial and institutional stoves available to interested parties and organizations, that the contents will inspire, if not challenge, both internal and external stake holders to look for innovative solutions which may provide some impetus to the small scale industrial and institutional sectors.
Mr. Auke Koopmans
Chief Technical Adviser
Regional Wood Energy Development Programme (RWEDP)
|Food and Agriculture Organization|
Regional Wood Energy
|Asia Regional Cookstove Program|
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This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software. FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.
Chapter 1 CASE STUDIES
Study of Stoves Used in Silk Reeling Industry
Case Study on Tahu (Soya Bean Cake) Small Industry in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
A. Biomass Stove for Khuwa Industry
B. Biomass Stove for Candy Industry
C. Biomass Stove for Sweetmeat Industry
D. Biomass Stove for Pop-Rice Industry
A. Rice Hull Stoves in Salt Industry
B. Stoves for Smoked Fish Making
Chapter 2 INDUSTRIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL STOVES IN ASIA
Girl Hostel (1)
Girl Hostel (2)
Kashi Training Institute
Yarn Twisting and Dyeing Industry
Children Orphanage Center
Palm Sugar Industry
Teacher Training Center
Cardamom Curing Industry (Large)
Cardamom Curing Industry (Small)
Charka Silk Reeling Industry
Silk Reeling Industry
Coconut Oil Industry
Beef Rind Industry
Tapioca Chip Industry
Wingko Snack Industry
Cane Sugar Industry
Paper Making Industry
Tofu Sheet Industry
Boiled Mackerel Industry
Coconut Sugar Industry
Plum Jam Industry
Tamarind Juice Industry
Beaten Rice Industry
Mustard Oil Industry
Wool Dyeing Industry
Corn Cubs Industry
Rice Cake Industry
Palm Honey Industry
String Hopper Industry
Cane Sugar Industry
Information used in preparing this compendium has been compiled from many sources in a number of countries in Asia namely, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, and Nepal. The compilation of this document would not have been possible without the wholehearted dedication and willingness of many of ARECOP and RWEDP network members. We therefore would like to thank all of you who have provided information and contributed to this compendium either in the form of collecting information or facilitating the compilation by preparing and organizing visits to various areas in their respective countries. We would like to acknowledge those who have made various contribution as without their assistance the compendium could not have been prepared.
|Ms. Lulu Bilquis Banu||Mr. Nazmul Haque and staff|
|BCSIR||Institute of Development Affairs (IDEA)|
|Dr. Qudrat - E - Khuda Road||House No. 5 Golapag R/A|
|Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205||Shibgonj, Sylhet 3100|
|Mr. Syahri Ramadhan|
|Wood Energy Network of Cambodia (WENetCam)|
|Office No. 1, Street 223/162|
|Depo I, Khan Toul Kork - PO. Box 1118|
|Phnom Penh, Cambodia|
|Mr. Sanjay Mande|
|Tata Energy Research Institute|
|Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place|
|Lodi road, New Delhi - 110 003|
|Yayasan Dian Desa|
|Jl. Kaliurang Km. 7, Jurugsari IV/19|
|Mr. Sombath Somphone and Staff||Dr. Khamphone Nanthavong|
|Participatory Development Training Center (PADETC)||Faculty of Engineering and Architecture|
|PO. Box 2147 Vientiane||PO. Box 3166 Vientiane|
|Lao, P.D.R.||Lao, P.D.R.|
|Dr Hoi Why Kong and Mr. Puad Elham|
|Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)|
|Kuala Lumpur Malaysia|
|Mr. Ganesh Ram Shresta and staff||Mr. Kayeswar Man Sulpya|
|Centre for Rural Technology, Nepal||Research Centre for Applied Science and Technology,|
|Tripureswore - P.O. Box 3628||Tribuvan University|
|Kathmandu - Nepal||Kirtipur, Kathmandu - Nepal|
|Ms. Feri Lumampao||Ms. Imelda D. Soriano, MO, McH|
|Approtech Asia||IDS (Integral Development Services)|
|Philippine Social Development Center||POB. 8 Midsayap, Cotabatu|
|Magallanes corner Real Streets||LHO-Philippines|
|Intramuros, Manila 1002|
|Hil J. Padilla|
|Mr. Tissa Athukorala||Mr. Jayantha Galagamage|
|c/o IDEA (Integrated Development Association)||No. 17 Panwila Road|
|20 Hantana Place, Kandy||Wattegama|
|Mr. Wilas Techo and Alberto C. Dela Paz,|
|Population & Community Development Association (PDA)|
|6, Sukhumvit 12,|
|Mr. Le Van Thong and staff of RCAICE|
|Research Centre for Architectural Indoor Climatology|
|And Environment-Hanoi Architectural University|
|Km.9 Nguyen Trai Street|
In addition, we would also like to thank others who have helped edit, provided the illustrations and layouting for this publication.
Under a broad rural development policy, the increase in agricultural productivity, crop diversity and the generation of rural income and employment have been given high priority in many developing countries. Promoting and improving rural industries, naturally, is an important strategy for attaining such policy objectives.
The majority of small industries are in peri-urban and rural areas. For fuel, majority still uses wood and agricultural residues. The traditional processes in small-scale industries are often traditional and operate under highly competitive conditions. They must compete with both similar scale producers as well as larger scale producers using more modern and technically advanced production facilities. They are relatively isolated from the source of skills, know-how, and technology that would allow improvements in their operations, energy, etc. In addition, the very nature and location of the small industries often reinforce their isolation from formal sources of financial, technical, and other assistance.
Yet, small industries have been recognized to have important role in the growth and stability of national, rural economies and the survival of subsistent economies. The sector provides income and/or local employment to many people. It has also been found that biomass energy typically generates 10 times more employment than oil and coal (de Castro et. Al., 1999). For developing countries, the use of biomass energy sources could also reduce dependency on imported energy sources (de Castro et al., 1999)
On the other hand, it is also true that shortage of fuels, in the forms of fuelwood and other biomass are threatening the sustainability of small industries. For example, there have been cases in Cambodia of small enterprises closing down due to fuel shortage (WeNetCam, 2000). It was also reported that some areas in Nepal where small industries were concentrated, suffered from environmental degradation due to fuelwood extraction for industrial operations (Donovan in BEST, 1989).
Thus, technology that could assist them in heightening their efficiency and output, accurate study and documentation of industrial stoves is a necessary step at this time.
Various types of products produced by small-scale enterprise are considered familiar and popular products in many countries in Asia. For example, noodles, soybean sauce, and tofu in Indo-China and Southeast Asian Countries, palm sugar in Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Thailand, Myanmar; Cotton/Fabrics or silk dying in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Thailand, and Indonesia. In many Asian countries a large proportion of food preparation in institutional kitchens such as in schools, barracks, canteens, hostels, prisons and community kitchens also use biomass fuel.
Stoves are one component in the production process that may affect the level of economic benefit of rural producers and entrepreneurs. With the use of better stoves for industrial or institutional production technique can be improved. Their use can save time and fuel, improve quality of their products and also improve the working conditions which influences the health of workers who spend most of their time in the kitchen with smoky stoves. The largest resulting benefit especially for small producers will be an increase in their income, the greatest concern of entrepreneurial producers.
At a closer look, it is increasingly obvious that biomass stove issue is not solely the concern at the household level and that industry and institutions are also important stakeholders in the biomass issue. Fuelwood and other biomass fuels are also extensively utilized for institutional and small industrial activities in most countries in Asia as indicated in table 1
Table 1. Wood and Biomass Energy Consumption by Industries in several Asian Countries
|YEAR||WOOD ENERGY||BIOMASS ENERGY||TOTAL ENERGY|
Data are compiled by RWEDP from various sources. (RWEDP on the internet, November 2000, CR-ROM publication)
Various types of publications and information on domestic cookstoves are available, but unfortunately very few on stoves for industrial and institutional use. A relatively simple technical information consisting of pictures and drawings will be appropriately useful as information source for field workers and practitioners as a base from which to start to advance the development of small-scale industries and institutions in their respective areas. It is in this regard that RWEDP and ARECOP jointly embarked to compile necessary information and compiled as compendium.
This compendium is a compilation of basic information, designs of improved and traditional stoves for small industries and institutions. This compendium is to give ideas or inspiration to field workers or stove practitioners about various stove designs and technologies used in institutions and small industries in the Asian countries.
For policy makers, it will provide clear picture of the development of energy policy and intervention for rural industries in terms of providing an alternative approach to income generation and distribution, employment, resource allocation and environmental conservation within rural economies.